Cherry "Ural Ruby": makhalidwe ndi kulima agrotechnics

Cherry "Ural Ruby" ndi chitsamba chaching'ono chomwe chimatha mamita awiri ndi hafu. Zithunzi zingapo za chitumbuwa ichi zimaperekedwa mu nkhaniyi.

Zomerazi zimapindulitsa kwambiri komanso zimatha kusintha nyengo yovuta.

Kutchedwa cherry amasiyana mochedwa maluwa, zipatso zabwino zomwe zimapsa pamodzi.

Mbiri yobereka

Kubereketsa "Ural Ruby" chitumbuwa chinayamba kutengedwa m'ma 1950s. Pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1900, wolemba Ural N. Gvozdyukova, yemwe ankaimira Sverdlovsk Experimental Horticulture Station ya Ural NIISH, adagwira ntchitoyi limodzi ndi S. Zhukov, yemwe ankaimira Central General Laboratory. I.V. Michurin.Woimira bungwe la kubeletsa ku Tambov adapatsa mbande za mitundu yosadziwika ya "Michurinsky" monga maziko a mitundu yatsopano. Anthu a ku Ural ankagwiritsa ntchito mbewu za mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya "steal" poyenda. Zotsatira zake, zosiyanasiyana zinatuluka, zomwe zinapangidwa ndi 1959 ku State Register-Quality Register ya Ural, Vyatka ndi West Siberian zigawo za Russian Federation.

Pakalipano, Rubral ya Ural imakonda kwambiri m'madera a Chelyabinsk, Perm ndi Sverdlovsk.

Makhalidwe osiyanasiyana

Taonani tsatanetsatane wa mtundu uwu wa chitumbuwa. "Ural Ruby" ndi chitsamba chokhala ndi nthambi zofalitsa.

Pofunafuna zosiyanasiyana zamakono anu, mukhoza kuphunzira makhalidwe a yamatcheri a Zhukovsky, Lyubskaya, Black Large, Turgenevka, Vladimirskaya, Shokoladnitsa, Kharitonovskaya, Molodezhnaya.

Kulongosola kwa mtengo

Kutalika kwa Cherry amatha kufika mamita 1.5, nthawi zina amatha kufika mamita 1.8-2. Mukapangidwa, mawonekedwe onse amapangidwa ndi nthambi zofalitsa.

Zipatso mumtengo uwu ndi nthambi zowonjezera pachaka. Masamba, omwe amaoneka owala, mawonekedwe awo ali ofanana ndi ngalawayo. Maluwa ali ndi mtundu wobiriwira.

Kufotokozera Zipatso

Zipatso za chitumbuwa ichi ndi mdima wofiira, wa usinkhu wofiira. Kulemera kwake ndi pafupifupi 3.2 g. Zipatso zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe ozungulira, kulawa zokoma. Malingaliro okoma a "Ural Ruby" anali mapiri 2.8. Zipatso zake zili ndi pafupifupi 9% a shuga, 1,6% ya acids, komanso pafupifupi 15 mg ya vitamini C. Msuzi wofiira; tsinde ndilopakatikati, kukula molimba kwa fetus; wamng'ono, fupa, wosiyana kwambiri ndi zamkati.

Mukudziwa? Mitsinje ndi mbewu yamatumbu sizingadye kwambiri, chifukwa zimatha kupha poizoni.

Kuwongolera

Katumbuwa uyu ndi zosiyana siyana, mwachitsanzo, chomeracho chimakhala ndi mtundu wina wa maluwa. Izi zimalepheretsa kukula kwa yamatcheri chifukwa cha kudzipangira feteleza wa mungu wawo.

Choncho, ngati mulibe mungu wowonjezera pa tsamba lanu, lidzasintha bwino masika onse, osapereka zokolola. Choncho, onetsetsani kuti mukuyenera kukula pafupi ndi zofufumitsa, zomwe ziri zoyenera pa zosiyanasiyana. Mtengowu ndi wabwino kwambiri wopanga mungu, umene wakhala ukugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zaka makumi angapo pofuna kukula ndi kuswana mitundu yambiri ya yamatcheri. Mitundu yabwino kwambiri yopanga pollination "Ruby Ural": "Mayak", "Zagrebinskaya", "Polevka", "Zvezdochka", "Alatyrskaya" ndi "Wopatsa".

Nthawi yogonana

Zipatso zake zipsa mochedwa (theka lachiwiri la August) ndikupachikidwa pa nthambi kwa nthawi yaitali. Fruiting ndifunika kuyembekezera chaka chachitatu mutengapo mtengo.

Pereka

Zokolola za yamatcheri ndi apamwamba, pamtundu umodzi kuchokera ku mtengo umodzi wotero mungathe kufika pa 6 kilogalamu ya zipatso. Panali maulendo pamene m'katikati mwa dziko la Russian Federation kukolola mtengo kunali 14-15 makilogalamu.

Zima hardiness

Mitengo ya "Ural Ruby" yamatcheri amatha kusintha mofanana ndi nyengo yosasangalatsa. Ali ndi kukana kwachisanu chabwino. Wood ikhoza kuyima kutentha pansipa -30-35 ° C.

Mukudziwa? Cherry ndi ozizira kwambiri. Chomera ichi chikukula kuthengo, ngakhale mu Himalaya.

Ntchito

Cherry imakula mochedwa kwambiri, mbewu kuchokera mmenemo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pokonza. Zipatso za mtundu wa chitumbuwayi zikhoza kudyedwa, zouma kapena zosungidwa.

Mukhoza kupanga compotes, jams, jellies, syrups, tinctures, zakumwa zam'madzi, ndi madzi a zipatso kuchokera zipatso. Masamba a Rubral Ural amawonjezeranso ku nkhaka kapena masamba ena.

Chomerachi chimagwiritsidwa ntchito poweta njuchi, chifukwa ndi chomera chabwino kwambiri cha uchi. Ndiponso, chitumbuwa chabzalidwa ngati yokongola chomera.

Kubzala malamulo kwa mbande zazing'ono

Kuti muzuke mizu, muyenera:

  • ufulu wokonzekera dzenje;
  • pangani feteleza zofunika;
  • Tsatirani malamulo ndi njira zogwiritsira ntchito;
  • sankhani zakuthupi zoyenera;
  • chomera nthawi yoyenera ya chaka.

Nthawi yabwino

Mtundu wa chitumbuwa uwu umabzalidwa kasupe pamene masamba akuphuka, kapena mpaka pakati pa autumn. Koma kubzala kasupe kuli koyenerera bwino, chifukwa pambuyo pa kugwa, sapling wamng'ono akhoza kufungira ngati pali chisanu choyambirira.

Kusankha malo

Mbewu iyenera kubzalidwa kumene kuli dzuwa lambili ndipo imakhala ikuwomba nthawi zonse. Nkofunikanso kuti pamalo pomwe ikamatera panalibe madzi akumwa pansi, omwe amabwera pamwamba pa dziko lapansi. Nthaka yobzala mbande ikhale yosalala, yosasunthika komanso makamaka loamy.

Njira ndi ndondomeko

Mukamabzala mitundu ya chitsamba, mtunda pakati pawo uyenera kuchitidwa kuchokera mamita 2. Khola lolowera liyenera kukhala lalikulu masentimita 50 ndi mofanana. Pansi pa dzenje ayenera kuika feteleza, kuphatikizapo humus, 20 g wa potaziyamu chloride, mpaka 40 g wa superphosphate ndi phulusa. Nthaka dongo ingathe kuwonjezera chidebe chimodzi cha mchenga.

Kenaka nkhwangwa imathamangitsidwa mu dzenje, kumene mtengo uyenera kumangidwa. Mizu yayamba kutsukidwa kuchokera kuwonongeka ndikuyikidwa kwa maola atatu, kenako imatsikira pansi ndi dzenje ndi nthaka, mwamphamvu kwambiri.

Ndikofunikira! Imwani chomera kuti zikhale ziwiri kapena zitatu zidebe zamadzi ozizira otentha.
Pofuna kupewa madzi kuti asafalikire pa kuthirira, m'pofunika kupanga mpweya wozungulira wazitali wa pulasitiki wa mmera, womwe umakhala wa masentimita 60. Ngati chirichonse chikuchitidwa molondola, ndiye kuti mizu ya mtengo mutatha kuthirira ndi kuchepetsa nthaka idzakhala pansi. Ngati mwalakwa - osati zoopsya! Izi zikhoza kukonzedwa ndi kutulukira pansi kapena kufukula nthaka yambiri. Mutabzala pa phazi la mmera muyenera kutsanulira mulch mu mawonekedwe a utuchi kapena kompositi.

Zimapereka chisamaliro cha nyengo yamatcheri

Kusamalira Ruby Ural Cherry mutabzala simasiyana ndi zomwe zimafunika ndi mitengo yonse ya mtundu uwu: feteleza, kuthirira, kudulira nthambi zakale ndikumasula nthaka ngati kuli kofunikira.

Kuthirira ndi kumasula

Pa nyengo yokula, 3-4 ulimi wothirira udzakwanira kuti yamatcheri azichitidwa panthawi ya chitukuko cha mtengo:

  • Nthawi yoyamba mtengo uyenera kuthiriridwa pambuyo pa maluwa;
  • kuthirira kwachiwiri kumachitika panthawi yokonza mazira (pambuyo pa kukhetsa kwa June);
  • Kuthira kwachitatu kuyenera kuchitika mutatha kukolola kapena kumayambiriro kwa autumn;
  • 4 kuthirira - podzimny, pakati pa mwezi wa October.

Mlingo wa vegetative ulimi wothirira kwa yamatcheri ndi 5-7 ndowa pamtengo ndipo zimadalira zaka.

Feteleza

Manyowa, omwe ali ndi potaziyamu ndi phosphorous, amayamba kugwa, kotero kuti izi zidzagwa pansi kukumba. Nkhani yamoyo (kompositi kapena manyowa ovunda) ikuwonjezedwa zaka zitatu zilizonse. Mavitrogeni amayamba m'chaka, pansi pa chitsamba cha zomera.

Panthawi imodzimodziyo ndi koyenera kuti muyambe kudya zina ziwiri. Choyamba chimapezeka pa maluwa, chachiwiri - masiku 14 atatha, chifukwa chaichi, mullein ndi phulusa amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Othandizira zinthu zakuthupi, ndizofunika kudziwa zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito makala, nkhosa, nkhumba, kalulu, kavalo, ndowe ya ng'ombe, nkhuku ya nkhuku monga feteleza, komanso njira zokonzekeretsa kuvala kwa nettle, yisiti, ammonia.

Kulimbana ndi matenda ndi tizirombo

Ural Rubinovaya amatsutsa bwino aphid yamtengo wapatali ndi sawfly, koma akhoza kukhala ndi matenda a fungal - coccomycosis. Ndizotheka kunena za matendawa ndi spores za bowa, ngati mabala ofiira pamasamba amapezeka pamtengo, komanso kuwatsitsika kwawo mwadzidzidzi, komwe kunachitika kale kwambiri kuposa nthawi yakhazikitsidwa, zinawonetsedwa.

Izi ndizoopsa kwa mtengo, chifukwa chomera chosabala sichikhoza kudya bwino. Zotsatira zake, zimangowonongeka msanga, zomwe zingathe kupha imfa yake. Pofuna kupewa izi, mtengowu uyenera kuthandizidwa ndi fungicides (Copper sulphate, Topaz, Rayok, Horus, Abiga-Peak).

Ndikofunikira! Ngati mtengo uli wodwala, uyenera kuchitidwa ndi fungicides katatu pa nyengo - musanayambe maluwa, nthawi ndi masabata atatu mutatha maluwa.

Kupanga korona ndi korona

Ndizofunika kudula mtengo usanayambe kuonekera, kuti chomera chikhale ndi nthawi yowonjezera pa nthawi ya kukula ndi maluwa.

Mutabzala mmera, iyenera kuti ikhale yotsala pafupi ndi nthambi khumi (10) zotsalira kwambiri komanso zamphamvu kwambiri. Masamba otsalawo amadulidwa popanda kupuma, ndipo malo odulidwa ayenera kumangidwe ndi munda.

Nthambi zomwe zidatsalira pambuyo mdulidwe ziyenera kuyang'ana mosiyana ndikukhala osiyana wina ndi mnzake pamtunda wa masentimita 10.

Waukulu malamulo kudulira achinyamata yamatcheri:

  • M'chaka chachiwiri, nthambi zomwe zikukula mkati mwa korona zimadulidwa, ndipo mphukira imapangidwa pa shtambu nthawi yotentha (pamene ili yobiriwira). Izi zidzathandiza kuteteza chitsamba kukulitsa;
  • ndikofunika kuchepetsa mphukira zomwe zakula kuposa theka la mita kutalika;
  • Pa kukula kwa yamatcheri, nthambi zatsopano zamatenda ziyenera kusiya pa thunthu. Izi zidzathandiza kupanga korona molondola. Zotsatira zake, nthambi zazikulu zidzakhalabe 12-15;
  • Mafuta owuma ndi odwala ayenera kuchotsedwa pachaka.
Kukonza korona ndi kudula nthambi zosafunikira kumathandiza nthawi zingapo:

  • kupangidwe kolondola kwa mtengo, kuti usakhale umodzi umodzi ndi korona wokhuthala;
  • zokolola zidzakula nthawi zina;
  • zipatso zimakhala zosangalatsa kwambiri;
  • kuchotsa nthambi zakale ndi matenda zimateteza chomera ku tizirombo;
  • Mtengo umakula msinkhu atatha kudulira ndikukula.
Ndikofunikira! Dulani chitumbuwacho chikhale chaka chilichonse kuyambira ali aang'ono.

Chitetezo ku chimfine ndi makoswe

Kuteteza yamatcheri oyambirira chisanu, muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito utsi: m'mawa pamene chisanu chimayambira m'munda, mulu wa udzu, udzu kapena zipangizo zofananazi ziyenera kuyaka. Panthawi imodzimodziyo ayenera kukhala ochepetsedwa pang'ono, kotero kuti palibe moto, koma utsi wambiri. Mtengo ukhoza kutetezedwa mwanjira ina - kuchepetsa nthawi ya maluwa ake. Izi zingachepetse mwayi wokantha chisanu chakubwerera. Kuti muchite izi, muyenera kupondaponda chisanu molimba kwambiri kuzungulira chitumbuwa, ndiyeno muzichiphimba ndi chingwe chachikulu kapena udzu.

Tetezani chitumbuwa ku makoswe Mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito phulusa, peat chips kapena ankaviika ndi creolin kapena mafuta a utuchi. Zonsezi zimawopsyeza makoswe. Kuwonjezera apo, amphaka ndi zitsamba zazing'ono ndi othandizira othana nawo.

Antchito samakonda fungo linalake. Choncho, amaluwa ena amalangizidwa kuti ayese mitengoyo ndi njira yothetsera timbewu kapena tivale ndi nyama yankhumba kapena phula.

"Ural Ruby" amagwiritsidwa ntchito monga chipatso cha zipatso. Ndemanga za wamaluwa za mtundu uwu wa chitumbuwa ndizo zabwino kwambiri. Ndiwothandiza kwambiri chifukwa cha chisanu chotsutsa, wolemera wokolola ndi kukana matenda ambiri a fungal. Zowononga zake ndizo: kudzikonda komanso zipatso zapakati.