Timakula Zhukovsky wa chitumbuwa m'munda wathu

Cherry Zhukovskaya ankaganiza yachikale kuswana. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi yakale ndipo nthawi zambiri imapezeka m'munda. Cherry Zhukovskaya, kufotokozera zosiyanasiyana ndi zithunzi zithunzi zomwe zidzaperekedwa kenako mu nkhani, malinga ndi ndemanga ali yabwino kukoma makhalidwe. Kukonzekera nthawi zonse kumakhala kochuluka, ndipo palibe chifukwa chogwiritsira ntchito khama lapadera la kusamalira mtengo wa zipatso. Ndicho chifukwa chake wamaluwa amasangalala kukula mtengowu ndikugwiritsa ntchito chipatso chokolola nyengo, komanso kukonzekera mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kuphika ndi mchere.

Kufotokozera

Mbiri ya hybrid iyi inayamba zaka zambiri zapitazo. Anatengedwa ku bungwe la All-Russian Scientific Research Institute la S.V. Zhukov ndi E.N. Kharitonova. Kuswana kunkachitika ndi pollination ndipo kunkachokera ku Michurin mitundu yamatcheri. Kale mu 1947, Zhukovsky yamatcheri anali analimbikitsa kulima mu Middle Volga, Nizhnevolzhsky, Central Black Dziko lapansi ndi Central madera a Russia.

Makhalidwe a mitengo yamtundu uwu ndi awa:

  • Mtengo wamaluwa uwu ndi wausinkhu wautali, kutalika kwake kumakhala pafupi mamita 2-3. Crohn ndi wozungulira, wowongoka masamba ndi kufalitsa. Nthambizi zimakhala zokhota pang'ono ndipo zimaphimbidwa ndi makungwa a mtundu wofiira. Maluwawo ndi ang'onoang'ono, amaloza pang'ono ndipo alibe pubescence. Masambawa ndi aakulu ndipo amagawanika, ali ndi mano ang'onoang'ono pamphepete. Pamwamba pa masambawa muli owala ndi pang'ono concave mkati, omwe amafanana ndi ngalawa.
  • The inflorescences wa Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa amapangidwa kuchokera asanu zazikulu maluwa ofera, awiri m'mimba mwake ndi pafupifupi 3 cm. The pamaluwa maluwa ndi lalikulu ndi kuzungulira. Mbalame ya kalyx yoboola ndi yobiriwira.
  • Gawo lalikulu la zipatso zakubereka pa nthambi za maluwa, gawo laling'ono limapangidwa pa kukula kwa chaka chatha. Mitengoyi imakhala yaikulu kukula kwake, yolemera kuchokera 4 g mpaka 7 g. Cherry maroon mtundu. Fupa lawo ndi lalikulu kwambiri ndipo limatenga pafupifupi 7.7% pa mimba yonse ya mwanayo. Mnofu umadziwika ndi mawonekedwe ake ndi juiciness. Kulawa zipatso ndi zosangalatsa-zowawa-zokoma, zofanana ndi chitumbuwa chokoma.

Zizindikiro za kukula

Pamene mukukonzekera kukula mtundu wa chitumbuwa pa chiwembu chanu, muyenera kudziwa momwe zinthu zidzakhalire bwino pazomwe zimapangidwira komanso zobala zipatso za Zhukovskaya zosiyanasiyana.

Mukudziwa? Malingana ndi ndemanga, Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa chosiyanasiyana chingapitirize moyo wake kufikira zaka 20, 15 zomwe mtengo uli ndi zipatso zambiri.

Mkhalidwe wa chikhalidwe

Mtengo umakonda kutentha ndi kuwala kwa dzuwa. Choncho onetsetsani kuti mubzalidwe padzuwa. Njira yabwino ikadakhala malo pafupi ndi nyumba kapena garaja. Ndifunikanso kufalitsa bwino mitengo pa sitepe kuti ikhale ndi malo okula. Ngati n'kotheka, mtunda wa pakati pa mbande uyenera kukhala mamita atatu.

Onani mitundu yamatcheri monga Kharitonovskaya, Vladimirskaya, Shokoladnitsa, Black Large, Turgenevskaya, Felt Cherry.

Dothi la nkhuni

Kukula kwabwino kwa mtengo uwu wa zipatso woyenera loamy nthaka kapena mchenga wamchenga. Sikoyenera kulima zosiyanasiyana pa nthaka ya dongo. Kuchuluka kwa acidity padziko lapansi n'kofunikanso. Ndi bwino ngati chizindikiro chili pafupi ndi ndale.

Ngati acidity pa webusaiti ikuwonjezeka, ndiye kuti ikhoza kuyendetsedwa pogwiritsira ntchito liming. Dziko lachinyama la Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa siloyenera ngakhale. Ngati zidachitika kuti madzi akukhala pafupi kwambiri ndi nthaka, ndipo palibe malo oti mubzalidwe mbande, ndiye kuti madzi okwera bwino ayenera kuyikidwa. Malowa ayenera kukhala olemera muzitsulo zamchere ndi zinthu zakuthupi.

Ngati zomera monga mbalame zamatcheri, linden, rowan, maple, nyemba, ndi tirigu zimakula bwino pamalo omwe chitumbuwachi chimakonzedwa kuti chibzalidwe, izi zikusonyeza kuti Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa chosiyanasiyana chidzakondwera.

Mukudziwa? Cherry mumapangidwe ake ali ndi coumarins ambiri. Izi ndi zinthu zomwe zingapindulitse magazi ndi kupanga magazi. Pankhani iyi, chitumbuwacho ndi chothandiza kwambiri kwa anthu omwe amadwala matenda ozunguzika ndi mtima, komanso amakhala ndi chiopsezo cha magazi.

Kubzala yamatcheri Zhukovskaya

Kubzala yamatcheri amafuna chidwi chapadera. Choyamba muyenera kusankha mbeu, ndikubzala pa tsamba lanu, kutsatira zotsatira zingapo.

Kusankhidwa kwa mbande

Choyamba, tiyenera kukumbukira kuti kugula mbande ndibwino kwambiri m'minda. Ngati kulibe kotheka, ndiye kofunikira kusankha mosamala wogulitsa kuti asagule zokolola zabwino.

Muyenera kutenga mbande zimenezo zomwe zinakula mu zochitika pafupi ndi zomwe mukukonzekera kuti zikule m'tsogolo. Bukuli lidzakhazikika mofulumira komanso losavuta m'malo atsopano, lidzatenga mizu mosavuta, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti kuzizira kumakhala kolimba kwambiri.

Pakuyenera kukhala palibe kuwonongeka kwa makina pa mbeu, sipangakhale kukula ndi maonekedwe osiyanasiyana. Mizu iyenera kukhala hydrated ndi yatsopano.

Zokonda kubzala bwino ziyenera kutsata zizindikiro zotsatirazi:

  • kutalika ndi pafupifupi masentimita 90-130;
  • mizu kutalika 20 cm mpaka 35 cm;
  • shtamb pakati pa 10-15 masentimita

Chiwongolero ndi teknoloji yoyendetsa

The mulingo woyenera kwambiri dongosolo la kubzala yamatcheri Zhukovskaya zosiyanasiyana: 5x3 kapena 5x2.5 mamita. Ndi bwino kukumba mabowo pasadakhale, kuti nthaka asanadzalemo ali ndi nthawi kuti aerated. Kuzama kwake kuyenera kukhala pafupifupi 50-60 masentimita.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati mizu yayuma kapena khungwa la nthambi ndi thunthu lawonongeka, ndiye kuti sizingatheke kugula mbewuyo.
M'lifupi ndi chimodzimodzi. Mitengo yokhayokha, yomwe imakhala ndi chonde kwambiri, iyenera kuikidwa m'mayenje, feteleza amchere (potaziyamu chloride, phosphate) ndi mankhwala (humus kapena manyowa ovunda) ayenera kuwonjezeranso. Ngati nthaka ndidothi, ndiye kuti mukhoza kudzaza mchenga.

Kulima kumalimbikitsidwa kumapeto kwa dziko lapansi, nthaka ikangoyamba, koma nthawi isanayambe nyengo ikukula, kuti masambawo asatseke. Mphukira isanayambe kubzala, imawonjezera kuwonjezereka kwa madzi.

Njira yobzala mbande pasitepe ndiyi:

  • Mu dzenje lolowera lomwe mukufunikira kupanga groove. Miyeso iyenera kukhala yokwanira kuti mizu ikhale mwaulere mmenemo ndipo musagwedezeke.
  • Nkhono yamatabwa imayikidwa pakati pa dzenje, mothandizidwa ndi mtengo wachinyamata womwe ungakonzedwenso mtsogolo.
  • Mchenga wa chitumbuwa umatsikira muchitsime kuti mzu wazu ukhale masentimita 5 kupitirira kuposa nthaka.
  • Mizu yophimbidwa bwino ndi dziko lapansi. Kenaka nthaka imatseka dzenje lonse. Nthaka iyenera kukhala yosasunthika bwino ndi fosholo kapena mapazi kulowera kuchokera pamphepete kupita ku thunthu. Sikoyenera kuyesetsa mwamphamvu kupeĊµa kuwononga mbewu ndi mizu.
  • Khola liyenera kupangidwa pa gawo lapafupi la ulimi wothirira.
  • Kenaka muyenera kumwa madzi ambiri pamtengo pamtunda wa 30-40 malita a madzi pa mmera umodzi. Ngati, chifukwa cha ulimi wothirira ndi nthaka, mizu imaonekera, iyenera kudzazidwa ndi nthaka yosakaniza.
  • Gowo tsopano likhoza kukhala lotayirira ndi dziko lotayirira kapena utuchi.
  • Kumapeto kwa nyemba ayenera kumangirizidwa ndi nsonga yofewa kapena chingwe ku khola la nkhuni. Nkhumbayo imalimbikitsidwa kuti idulidwe pamtunda wa nthambi yoyamba ya mtengo.

Kusamalira bwino mbewu

Ngakhale kuti mitundu yambiri ya yamatcheri imakhala yosalongosoka mu chisamaliro, palinso zofunikira zambiri zomwe woyang'anira munda ayenera kuziganizira akamakula mitengo.

Mukudziwa? Cherry ikhoza kukhala poizoni. Kapena m'malo mwake fupa lake. Lili ndi amygdalin, yomwe imakhala thupi laumunthu kukhala hydrocyanic acid. Zimakhala zoopsa kwambiri kwa ana. Akuluakulu, amodzi kapena mafupa awiri sangapweteke.
Ntchito zomwe zidzakuthandizani kuti mukulitse chomera cholimba ndi chamoyo chopatsa munda ndi chizindikiro chabwino cha fruiting, chimakhala makamaka pakudulira, kutsirira, kutunga nthawi ndi kuteteza matenda.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa

Kwa kanthawi, muyenera kuthirira mtengo katatu:

  • kuthirira koyamba kumachitika pafupifupi sabata ndi hafu mtengo usanayambe;
  • kuthirira kwachiwiri - maluwawo atatha;
  • dothi lachitatu la nthaka liyenera kugwirizana ndi nthawi ya kucha zipatso;
  • Kuthira kwachinayi - mutatha kukolola, koma pasanathe pa October 17-20.
Mukhoza kuthirira mtengo m'njira ziwiri:

  • Thirani madzi mu grooves. Choyamba, grooves awa ayenera kukumba. Ayenera kuikidwa pamtunda wa masentimita 50 kuchokera pamtengo - woyamba, ndiyeno 50 cm - yachiwiri. Madzi amatsanuliridwa mumng'oma ngati imeneyi, ndipo ikadzafika pansi, nthaka imayendetsedwa ndi utuchi, udzu, peat, kapena zinthu zina zomwe zimayambira.
  • Njira yachiwiri imayambitsa kuthirira. Ndikofunika kuyika pa tepi yamtengo wapatali. Pakati pa pang'onopang'ono ndi lalikulu, mtunda wa masentimita 30 uyenera kusungidwa. Dropper malo - 20-30 masentimita Pogwiritsira ntchito njirayi, zidzatheka kubisala gawo lonse la mizu.
Pa feteleza, mitengo iyenera kudyetsedwa kuchokera chaka chachitatu cha kukula kwawo pa chiwembu. Pakati pa nyengo yokula m'pofunikanso kufesa mbewu katatu kapena kanayi, ndikuwona nthawi pafupifupi mwezi:

  • Mu kasupe, mtengo umafuna kuvala kwina pa nthawi ya maluwa ndipo mwamsanga pambuyo pake. Pakati pa maluwa, muyenera kupeza yankho la nitrate, lomwe liyenera kuyesedwa m'madzi, poyang'ana 1:50. Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito hydrated laimu (kutenga 200 g pa 10 malita a madzi). Mtengo ukatha kutuluka, mukhoza kuthirira mzuwo ndi mankhwala a nitroammofoski (1: 200). Zonsezi zidzadyeka pafupifupi 30 malita pansi pa mtengo umodzi.
  • Mchere wa chilimwe umachitika mu theka lachiwiri la June. Ndikofunika kuti azidyetsa foliar, kuwaza mtengo ndi 2% ya magnesium sulphate.
  • M'masiku otsiriza a Septhemba, Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa chiyenera kumera ndi chisakanizo chokhala ndi 20 g wa phosziyamu chloride, 40 g wa superphosphate mu granules ndi 10 malita a madzi. Njirayi ndi yokwanira mita imodzi ya nthaka.

Kusamalira dothi

Kusamalira dothi kuzungulira thunthu ndi njira yochepetsetsa kuposa kuthirira ndi kudyetsa mtengo nthawi yake. Ndikofunika kuti dothi lapafupi likhale loyera komanso kuti musamamere namsongole mmenemo, chifukwa adzateteza mtengo kuti udye.

Ichi ndi chofunika kwambiri kuti tichite muzaka zoyambirira za kukula kwa mtengo m'munda. Namsongole amatha kukolola podula komanso mwakutchera. Mankhwala ophera tizilombo amatha kupepetsedwa pafupi ndi mitengo yokhwima.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati kupalira kumanyalanyazidwa, ndiye kuti zokolola ndi khalidwe la zipatso lidzatha mofulumira.

Kupanga korona ndi korona

Kudulira mitengo yamtengo wa chitumbuwa kuyenera kuchitika m'magulu angapo.

Njira yoyamba ikuchitika nthawi yobzala mbewu. Iyenera kufupikitsidwa ndi pafupifupi gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu. Kutalika kwa thunthu kuyenera kukhala pafupifupi masentimita 40. Mitsempha ya mtengo wokhayo imapangidwa kuchokera ku nthambi zazikulu 6-8, zomwe zimakhala pamtunda wofanana kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzake mu tiers. Mu mtengo wapachaka, nthambi zazing'ono zomwe zafika kutalika kwa masentimita 20-40 siziyenera kudula. Ngati kutalika kupitirira 50 cm, ndiye kofunikira kufupikitsa ndi gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu. Muyeneranso kuchotsa mphukira ku mizu, kudula nthambi zonse zosweka ndi zowonongeka.

Awonetseni zovuta za chitumbuwa kudulira masika.
Kuyambira kuyambira chaka chachisanu cha moyo wa mtengo, mukhoza kuyamba kupanga korona. Nthambi zamakhwala ziyenera kuchepetsedwa pamalo pomwe nthambi za nthambi zikukula. Mphukira yatsopano yomwe imatambasula ndi kuikuta korona iyenera kudulidwa pamalo omwe amachokera ku nthambi yaikulu. Thunthu palokha liyenera kufupikitsidwa kufika mamita 3-3.5.

Kutulukira kwadulira - makamaka kuteteza. Apanso, nthambi zowonongeka ndi zouma ziyenera kuchotsedwa, kenako ziyenera kuchotsedwa pa tsamba ndi kutenthedwa. Izi zimachitika chifukwa cha mwayi wowapeza anthu ovulaza. Pakatha zaka zitatu, n'zotheka kuchita zomwe zimatchedwa kudulira mitengo yokalamba. Izi ziyenera kuchitika ngati nthambi zikukula zosachepera 15 masentimita pachaka. Ndikofunika kufupikitsa nthambi za chigoba ndi gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu.

Ndikofunikira! Kuchotsa nthawi yomweyo nthambi zambiri kungayambitse cicatera, kotero kubwezeretsa kudulira kuyenera kuchitika m'magulu angapo. Mabala, omwe anapangidwa chifukwa cha kudula, amafunika kuchitidwa ndi phula la munda.

Matenda ndi tizirombo

Wosakanizidwa amatsutsana kwambiri ndi coccomycosis ndi kashiamu. Koma, mwatsoka, mndandanda wa matenda omwe angasokoneze mitengo ya maluwa siimathera pamenepo.

Onani matenda aakulu ndi tizirombo ta yamatcheri.
Ganizirani zinthu zazikuluzikulu, komanso njira zomwe mungagwiritsire ntchito ndi njira zothandizira:

  • Monilial kutentha Matendawa angakhudze zipatso, maluwa, mazira ambiri, komanso kukula kwa achinyamata. Matenda oterewa amadziwika ngati maonekedwe a imvi pambali ya mtengo, yomwe ili ndi mapiritsi okhala ndi fungal spores. Mphukira zowonongeka zimachokera, chifukwa khungwa limayamba kuphulika, ndipo zipatso zimavunda. Kuchiza mtengo kungatheke kupyolera mu HOM (40 g ya mankhwalayo adzafunika 10 malita a madzi). Madzi a Bordeaux angagwiritsidwe ntchito. Matenda odwala ayenera kuchotsedwa ndi kuwonongedwa. Matenda oterewa amatha kupezeka pogula nthaka m'dzinja, komanso kuyeretsa masamba ogwa.
  • Scab. Chizindikiro chachikulu ndi malo a bulauni omwe amaphimba zipatso. Masamba amayamba kupindika m'machubu ndipo pang'onopang'ono adzauma.

    Ngati akadali zipatso zosapsa chifukwa chogonjetsedwa, asiya kukula. Pofuna kupewa vutoli, nkofunika kupopera chlorini yamkuwa (10 malita a madzi 40 g) kapena Bordeaux osakaniza (1%) pamtengo pang'onopang'ono, mutatha maluwa komanso pambuyo pa fruiting.

  • Kutupa. Mawanga a Brown kunja kwa masamba adzakhala chizindikiro.

    Ngati mtengo wotere sungachiritsidwe, ndiye kuti sudzabala chipatso. Ndikofunika kugwiritsa ntchito mkuwa oxychloride musanafike maluwa ndipo itatha. Kusamalira mosamala komanso kwakanthaĊµi yake ndi kuwonongeka kwa masamba osagwa kudzakuthandizani kupewa matendawa.

  • Gommozi. Matendawa angadziwonetsere m'mitengo yomwe yafalikira. Pamwamba pa thunthu ndi nthambi zikuwoneka chingamu, zomwe zimakhala zovuta. Mabala amayenera kuchitidwa ndi 1% mkuwa wa sulfate.

    Pofuna kuteteza matendawa, muyenera kupewa kuwonongeka kwa mtengo. Zigawo zofananazo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamunda wamaluwa.

  • Klesterosporiosis. Mawanga a Brown omwe ali ndi malire ofiira ndi chizindikiro chodziwika bwino cha matendawa. Pakatha masabata awiri, tsamba la tsamba lomwe likhudzidwa lidzayamba "kusweka", lomwe limayambitsa mabowo m'masamba. Mphukira imapangidwanso ndi matayala amtundu uwu, pambali pake, ming'alu imakhala m'malo awa ndipo chingamu chimayamba kusonyeza.

    Ndikofunika, mutengowo ukapanda kuphulika, uupere ndi chlorine dioxide zamkuwa kapena Bordeaux osakaniza.

Tizilombo tingakhalenso pangozi kwa Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa mitundu:

  • Aphid Anakhazikika pamtengo, amayamba kudyetsa masamba, ndikuwatsitsa. Ndikofunika kuchitira mitengo ndi Nitrofen kumayambiriro kasupe (30 g ya kukonzekera ayenera kunyamulidwa mu chidebe cha madzi).

    Mafuta opangidwa ayenera kuthiridwa ndi Karbofos (30 g kwa 10 malita a madzi). Kuchotsa matenda kumathandizira kuchotsa mizu ya mizu.

  • Weevil. Izi ndi kachilomboka kamene kamadyetsa maluwa a chitumbuwa ndi masamba. Mkati mwa zipatso, akazi amatha kuika mazira, ndipo mphutsi izidya zomwe zili m'mapfupa.

    Polimbana ndi weevil, kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ndi "Karbofos" kudzathandiza nthawi yomwe maluwawo adzatha. Monga njira yowonetsera, ikulimbikitsanso kuti nthawi yophukira idzamasule nthaka ndikukhalabe oyera pamtengowo.

  • Mucus sawfly. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timapatsa masamba ngati kuvala nsalu kwa iwo. Chifukwa cha izi, masamba amauma. Mbozi ikadziwika, imayenera kuchitidwa nthawi yomweyo ndi Karbofos.

Ubwino ndi kuipa kwa zosiyanasiyana

Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa ali ndi ubwino ndi zovuta zonse:

  • Zopindulitsa zopanda pake ndizokolola zochuluka za mitundu yosiyanasiyana, chifukwa ndi mtengo umodzi waukulu mukhoza kutenga makilogalamu 30 a zipatso zowutsa mudyo.
  • Komanso chinthu chabwino kwambiri ndi kukana kusokoneza. Ngakhalenso zipatso zomveka bwino zimatha kugwira nthambi.
  • Zipatso ndi zazikulu, zokongola, zokoma komanso zowutsa mudyo. Kuwonjezera pamenepo, zamkati zimakhala zosiyana ndi fupa.

Kuipa:

  • Ponena za zosokonekera, mtengo suli wolimba kwambiri. M'nyengo yozizira, maluwa amatha kuvutika, ndipo nkhuni zimatha pang'ono kuzizira.
  • Kudzichepetsa. Pakuti kumanga zipatso kumafunika malo ena okhala ndi mungu.
  • Mwala. Kukula kwa fupa kumakhala kwakukulu komanso kumatha kutenga mimba yaikulu ya mwanayo.
Ngakhale zofooka zazing'ono, Zhukovskaya chitumbuwa chosiyanasiyana akhalabe wotchuka ndipo ndi zofunika kwa ambiri wamaluwa kwa zaka zambiri. Ngakhale woyang'anira minda yamalonda adzalima mitengo ya zipatso, ndipo zokololazo, mosamala bwino mbewu, zimakondweretsa wothirira minda kwa zaka zambiri.