Agrotechnics kukula apulo mitengo "Papirovka"

Mitengo ya Apple imakhala yotchuka kwambiri pakati pa mitengo ya zipatso. Ngakhale kuti mitundu yatsopano idayamba, ambiri amasankha kuti azitsimikizira mizere yawo.

Pafupifupi imodzi mwa izi idzafotokoza muzokambirana izi. Taganizirani za mtengo wa apulo wokondweretsa "Papirovka", momwe umapangidwira kubzala ndi kusamalira.

Mbiri yobereka

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana imatengedwa kuti ndi yotchuka - iyo inkawonekera chifukwa cha kuwonetsetsa kwa nyengo, ndipo idakhala yotchuka kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1900.

Amakhulupirira kuti malo a apulo ndi mayiko a Baltic, komwe mzerewu unafalikira ku Poland, Germany, Ukraine ndi kumadzulo kwa Russia. Kuphatikiza pa dzina lovomerezeka, zosiyanasiyana zimatchedwanso "Alabaster" kapena "Baltic." Ambiri amatenga mtengo uwu ndi zipatso kuti "kudzaza koyera." Zili zofanana, koma palibe mgwirizano. Panthawiyi, ngakhale ine V. V. Michurin anatchula kusiyana kwake.

Ngati mumaganizira za "Papirovka" ndi "Kudzazidwa koyera", zidzatsimikizika kuti zimasiyana bwanji. Choyamba chimakhala ndi zipatso zambiri, zimakhala zowutsa komanso zowonjezereka. Kuphwanyika pa izo si, ndipo zipse kwa masabata awiri kenako, "tsitsi loyera". Mitengo imakhala yochepa, koma palibe pafupifupi nkhanambo pa iwo.

Onani mitundu ya apulo monga Medunitsa, Spartan, Candy, Bogatyr, Lobo, safironi ya Pepin, Melba, Zhigulevskoe, Mechta, ndi Currency.

Zamoyo

Taganizirani chimene mtengo ndi zipatso zake.

Kulongosola kwa mtengo

Mtengowo ndi wautali. Ali wamng'ono, korona ikufanana ndi piramidi, ndipo nthawi imakhala yozungulira. Zifupa nthambi yokutidwa ndi kuwala imvi makungwa. Masamba ovala - osakaniza, obiriwira, ndi othandizira. Mbewu zoyamba zimapangidwa pafupipafupi (3-4 masentimita) ndi masamba osafooka. Pang'onopang'ono iwo amakhala nthambi zamphamvu za zipatso.

Ndikofunikira! Musanadzale mchenga waung'ono, konzekerani nkhwangwa yamphamvu yomwe ingagwire thunthu.
Mphukira zapakatikatikati zimakhala ndi makasitomala ambiri, okhala ndi makungwa a bulauni. Zomera zamasamba ndi zazing'ono komanso zowonongeka, zakuda. Maluwa ake ndi aakulu. Nkhuku pamaluwa nthawi zambiri zimakhala zoyera, nthawi zina zimawoneka ndi mthunzi wa pinki.

Kufotokozera Zipatso

Maapulo ali olemera kulemera (kawirikawiri 80-120 g). Pamitengo ikuluikulu ikhoza kukula komanso yolemera - mu 130-180 g.

Zonsezi ndizozungulira, nthawi zina zimagwirizana, ndi mtundu wobiriwira. Khungu ndi lochepa thupi komanso lofewa, ndi yokutidwa kofiira kwa sera. Mukamakula mokwanira, imatembenuka yoyera.

Thupi losakhwima la mtundu woyera ndi lokoma ndi lowawa. Chimake chikufanana ndi anyezi, ndi magalasi ofiira a mawonekedwe osasintha.

Kuwongolera

Maluwa akulu amakopeka tizilombo tambiri, choncho palibe vuto loyambitsa mungu.

Mukudziwa? Wopambana I. V. Michurin anakhala mlembi wa mitundu 9 ya maapulo. "Wopereka" kwa ena mwa iwo anali "Kitayka" osiyanasiyana, odziwika m'deralo kuyambira kale.
Kuti zitheke, pollination mtanda imagwiritsidwa ntchito. Yabwino oyandikana nawo "Papirovka" ndi mitundu "Anis Scarlet" ndi "Borovinka".

Nthawi yogonana

Mitengo ya chilimwe imayamba kubala chipatso mu 3-5th chaka mutabzala. M'madera ena, maapulo amawoneka pa chaka chachisanu ndi chimodzi (zimadalira nyengo ya chideralo m'deralo).

Pambuyo pa nthawiyi, zipatso zimapsa kwa zaka khumi zapitazi kapena mwezi woyamba wa August.

Pereka

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana imatengedwa kukhala yololera. 50-75 makilogalamu a maapulo amachotsedwa ku mtengo wa zaka 10.

Fruiting ikupitirira zaka 40-55, ikhoza kutchedwa yokhoza. Koma pali miyeso yambiri: mwachitsanzo, mutatha kukolola zochuluka, zokolola za chaka chotsatira zidzakhala zochepa. Izi zimachitika kuti sizingatheke - mtengo unatenga "breather", kapena nyengo imatsitsa.

Monga nthawi ya mtengo, zochepa zimachepa.

Ndikofunikira! Gwiritsani ntchito manyowa okha pa feteleza. Mwatsopano muli ma hydrogen sulfide ambiri ndi ammonia, omwe angathe "kuwotcha" mizu yambiri.

Transportability ndi yosungirako

Zipatso zili ndi phindu loyenera - ndi kuthirira bwino, sizikugwa. Koma kuyenda ndi kusungirako n'kovuta kwambiri. Khungu losakhwima limakhala lochepetsetsa kwambiri, ndipo mawonekedwe a mankhwalawa atapita "ulendo" wautali sakhala osungidwa - kutsika ndi kotsika. Ndipo ngati mawanga a mdima amaoneka pa maapulo, pali ngozi yovunda mofulumira.

Wokwanira masamulo amoyo ndi mwezi umodzi. Ndiye zipatso zimataya kukoma kwawo ndi makhalidwe abwino. Kwa nthawi yayitali kuwasunga iwo mufiriji ndi kosayenera - pali "kutayika" mu masabata 2-3.

Zima hardiness

"Papirovka" imalekerera nyengo yozizira. Ntchentche zazing'ono m'mphepete mwa nyengo yozizira sizimapweteka mitengo.

Monga nsomba zotetezera, mbali ya pansi ya thunthu imatenthedwa, ndipo bwalo lopansipansi lili ndi mulch. Izi ndi zoona kwa kumpoto.

Matenda ndi Kutsutsana ndi Tizilombo

Zosiyanasiyana zimakondweretsa ndi kukana kwabwino matenda ndi tizilombo toononga. Zoona, chisanu chokhazikika kwambiri kapena chilala chokhalitsa chimachepetsa chitetezo cha mtengo wa apulo. Musaiwale za oyandikana nawo - zilondazi zimatha kuchoka ku mtengo womwe ulipo kale pafupi. Tizilombo timakopeka ndi makungwa, osati zipatso, kotero thunthu ndi korona ziyenera kutetezedwa m'dzinja.

Zingakhale zothandiza kwa inu kuti mudziwe za tizirombo tambiri ta mtengo wa apulo.

Ntchito

Yowutsa mudyo ndipo mwamsanga kumachepetsa maapulo ndi abwino kupanga juzi. Zitha kuwonjezeranso ku mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mankhwala ndi kusakanikirana ndi kupanikizana kwa zipatso zosiyana ndi zipatso.

Momwe mungasankhire mbande pamene mukugula

Musanagule mtengo wa apulo "Papirovka" muyenera kuwerenganso mafotokozedwewo ndi kuona zithunzi za zosiyanasiyana, koma funsani za ndemanga za wamaluwa omwe amalima izi. Kusankha sapling, kumbukirani mfundo izi:

  • Yang'anani mizu. Ayenera kukhala amodzi, amadziwa ndipo nthawi yomweyo amakhalabe m'nthaka. Zouma, zowonongeka ndi zosabala sizimatulutsidwa.
Mukudziwa? Chodabwitsa, apulo adatcha dzina ... lalanje! Poyamba atawona chipatso ichi ku China, oyendetsa sitima a ku Dutch anazitengera ku apulo wamba, kuwatcha apfelsine.
  • Pa mizu sayenera kukhala yotupa ndi kukula kowawa. Njira zathanzi zimakhala zoyera nthawi zonse. Ngati mtundu wa bulauni umagwira diso - mmera kale utentha.
  • Ndibwino kuti mutenge mtengo wa apulo wa chaka chimodzi. Palibe nthambi zomwe zilipo, ndipo mtengo udzavomerezedwa bwino pa webusaitiyi.
  • Mapesi a zaumoyo. Ngati, mutagwedeza makungwa, munawona kuwala kobiriwira, ndiye kuti zonse ziri zachilendo.
  • Kukhulupirika kwa thunthu. Mu mtengo wokhazikika, sizingagwe.
Mukhoza kugula mbande zonse pamsika komanso m'minda. Poyamba, musafulumire, ndipo yang'anani kwambiri momwe ogulitsa amagwirira mtengo. Wogwira ntchito mwanzeru amayesera kuziika mu Tenek.

Lamulo lodzala mbande za apulo

Katswiri wodziwa zamagetsi amadziwika bwino kwa alimi odziwa bwino ntchito, koma kwa oyamba kumene nthawi zina amakhalabe chinsinsi. Tidzithetsa pamodzi, tikamaganizira momwe tingakhalire mwatsatanetsatane.

Nthawi yabwino

"Paps" amafesedwa kumapeto kwa March - theka loyamba la mwezi wa April. Mawu awa akhoza kusintha pang'ono (kwa 1, masabata awiri opitirira) ngati pali mwayi wobwereza chisanu.

Kusankha malo

Chodzala sungani malo abwino, owala bwino omwe ali ndi ngalande - madzi sayenera kuyima nthawi yayitali. Kutsika kwa madzi pansi - osachepera 1 mamita (makamaka kuchitika mpaka 1.5).

Ndikofunikira! Dothi louma "limasintha", mofanana kulumikiza humus ku malo. Pazithunzi 1. mamita amatenga 200-800 g chuma, malingana ndi momwe nthaka imakhalira.
Sapling kuyesera kuyandikira pafupi ndi mitengo ina ya apulo patali mtunda wa mamita 4-5.

Malo okonzekera

Kumalo osankhidwa, chotsani zinyalala zonse ndikuchotsa mizu yakale. Mwachidziwikire, nthaka imagwedezeka, kugogoda pa hillocks kapena kugona tulo zakale. Kuwala kowala kumatengedwa ngati nthaka yabwino, koma mitundu ina ndi yabwino (kupatula malo amchere amchere).

Patangotha ​​sabata isanafike, dzenje linakumbidwa (mpaka 90 cm), pansi pomwe fetereza imayikidwa. Pa chidebe cha humus (10 l) kutenga 1 kg ya "madzi amchere" ndi 750 g wa phulusa la nkhuni, akuyimbira ndi kugona pansi. Pankhaniyi, yikani dothi lokhalokha (kutsanulira mulu pambali imodzi ya dzenje).

Mbande kukonzekera

Yang'anani mosamala mbande, ndikupereka chidwi kwa mizu. Yesetsani kusakaniza mizu yambiri pa nthawi yosungirako - kukula kumadalira pa iwo.

Mukudziwa? Maapulo obiriwira amayerekezera bwino ndi "abale" awo ofiira ndi vitamini C. wambiri.
Njira ina yakale imadziwika. Mullein ndi dothi losakanikirana mpaka kutsala ndi kutsanulira madzi. Muzisakaniza ndikuchepetseni mizu, pambuyo pake ndizochepa zouma. Tsopano kuyanika sikuwopsa. Tsiku loyamba kubzala, mizu imayikidwa m'madzi (kuyambira maola 4 mpaka masiku). Zoonadi, musagwedeze mtengo wa apulo - kuwononga chirichonse.

Njira ndi ndondomeko

Kufika komweko kumawoneka motere:

  • Nthaka mu dzenje imamasulidwa bwino (pamtunda wa bayonet).
  • Choyika pamwambacho chimasakanizidwa ndi peat kapena manyowa odulidwa. Onjezani superphosphate (250 g) kapena 350 g wa phulusa. Zonsezi zimalowa mu dzenje, amagona ndi 2/3.
  • Sapling anayika pamgoma kuti kutalika kwa khola lazu kuchokera pansi linali pafupi masentimita 5-6.
  • Mizu imafalikira pambali ndipo imadetsedwa ndi zotsalira za nthaka, osayikika kusindikiza miyendo.
  • Ngomanga imangirizidwa ku khola.
  • Imakhalabe kuti ikhale dzenje ndikutsanulira kwambiri (3-4 zidebe). Mutha kuwaza ndi mulch (3-5 cm), abwino udzu, peat kapena humus.
Chiwembu chokhazikitsa mzere chimapanga nthawi pakati pa mitengo ya mamita 4, ndi pakati pa mizera - mamita asanu 5. Mu nyumba yamba yamba ndi mitengo yambiri ya apulo, padzakhala mpata wokwana 4.5 mamita.

Mbali za chisamaliro cha nyengo ya mitengo ya apulo

Kusamalira mitengo chaka chonse kungagawidwe mu magawo atatu: kasupe, chilimwe ndi autumn. Zonsezi zimapereka ntchito zake zokha. Awasankhe iwo mwachidule.

Kusamalira kwachisanu kumatsikira ku:

  • kuyesa;
  • kuchiza mabala ndi kuwonongeka kwina;
  • kudulira matenda kapena kuthyola nthambi;
  • kudyetsa mtengo wa apulo.
Ndikofunikira! Ena amagwiritsa ntchito nsanza zakale ngati mulch. Izi ndi zothandiza, koma m'nyengo yozizira sizothandiza makamaka - ziyenera kuchotsedwa kuti mizu ikhale "yopuma".
M'nyengo ya chilimwe, njira zoterezi zikuwonjezeredwa monga:

  • kuthirira;
  • kupopera mbewu ndi kuchiza matenda.
M'dzinja, kulimbikitsidwa ndiko pokonzekera chisanu:

  • mtengo ukudyetsedwa;
  • onetsetsani kuti mutenge thunthu;
  • ngati kuli koyenera, kuwonjezeredwa kutsukidwa ndi tizirombo.

Kusamalira dothi

Mitundu imeneyi ndi yovuta kwambiri pa chinyezi ndipo silingalekerere chilala. Choncho, "Pap" imayenera kuthiriridwa nthawi zambiri komanso mochuluka. Kumadera okhala ndi nyengo yozizira, mwana wamwamuna wazaka chimodzi wa sapine wa 2-3 pa mtengo ndi nthawi ya masiku 10-12 adzakhala okwanira. M'madera ouma, madzi omwewo ayenera kuwonjezedwa mlungu uliwonse.

Mukaika "mvula", idzatenga maola awiri.

Mukudziwa? Japanese Chisato Ivasagi mu 2005 inakula apulo yayikulu kwambiri - chipatso chinapachika makilogalamu 1,849. Zoona, izi zisanachitike ntchito yazaka 20, kuphatikizapo kuyendetsa kuwoloka.
Kwa mitengo ya zaka zitatu, kusiyana pakati pa kutsirira kumachepa pang'ono, iwo safunikiranso madzi monga ana.

Kumaliza, kuthirira madzi oyambirira ndi koyenera kumalo kumene kulibe kudzaza kwamuyaya m'chilimwe. Kumapeto kwa October - kumayambiriro kwa November, pamtanda umodzi. m circle pristvolny kutenga 80-100 malita a madzi. Mitengo yomwe imakhala yosungunuka bwino m'chilimwe, mumatha kutenga pangТono kakang'ono - imangowonjezera mtengo wa apulo. Kupalira ndi mwambo - timachotsa namsongole pamene akuwonekera, osati kuwasiya mizu.

Chimodzimodzinso ndi kumasula: mabwalo amayenera kutuluka pambuyo kuthirira. Mphuno sayenera kulandira chinyezi, komanso mpweya, choncho yesetsani kuteteza mawonekedwe a "kutumphuka".

Mtundu wa mulch umadalira cholinga chake. Thupi limakhala ndi makungwa ang'onoang'ono (wosanjikiza masentimita 5), ​​omwe angathe kuikidwa pambuyo pa kuthirira koyamba. Pofuna kuti asapitirire dothi, utuchi umatsanulidwa, mpaka masentimita 7. Moss, m'malo mwake, aikidwa kutentha - 10 masentimita ndi okwanira.

Feteleza

Mtengo wa apulo wodzichepetsa wokwanira 2-3 "chakudya" pa nyengoyi.

Ndikofunikira! Kukonzekera kwa kuyera kwa mbuzi kumapangidwa motere: mu 2 malita a madzi kuwonjezera 300 g wa laimu ndi 2 tbsp. l gulu laubusa, losakanikirana ndi lonse lonse. Koma kwa mitengo yamakale idzakhala yokwanira kubweretsa krayoni kakang'ono.
Kudyetsa koyamba kumapangidwa mwamsanga m'nyengo yozizira "hibernation". 550 g wa urea ndi nitroammophoska (osapitirira 40 g) amawonjezeredwa ku 4-5 zidebe za humus. Zonsezi zimatsanulira m'magulu kukumba. Njira yotsatira ndiyo nyengo yamaluwa. 250 g wa urea ndi 0,5 l wa slurry amathiridwa mu 2 malita a madzi nkhuku manyowa. Palinso superphosphate ndi potaziyamu sulfate (100 ndi 65 g aliyense). Nkhokwe 3-4 za "kusakaniza" koterezi zimabweretsedwa pansi pa mtengo umodzi, powerenga chiwerengerocho.

M'nyengo ya autumn, urea imathiridwa (750 g / 10 l madzi). Kumbukirani kuti feteleza zamadzimadzi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mu nyengo youma, ndi chinyezi chokwanira amatenga njira zowuma, kuwaza madontho awo.

Kulimbana ndi matenda a korona ndi tizirombo

Palibe mtengo wodzitetezera ku matenda a makungwa, masamba ndi maluwa. Choncho, wamaluwa ayenera kuthana nawo.

Matenda a fungal monga powdery mildew, zilonda zamakono ndi nkhanambo n'zosavuta kugonjetsa. Tizilombo ta tizilombo toyambitsa matenda sitikulekerera kuwonongeka kwa nthawi. Ngati vuto linayambira musanayambe maluwa, onjezerani 10 malita a urea 10 malita a madzi ndikupaka korona. Muzitsamba zamtsogolo za nyengo yokula, soda phulusa imatengedwa kuti ipangidwe (75 g of volume yomweyo).

Zilonda zakuya (kuyaka, cytosporosis, kansa ya cortex) ndi zovuta kwambiri. Nthambi zochotsa zimachotsedwa, ndipo mfundo zochepetsedwazo zimaikidwa ndi zobiriwira zobiriwira kapena mafuta odzola, mitundu yamaluwa ndi yabwino.

Kumenyana ndi tizirombo "tibwezere" mankhwala awa:

  • Maluwa a Apple amamwa ndi "Fufanon" (madzi 10 ml / 10 l) kapena "Karbofos" (90 g). Mtengo wa zipatso uli wokwanira 5 l wa yankho, ndipo wachinyamata - 2 l. Pambuyo pa masabata 2-3, mankhwalawa akubwerezedwa.
Mukudziwa? Maluwa a apulo ndi chizindikiro chovomerezeka cha boma la Michigan.
  • Listovertka sichilola "Nitrofen" (200 g / 10 l). Kumayambiriro kwa kasupe amathira nthaka pansi pa mtengo.
  • Atapeza nsabwe za m'masamba, amachotsa makungwa odwala ndikuwaza nthambi ndi "Fufanon" kapena "Ditox", akuyambitsa mogwirizana ndi malangizo.
  • Mankhwalawa amathandizanso ndi nkhupakupa.
Ambiri amagwiritsa ntchito "chemistry" mopanda mantha. Palinso zinthu zachilengedwe: kulowetsedwa kwa chamomile. Maluwa 200 a maluwa amatengedwa mu ndowa. Kusokoneza maola 12, madziwa amachotsedwa. Kulowetsedwa kwakonzeka.

Kupanga korona ndi korona

Zambiri zimadalira zaka zitatu zoyambirira. Poyamba kudulira, nthambi zamphamvu zamagulu zatsala. Pa mbali ina ya thunthu, pafupifupi pa msinkhu womwewo ndi iwo, pakhoza kukhala otchedwa ochita mpikisano akukula pang'onopang'ono. Iwo achotsedwa.

Ndikofunikira! Mitengo yomwe ili ndi kutalika kwa mamita 4 kapena kuposa imachepetsa chiwerengero ichi. Zimakhala zovuta kugwira ntchito ndi "zimphona" - osati sprayer iliyonse idzafika kumtunda wapamwamba, ndipo ndizosatheka kuchotsa zipatso kuchokera kwa iwo.
Nthambi zazikuluzikulu zimadulidwa ndi theka lachitatu, ndipo nthambi zazing'ono zimadulidwa pansi. Zitsimezi zimadulidwa pang'ono, kusakaniza pamwambazo. Kuchita nawo kudula achinyamata sapling sikuli koyenera, kuti asavulaze.

Pambuyo pa "Papirovka" inayamba kubala chipatso, yesani kudulira mitengo. Chilichonse chiri chosavuta apa - chaka ndi chaka, ngakhale maluwa asanakhalepo, amasula korona ya nthambi zosafunikira. Mtundu woterewu umangowoneka pangТono chabe, ndipo ndondomekoyi sichita khama kwambiri. Maapulo oterewa sali oyenera kuwonjezereka. Nthambi zazing'ono zimfupikitsidwa ndi 1, pamwamba pa masamba awiri, osakhalanso.

Nthambi zodwala zimachotsedwa mwamsanga, mosasamala za msinkhu.

Phunzirani za nsonga zabwino zowudulira mitengo ya apulo.
Mitengo yokhwima imafunika kubwezeretsa kudulira. Nthambi zimadulidwa zomwe sizimakula komanso zimasokoneza ndi zipatso. Madera omwe kunali zofooka pachaka (10-15 masentimita) anachotsedwa, kusiya malo omwe anawoneka pa kukula kwabwino (kuchokera 25 cm pa chaka).

Izi sizomwe zimagwira ntchito nthawi imodzi - "ntchito" zoterezi ndi mitengo yakale ya apulo zimachitika kwa zaka zingapo mzere.

Chitetezo ku chimfine ndi makoswe

Pambuyo pa mvula yoyera ndi kuveketsa mitengo imakonzekera chisanu. Mizere yozungulira yambirimbiri (mulingo wosanjikiza kawiri).

Mitsuko ikhoza kuphimbidwa ndi pafupifupi chinthu chirichonse, koma ndibwino kwambiri:

  • nsalu zakale;
  • Zojambula zakutchire kapena zamtenga zinamveka;
  • matumba;
Mukudziwa? Pakati pa mitengo, inunso, pali "liver long". Mmodzi wa iwo ndi mtengo wa apulo, wobzalidwa kumayambiriro kwa 1647. Anakwera ndi Peter Stuvesant, ndipo akukulabe mumzinda wa Manhattan.
  • cellophane iyenso iyeneranso. Koma iye, ngati denga atamva, ayenera kuchotsedwa pa thaw yoyamba kotero kuti mbiyayo isakhumudwitse;
  • Zachikhalidwe "zamphepo" za bango, udzu, kapena spruce zimathandizanso, koma malo oterowo akhoza kukopa tizirombo kufunafuna malo a chisanu.
Njira ina ndi yaikulu-polyethylene chubu - "thovu". Mukatsegula pang'onopang'ono pamtsinjewo, mumatha kumvetsa thunthu ndikuyamba kusoka. Choncho mtengowo udzatentha kwambiri. Ndipo makoswe sakonda zinthu zoterozo.

Mwa njira, za "toothy". Sipweteka ngati mtengo wa apulo uli ndi "osamanga" kapena masitoni a nylon. Iwo akhoza kuphimba nthambi ndi masampampu. Zotsatira zomwezo zidzakhala kuchokera ku miyendo ya spruce, atakulungidwa pa thunthu ndi singano mmusi. Ntchentche sizilekerera vitriol buluu. 100 g pa 10 l madzi, kuwaza 2 l pa sapling wamng'ono ndi 10 l pa mtengo wamkulu. Kuchita ntchito yoteroyi mu November kudzapulumutsa chipatso chanu m'tsogolomu. Zotsatira zomwezo ndi 1% Bordeaux madzi.

Njira yotsimikizirika yotetezera plantings ku hares lalikulu ndi kubzala gulu labwino lalitali pambali pa bwalo lomwe lakumbidwa. Zoona, chifukwa cha dacha yosatetezedwa iyi si njira yopambana - tizilombo tambiri tomwe tili ndi tizilombo tomwe timatha kuchoka pa mpanda.

Ndikofunikira! Chipale chofewa chamtundu wambiri chimazungulira mtengo, motero amalephera kuyenda. Mbali inayi, ndizovuta - ndikofunikira kuti muzitha kusanjikizika pambuyo pa chipale chofewa.
Chotsatira cha bajeti - zochepa zozungulira, kudula kuchokera makatoni wakuda. Amawopseza.

Tikukhulupirira tsopano mtengo wa apulo woterewu "Papirovka" sichiyimira chinsinsi chapadera kwa owerenga athu. Monga mukuonera, chisamaliro chofala, koma nthawi zonse. Kupambana m'munda!