Malonda ndi malungo a Lubskaya chitumbuwa m'munda wanu

Pali chiwerengero chachikulu cha mitundu yamatcheri, yomwe imapezeka m'madera osiyanasiyana. Nkhani yathu imaperekedwa ku "Lyubskaya" yamatcheri, yomwe yakula m'minda ya Russia kuyambira 1947. Tiyeni tiyankhule za momwe tingasankhire ndi kubzala sapling, tiyeni tiyang'ane ndi chisamaliro, ubwino ndi ubwino wa zosiyanasiyana.

Kufotokozera

Zokongoletsera zokambirana "Lyubskaya" zimayamba ndi kufotokoza za zosiyanasiyana.

Kunja, mtengo uli ndi mbali ya pamwamba, kutalika kwake ndi mamita 3. Korona ali mokwanira mokwanira, osati wandiweyani, wowongolera. Makungwawa ndi ofiirira kwambiri ndipo amadzaza ndi ming'alu. Mphukira zonse ndi zokhoma, kusunthira kutali ndi thunthu pang'onopang'ono. Mapepala a mapepala sali osiyana kwambiri ndi mitundu ina, koma adakali ofunika kuwamvetsera. Masambawa amajambulidwa mumdima wobiriwira, amakhala ndi masentimita asanu, masentimita 8 masentimita.

Maluwawo ndi oyera kwambiri, ndipo amakhala ndi masentimita atatu okha. Chikhochi ndi chobiriwira chobiriwira.

Kudziwa nokha ndi kulima mitundu yambiri yamatcheri: "Vladimirskaya", "Molodezhnaya", "Shokoladnitsa", "Kharitonovskaya", "Black Large", "Turgenevka".

Mabulosiwa ndi aakulu, ali ndi mawonekedwe ozungulira. Pa nthawi ya kukhwima kosasunthika amajambula mdima wofiira. Manyowa amodzi amakhalabe paphesi, atatha kucha pang'ono pang'onopang'ono.

Mukudziwa? Mtundu wotchuka kwambiri wa chitumbuwa ndi chitumbuwa chokoma. Mabulosiwa anagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna chakudya kwa zaka 8,000 BC. er

Zizindikiro za kukula

Ganizirani zomwe zimachitika pa kulima, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mutenge mtengo mumunda wanu. Tiyeni tikambirane mfundo zazikuluzikulu zomwe zimakhudza zokolola komanso momwe zimakhalira.

Mkhalidwe wa chikhalidwe

Kuti mudziwe kumene m'madera omwe mungakulitse zosiyanasiyana zamatcheri, tiyeni titembenuzire ku Registry State. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ikulimbikitsidwa kubzala m'madera otsatirawa:

  • Central;
  • Kumpoto chakumadzulo;
  • Central Black Earth;
  • North Caucasus;
  • Middle Volga;
  • Lower Volga.
Popeza kuti moyo wa chitumbuwa umadalira mwachindunji kutentha kwa nyengo yozizira, n'zosatheka kudzala zosiyanasiyana kumpoto. Ngati mubzala, konzekerani kuti mtengo sukhala ndi moyo ngakhale zaka 10.

Dothi la nkhuni

Cherry "Lyubskaya", zotsatira za ndemanga za wamaluwa ambiri, zimakhala zabwino kwambiri ndipo zimabereka zipatso pamchenga kapena loamy. Nthaka iyenera kukhala yachonde kwambiri, ikhale ndi mchere wochulukirapo. Mukadzala chitumbuwa ku chernozem, mtengo sudzakhala wovuta kwambiri, ndipo zokololazo zidzakhala pafupi kwambiri.

Mukudziwa? Pali mitundu ikuluikulu ya yamatcheri, omwe adagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mitundu ndi mizu. Mwa mitundu 150 yomwe imadziwika, yaikulu ndi: chitumbuwa, steppe, kumva, Magalebu ndi chitumbuwa.

Kubzala yamatcheri "Lyubskaya"

Kenaka, tidzakambirana ndi maonekedwe a mtengo, zomwe zingatithandize kupeŵa nthawi zosasangalatsa ndikupulumuka msanga.

Kusankhidwa kwa mbande

Osati kokha zipatso ndi ubwino wa chipatso, komanso, monga lamulo, zosiyanasiyana kapena mtundu wa mtengo zimadalira mbeu yabwino. Makamaka vutoli ndi lofunikira pogula mbande pamsika wamisala, mmalo mwake mumakhala ndi chitumbuwa chamtundu wina, mukhoza kugulitsa masewera achilengedwe kapena mtengo wosiyana. Choncho, pangani chisankho chomwe chili chotheka kuti musagwiritse ntchito ndalama zambiri pa kulima mtengo wopanda pake.

Choyamba, timayang'ana mizu. Kutalika kwa taproot yaikulu ayenera kukhala osachepera 30 masentimita. Komanso, mizu iyenera kuimiridwa ndi miyeso yambiri yomwe imachoka pampando waukulu. Kenaka, yang'anani mwatcheru mizu.

Kukula kulikonse, kuwonongeka, kuwonongeka kapena malo osamvetseka ayenera kukhala palibe. Poyamba, mtengo wodwala ukhoza kufa mutabzala, ndipo ngati umera mizu, ndiye kuti musadalire zokolola zambiri.

Kumbukirani kuti mizu, ngati ziwalo zina za mtengo, ayenera kukhala ndi mpweya wabwino. Ngati rhizome ikulumikizidwa mu cellophane, ndiye kuti ikhoza "kukhuta", ndipo kuwonjezeka kwa chinyezi popanda oxygen kumayambitsa matenda osiyanasiyana.

Ndiyeneranso kupeŵa mbande ndi mpweya wouma, chifukwa mudzathera nthawi yambiri mukuyesera kuchotsa mbeu kuchokera ku "zovuta", ndipo kupulumuka kudzadalira nthawi yomwe mizu yayuma.

Choncho yesetsani kugula mbande, mizu yake yomwe ili pamtunda, kapena nthawi zambiri, m'madzi. Bwerezani nthawi zingapo za mbeu yomwe idakumbidwa, ndipo koposa zonse - kugula mitengo yaying'ono m'minda, yomwe zomerazo zidzachotsedwa ku gawolo pokhapokha mutagula.

Koma korona, iyenera kukhala bwino bwino. Kukhalapo kwa kuwonongeka kulikonse, madontho kapena kukula sikuloledwa. Ngati korona ilibe masamba, muyenera kupempha kuti mupange kanyumba kakang'ono pamakungwa, omwe angasonyeze ngati mtengo wafota (ndipo nthawi zina zimachitika). Kenaka, fufuzani makungwa a ming'alu yayikulu. Popeza kuti zosiyanasiyanazi zimakhala ndi chisanu chifukwa cha makungwa osweka, simuyenera kugula mmera umene chitetezo choyambiriracho chinawonongeka poyamba.

Kuti asakugulitseni mtengo wosiyana, choyamba muziyang'anitsitsa mtundu ndi makulidwe a makungwawo. Makungwawo ayenera kukhala ofiira, owonda, opanda mdima uliwonse kapena mikwingwirima yowala. Sungani ming'alu akuloledwa, chifukwa ndi mbali ya izi.

Mutagula mbeu asanabzalidwe, nkofunika kuteteza ku dzuwa, komanso rhizome, ngati mulibe chida chokwera pansi, muvale ziguduli kapena pepala.

Chiwongolero ndi teknoloji yoyendetsa

Kufika sikuyenera kuchepetsedwa kwa masiku angapo kusunga chinyezi mumtengo. Chokhacho ngati vutoli liyenera kupatsidwa nthawi yoti zilowerere, pakufika kwanu mukhoza kuyembekezera.

Choyamba, timasankha dzuŵa lotseguka pamwamba pa phiri lomwe silithamangitsidwa ndi mphepo zakumpoto ndipo limatetezedwa kumalo osungira.

Ndikofunikira! Kusungirako madzi okwanira sikuloledwa. Mabedi ovomerezeka si apamwamba kuposa mamita atatu.
Chotsatira ndicho kuyesa acidity ya nthaka ndi pafupi kwambiri ndi kulowerera kwake. Cherry ndi yovuta kwambiri, choncho ngakhale kupotoka kochepa kumakhudza kwambiri njira yodzizira zinthu zowonongeka ndi kufufuza zinthu kuchokera m'nthaka. Tsopano ndi nthawi yokumba dzenje pansi pa mtengo. Ambiri amaluwa amalimbikitsa kukumba dzenje pasadakhale. Ena amanena kuti dzenje pansi pa mtengo liyenera kukumba miyezi isanu ndi umodzi musanadzalemo, ena - kwa mwezi umodzi.

Tikukulimbikitsani kuti mudikire masiku osachepera 2-3 kuti mtengo ukhale wabwino.

Timakumbutsa kuti n'zotheka kukafika patsiku, komanso kugwa. Kudyetsa kwadzinja kumakhala kumadera akum'mwera, monga m'nyengo yozizira mtengo udzakhala ndi nthawi yokwanira, ndipo m'chaka chidzakula.

Timakumba dzenje lakuya ndi lozama kotero kuti mizu, pambuyo poti kumiza mmenemo, sichitha malo onse. Mpweya wabwino ndi masentimita 40, kuya kwake ndi masentimita 60. Timapanga makoma a dzenje ndi zofanana, kuti nthaka isakhale yambiri.

Kukumba dzenje, timagawaniza dziko lonse lapansi mu magawo awiri. Mbali yoyamba ndi nthaka yapamwamba, yochuluka kwambiri, yomwe tidzakagwiritse ntchito kubzala. Gawo lachiwiri ndilo pansi, lomwe lingachotsedwe kwina kulikonse, silidzagwiritsidwe ntchito kubzala. Dothi lopangidwa ndi humus / kompositi ndi mchere feteleza. Chiwerengero cha chigawo chilichonse chikhoza kuwonjezeka kapena kuchepa, malingana ndi kuchuluka kwa dothi lochokera ku chitsime. Pafupifupi, peresenti imodzi imaphatikizapo makilogalamu 30 a humus, 1 kg ya phosphate rock ndi 150 g ya potassium sulphate. Sakanizani bwino kuti mizu isagwirizane ndi "madzi amchere".

Kenaka, tsitsani zitsulo zamadzimadzi (zomwe zimapangitsa kuti asiye nthaka komanso zisamire madzi) pansi pa dzenje ndikuyendetsa galasi, zomwe ziyenera kuyendetsa 1 mamita pamwamba pa nthaka.

Pambuyo pake, pakati pa dzenje timapanga kachilombo kakang'ono (pafupifupi masentimita 20) nthaka yochokera pansi. Pewani nyemba kuti maziko a mizu "akhale pansi" pamtunda wa dothi, yongolani mizu ndipo mosamala mudzaze dzenje ndi nthaka yosakaniza.

Pamene dzenje lidzadzazidwa, muyenera kuyamwa bwino nthaka ndipo, ngati n'koyenera, mudzaze nthaka yambiri. Pamapeto pake, timathirira madzi ndi madzi awiri ofunda.

Ndikofunikira! Khosi lazu liyenera kukhala 5-7 masentimita pamwamba pa nthaka.
Ngati chiwembu chomwe chikuyenera kubzalidwa chikagwiritsidwa ntchito kale kuti chikhale chaulimi, ndiye kuti mupindule nthaka ndi madzi amchere ndi humus / kompositi.

Mndandanda wazowonjezereka suyenera kulowetsedwa mu dzenje lakudzala, koma m'nthaka yozungulira dzenje kuti rhizome yomwe ikukula imalandira zinthu zonse zofunika ndi zakudya m'kupita kwanthawi.

Pazithunzi 1. m pangani izi:

  • humus kapena kompositi - 10 makilogalamu;
  • superphosphate - 100 g;
  • potaziyamu sulphate - 100 g
Ngati mutabzala mitengo ingapo kamodzi, ndiye gwiritsani ntchito chimodzi mwazinthu zotsatirazi:
  1. Kwa madera ang'onoang'ono, timagwiritsa ntchito njira 2 x 2.5 m.
  2. Kuti tipeze korona yowonongeka kwambiri timayenda molingana ndi 3 x 3.5 m scheme.

Kusamalira bwino mbewu

Kusamalira zomera kumaphatikizapo kutsirira kwa nthawi yake, komanso feteleza ntchito, komanso kulumikiza kolona, ​​zomwe zimapanga kuchuluka kwa zipatso ndi kukula kwake.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa

Timayamba kuthirira chitumbuwa pambuyo pa kutupa kwa impso. M'pofunika kutsanulira pafupifupi 30 malita a madzi ofunda panthawi (ndiwotenthezera kuthamanga njira yobiriwira misa mapangidwe). Ndikofunika kuti dothi lizitha kukolola nyengo yonse yomwe ikukula, ndipo mutatha kutaya masamba, ndibwino kuti mupange madzi okwanira m'nyumbamo.

Kuyambira pamene tinabzala tinatsimikiza kuti chitumbuwa pachigawo choyambirira chinali ndi zinthu zonse zofunika pakukula ndi chitukuko komanso kuchuluka kwa zinthu zakuthupi, timachita chovala chotsatira patatha zaka 1.5-2 mutabzala. Pa nyengo yokula m'pofunika kudyetsa mtengo kawiri ndi humus kapena kompositi pambuyo pa nthawi yofanana. Kugwa, timatseka phosphorous ndi fetereza feteleza, ndi feteleza zamchere m'chaka. Sitikulimbikitsidwa kuti muwonjezere kudyetsa komwe kumaphatikizapo zovuta zonse za NPK, popeza nayitrojeni imafunika kasupe kokha, panthawi yomwe akugwiritsa ntchito zobiriwira. Kutaya nayitrogeni m'nkhalango kudzawononga kwambiri mtengowo, choncho idzapitiriza kuonjezera mdima wofiira panthawi imene muyenera kuthira masamba.

Kusamalira dothi

Kuti tisataye nthawi nthawi yopalira ndi kumasula, mwamsanga mutabzala chitumbuwa, ndi bwino kugaya ndi peat kapena humus. Ngati mtengo umodzi suli wofunikira, ndiye kuti kubzala kwakukulu ndikofunikira kugwiritsa ntchito mulch. Mukadula mdulidwe wa thunthu, kupalira ndi kumasula sikofunikira. Komanso, pansi pa udzu wachitsamba sumala, ndipo nthaka imataya chinyezi ndipo sichimathira mowa.

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kuteteza mulch kuti asakhale "nyumba" ya tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, tiyenera kusintha nthawi ndi nthawi.
Ngati mwasagwedeza mtengo wa mtengo pazifukwa zina, ndiye kuti mukuyenera kumasula mizu kuti mupeze oxygen. Kumasula nthaka ayenera kukhala m'mawa kapena dzuwa litalowa. Ndikoyenera kukumbukira zimenezo ngakhale pambuyo pa mulching, khosi lalikulu liyenera kukhala lopambana kuposa gawo lapansi, mwinamwake ilo lingakhoze kuvunda.

Kupanga korona ndi korona

Zaka ziwiri zoyambirira mutabzala, sitikulimbikitsani kugwira gawo la pamwamba pa mtengo, kuti musawononge mtengo wofooka. Chinthu chokha chimene chiyenera kuchitidwa panthawi yomwe kukula kwa sapling ndi kukakamira kukula kuti mtengo usapange korona wokwera, koma umakula m'lifupi. Pambuyo pa zaka 2 kuchokera pamene nthawi ikamatera, kudulira kumatengedwa 2 nthawi pachaka - mu kasupe ndi yophukira. Pakati pa kudulira kasupe, tifunika kufupikitsa nthambi zowonjezereka, komanso kuchotsa odwala ndi kuonongeka. Pambuyo kudulira, korona ayenera kukhala ndi mawonekedwe abwino kuti akhalebe okongola komanso kuchepetsa kukolola.

Kudulidwa kwadzinja kumaphatikizapo kuchotsedwa kwa mphukira yakale. Muyenera kudula nthambi zomwe mudakolola zochepa. M'tsogolomu, mphukira zoterezi "zidzabala" zipatso zochepa komanso zochepa, pomwe mtengo wa chakudya udzakhala wofanana.

Phunzirani momwe mungapulumutsire chitumbuwa m'nyengo yozizira.

Matenda ndi tizirombo

Cherry "Lyubskaya" imakhudzidwa ndi coccomycosis ndi moniliasis.

Coccomycosis imayamba chifukwa cha bowa la Socotomy hiemalis. Mawanga ofiira amayamba kuonekera pamasamba, kenako bowa amachititsa kuti agwe msanga. Powonongeka kwakukulu, mawanga angawonekere pa petioles, mapesi, zipatso, ndi mphukira zazing'ono. Coccomycosis imayamba mvula yamvula. Izi zimapezeka makamaka m'chilimwe ndi masika. Monga njira yothandizira, timalimbikitsa kukonza mwezi uliwonse masamba, udzu wouma, ndi namsongole, chifukwa ndicho chomwe chingakhudze chitukuko cha matendawa. Nkhumba za bowa zimanyamulidwa ndi mphepo, kotero kuti minda yonse ingathe kuvutika. Kuchiza mtengo ndi fungicides.

Kutaya yamatcheri mu nthawi ya kutupa kwa impso. Nthaka pafupi ndi mtengo wa mtengo iyenera kuchitidwa ndi mankhwala "Abiga-Peak". Kupopera mbewu kotere kumapangidwa panthawi yomwe masambawo amangiriridwa. Izi zidzakuthandizani kumwa mankhwala "Horus".

Ngati matendawa satha pakapita maluwa, timalimbikitsa kudula nthambi zomwe zakhudzidwa pambuyo pa masiku 14-20 ndikuwotcha. Pambuyo kukolola, muyenera kutsitsire chitumbuwa Bordeaux madzi.

The Causative agent of moniliosis ndi bowa monilia. Amayamba kuonekera pestle ya maluwa, kenako amachititsa mphukira. Kenaka maluwawo, masamba ndi mphukira zazing'ono zimauma. Matendawa amayamba kutentha. N'zosavuta kuzindikira matendawa. Mawanga akuda amaoneka pamakungwa, omwe amafanana ndi moss. Kenako zipatsozo zimakhudzidwa chimodzimodzi. Mphukira zimauma ndipo zipatso zimagunda ndi kugwa.

Pofuna kupewa kugonjetsedwa, mukhoza kupopera chitumbuwa ndi mankhwala omwewo "Horus". Akatswiri ena amapereka chithandizo cha mankhwalawa asanayambe maluwa ndi mankhwala Mikosan-B kapena Skor. Mukhoza kuchiza mtengo wa zipatso ndi Bordeaux madzi musanakhale maluwa.

Mwa tizirombo ta chitumbuwa "Lyubskaya" chimakhudza aphid ndi gnawing tizilombo. Mukhoza kuwachotsa ndi sopo ndi sopo yankho. Komabe, izi zidzakuthandizira pokhapokha ngati atabwera pang'ono. Mavitamini a misala, mankhwala a Fufanon (motsutsana ndi mavitamini oyamwa), Aktellik (motsutsana ndi makoswe) ndi Karbofos (motsutsana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba) amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Ubwino ndi kuipa kwa zosiyanasiyana

Kuchokera pa zomwe takambirana kale, tikhoza kunena ubwino ndi kuipa kwa "Lubskaya" chitumbuwa.

Ubwino:

  • Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi yachonde. Ubwino ndikuti chitumbuwa chikhoza kubzalidwa popanda, popanda kutenga nawo mbali pozilombo toyambitsa matenda.
  • Nthawi yoyamba ya fructification. Ngati mukutsatira ndondomeko zonse zapamwamba zaulimi, mudzalandira zokolola zoyamba zaka ziwiri.
  • Kukolola kwakukulu. Mpaka 30 makilogalamu a yamatcheri amatha kusonkhanitsidwa ku mtengo uliwonse.
  • Kusiya sikufuna nthawi yochuluka ndi zinthu, monga mtengo uli wovuta.
Kuipa:
  • Kuipa kwa chisanu kukana. Cherry ali ndi chisanu chotsutsa, kotero kumera kumpoto kumatheka kokha ndi kutentha kokwanira.
  • Zotsatira zoipa za kutentha matalikidwe. Chifukwa cha zenizeni za makungwawo, ming'alu ingawonekere pamtengo wamtengo. Izi zimachitika chifukwa cha kusinthasintha kwa kutentha. Ming'alu amachititsa ma cherries owopsa ku matenda a tizilombo ndi tizilombo.
  • Nthawi yochepa ya fruiting. Ndi zokolola zabwino, mtengo umatuluka mofulumira, kotero chitumbuwacho chimakula kwa zaka 16, kenaka ndibwino kuti m'malo mwake mukhale ndi mmera watsopano.
  • Kutentha kwambiri kwa chipatso. Zipatso zambiri sizothandiza anthu omwe ali ndi acidity, choncho mankhwala amagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira ndi kumalongeza.

Maphunzirowa ndi abwino kwambiri kwa minda yaikulu, komanso kumadera okhala m'nyumba. Podziwa zambiri za Lubskaya chitumbuwa, mungathe kuyerekeza ndi mitundu ina ndikupanga bwino pamene mukugula mtengo wachinyamata. Kumbukirani kuti chitumbuwa chimayamba kubala chipatso kokha chaka chachiwiri mutabzala, ndipo izi sizikhoza kufulumizitsa ndi kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza mchere kapena nthaka yakuda. Tsatirani malamulo onse a teknoloji yaulimi kuti mupeze mbewu zabwino za mbeu.