Zinsinsi za bwino kulima chitumbuwa "Frost"

Morozovka ndi mchere zosiyanasiyana chitumbuwa wotchuka pakati wamaluwa. Chikhalidwe amadziwika ndi mkulu chisanu kukana, wolemera yokolola ndi yabwino kukoma zipatso. Tikukudziwitsani kuti mudziwe zofunikira za Morozovskaya chitumbuwa, komanso ziganizo zobzala ndi kusamalira mbewu.

Mbiri yobereka

Cherry "Morozovka" - zipatso zazing'ono ndi mabulosi, zomwe zinapangidwa mu Institute of Research Institute of Michurinsky Scientific Research mu 1997. Wolemba wa chitumbuwa anali T.V. Morozova - wotchuka wotchuka, katswiri wodziwa kulima zipatso zamwala.

"Morozovka" inalengedwa poganizira nyengo yotentha ndi yozizira. Otsatsa anapeza ntchito yovuta yopanga mitundu yomwe imakhala yovuta kwambiri kukaniza chisanu ndi zipatso zabwino, kukula kwa mitengo ndi kukana matenda. Kuti apeze mtundu woterewu, mitundu yamatcheri "Lyubskaya" ndi "Vladimirskaya" amagwiritsidwa ntchito monga maziko.

Zosiyanasiyana "Lyubskaya" zinali zosangalatsa chifukwa cha zipatso zake, kudzibala, komanso zipatso zazikulu ndi zokoma. Zambiri za "Vladimir" zimadziwika kuti zimatsutsa kwambiri kutentha. Anasankha kuwoloka mitundu iwiriyi. Ntchito yosankha inasintha pafupifupi zaka makumi atatu. Zotsatirazo zinatumizidwa kukayesedwa. Kuyambira pamenepo mitundu yosiyana "Morozovka" siitchuka.

Mudzidziwe nokha ndi kulima mitundu yambiri yamatcheri: "Molodezhnaya", "Kharitonovskaya", "Turgenevskaya", "Shokoladnitsa", "Black Large".

Zamoyo

Kuwonjezera pa nkhaniyi tiona zochitika za maluwa a Morozovka chitumbuwa, kufotokozera zosiyanasiyana, zithunzi, komanso ndemanga za akatswiri wamaluwa ndi anthu wamba. Pakuti mchere wotsekemera "Frost" zotsatila zakuthambo zapaderazi ndizopadera.

Kulongosola kwa mtengo

Mtengo uli ndi msinkhu wautali, wofanana ndi mpira wokongola. Thunthu la mtengo lili ndi makungwa ofiira. Korona wa mtengo ndi yaikulu kwambiri.

Masambawo amapangidwa ndi nthambi zamphamvu za nthambi. Kawirikawiri, mtengo uli ndi masamba ochepa (masamba ochepa). Zimayambira limodzi, zofiirira. Chiwerengero chochepa cha timachubu ting'onoting'ono timapanga pamwamba pa mphukira. Mphukirayi imachokera pamwamba pa mphukira ndipo imakhala ndi mawonekedwe ovoid. Fruiting imapezeka panthawi yomwe maluwa akukula, komanso pa nthambi za pachaka (kumapeto kwake). Masamba "Morozovka" zachilengedwe kuwala wobiriwira shades. Masambawa amaletsedwa ndi pubescence ndipo amakhala osasunthika kumalo ozizira kwambiri. Pulogalamu yowonjezera ikulu kuposa yowerengeka. Pamphepete mwa pepala, munthu akhoza kupeza malungo a bichenate. Kumunsiko kumayika glands zing'onozing'ono zofiira. Masamba amawasungira petioles. Pa petioles pali glands wofiira.

Ndi kufika kwa kasupe pa mtengo pachimake white inflorescences. Maluwawo ndi aakulu kwambiri ndipo amakhala ngati maluwa. Nkhuta zimakhala zozungulira.

Mukudziwa? Oddly mokwanira, inu mukhoza mosavuta poizoni yamatcheri. Koma osati zamkati mwa zipatso, koma zomwe zili mu mbewu ndi mbewu. Zili ndi amygdalin. Kamodzi mu thupi la munthu, chinthuchi chimakhala choopsa cha hydrocyanic acid.

Kufotokozera Zipatso

Zipatso za "Morozovka" ndizozungulira, m'malo mwake zikuluzikulu ndi zolemera. Uli wolemera wa mabulosi umasiyana mozungulira 4.8-5.0 g. Pa mimba ya chitumbuwa chilichonse mulibe chofufumitsa. Pamunsi pa mwanayo analemba ndondomeko yaing'ono koma yooneka bwino.

Khungu ndi zamkati za chipatsocho zimakhala ndi zofiira zofiira, pali malo ang'onoang'ono aang'ono osakaniza. Mnofu ndi wowometsera, osati wandiweyani. Pfupa ndilozungulira, kukula kwake, ndikuphweka mosavuta. Zipatso zimasungidwa pa nthambi mothandizidwa ndi mapesi aatali ndi aang'ono. Gawo lolekanitsa liri pakati pa chitumbuwa ndi tsinde.

Mukudziwa? A khumi ndi awiri a chitumbuwa zipatso m'malo mwa zotsatira imodzi aspirin mapiritsi.

Kuwongolera

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana "Frost" ndi ya gulu lofala makatoma othandizira. Mbali yeniyeni ya chomera ndi kulephera kumera mwa kudzidula mungu wa maluwa. Choncho, kuti mtengo ubale ndi kubala chipatso kawirikawiri, ndizozoloƔera kudzala mitundu yosiyanasiyana yokha pafupi nayo.

Pakuti Morozovka yamatcheri, zotsatirazi mitundu yamatcheri ndi abwino pollinators: Zhukovskaya, Griot, Lebedyanskaya, Michurinskaya. Izi zimathandiza kwambiri ndipo zimalowa m'malo mwa tizilombo.

Mbali iyi ya "Morozovka" sizowononga, koma m'malo mwake. Kulima mtengo sikukugwirizana ndi nyengo. Kukonzekera kwa maluwa kumachitika ngakhale mu nyengo ya nyengo yozizira, komanso popanda njuchi - zachilengedwe pollinators wa zomera.

Nthawi yogonana

Malingana ndi muyezo, "Morozovka" yakucha m'mawu oyambirira. Pankhani ya nyengo yozizira, mbewu imakolola kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe. Komabe, kukolola kwakukulu kwa zipatso zokolola kumayembekezeka kokha 3-4 patapita zaka zotsalira.

Kuwonjezera pa kukongola kwa zipatsozo ndizoyengedwa bwino. The acidity wa zipatso za zosiyanasiyana ndi kuchepa kwambiri, kotero kuti anatchulidwa kukoma kwa yamatcheri bwino akutsindika ndi pang'ono ndi zosangalatsa wowawasa.

Pereka

Zosiyanasiyana "Frost" zimasonyeza zipatso zabwino kwambiri. Ndi chisamaliro choyenera komanso nyengo yabwino, zokolola zambiri za yamatcheri zidzakhala 50-65% pa hekitala kapena 35 kg pa mbewu yaikulu.

Zotsatira zake zimakhala ndi chidziwitso chochepa kuti chigwedezeke, ndiko kuti, kuyenda bwino. Izi zimapangitsa Morozovskaya chitumbuwa chosangalatsa kwambiri ponena za kupereka nthawi yamakono ku msika waulimi.

Zima hardiness

Mtengo wa zosiyanasiyanazi umasonyezanso kuti munthu amakhala ndi moyo wabwino (mlingo wachisanu wa hard winter ndi kukana chilala). Komabe, ndi bwino kuzindikira kuti nyengo yozizira siyimeneka m'madera onse a chitumbuwa ichi. Maluwa ndi maluwa a mtengo amatha kuundana ndi kutha nthawi yozizira komanso ngakhale kuwala kofiira. Izi kwenikweni amadetsa yozizira hardiness wa Morozovskaya chitumbuwa.

Ntchito

Nutritionists amanena za phindu lalikulu mwa kudya zipatso "Frost". Mankhwalawa amathandiza kwambiri thupi la munthu. Mu zamkati za zipatso zake muli zambiri zamagazi zakuthupi (zamkuwa, cobalt, chitsulo), zomwe zimathandiza ndi kuchepa kwa magazi m'thupi.

Zipatso zili olemera mu organic acid, zothandiza bactericidal microelements ndi zosiyanasiyana mavitamini. Komanso, chitumbuwa zipatso zili ndi pectin zinthu zomwe zimayambitsa kuchotsa mankhwala owopsa kuchokera ku thupi.

Mukudziwa? Asanafike madokotala ambiri masiku ano, madokotala analamula odwala matenda a khunyu kuti adye zipatso za chitumbuwa, komanso m'nyengo yozizira - tengani decoction wa zouma zoumba masamba. Izi zinalepheretsa kuti matenda a khunyu ayambe kugwedezeka kapena kuchititsa maphunziro awo.

Cherry "Morozovka" - zakudya zamtengo wapatali. Mukadya, njala imawongolera, ludzu limazimitsidwa, ntchito ya m'matumbo imakhazikika.

Pa chithandizo cha kutentha, kukoma kwa makhalidwe a Morozovka chitumbuwa sikunatayika. Kuyambira Morozov yamatcheri kukonzekera zosiyanasiyana zothandiza compotes, jams, jams. Zipatso za mtengo uwu nthawi zambiri zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kukonzekera zakudya zosiyanasiyana, zakumwa zoledzeretsa (brandy, mowa).

Malamulo kubzala chitumbuwa mbande

Mukamatsatira malamulo onse okhazikika a Morozovka chitumbuwa mudzakondweretsa inu ndi mbewu zambiri zonunkhira ndi zamtengo wapatali. Komabe, malinga ndi ambiri a akatswiri wamaluwa ndi anthu wamba, Morozovskaya cherry ndi wosavuta kukula.

Nthawi yabwino

Odyetsa amalimbikitsa kuti azidzala m'nyengo yachisanu (mu March) kapena kugwa (oyambirira a September). Panthawiyi, zomera sizimawonekera ku chisanu ndi chilala, kuti zikhoza kukhala mizu. Yesetsani kupeza mtengo wa zaka ziwiri, chifukwa masamba a zomera awa atha kale. Komabe, sapling chaka chimodzi ndibwino.

Pali mtundu wa chitumbuwa umene uli ndi mawonekedwe a chitsamba - amamva chitumbuwa. Amakula bwino ndi wamaluwa ndipo amabala zipatso. Phunzirani za zovuta za kukula kwa chomera ichi chodabwitsa ndi chitetezo chake ku tizirombo ndi matenda.

Kusankha malo

Malo othamangira ayenera kukhalapo mbali ya dzuwa ya dzikolo. Ndibwino kuti pangakhale mphepo yaing'ono yomwe ingatheke, ndipo madzi apansi sakupezeka pafupi ndi nthaka.

Asanayambe ntchito yobzala, malo osankhika ayenera kukonzekera bwino mtengo wamtsogolo wam'tsogolo. Sankhani 3 mamita atatu m'mbali mwa mtengo umodzi. M'malo mwa chiwembu, mtengo wa mtengo ukhoza kukula ndikukula bwino.

Njira ndi ndondomeko

Nthaka pa malo otsetsereka ayenera kukhala ndi asidi-osalowerera ndale, mchenga kapena mchenga loam.

Kutsika:

  1. Pakatikati mwa chiwembu chodzala yamatcheri, kukumba dzenje 50 cm lakuya ndi 80 masentimita. Dziko lapansi lochotsedwa m'dzenje siliyenera kutayidwa: liphatikizeni mu chiwerengero chomwecho ndi humus, kenaka yikani phulusa, superphosphate ndi potaziyamu kloride.
  2. Ikani msomali wa masentimita 130 mukati mwa dzenje.
  3. Pangani chingwe chamtunda 15 masentimita kuchokera ku gawo lokonzedwa pansi pa dzenje.
  4. Ikani nyemba pa thumba. Khosi la mtengo liyenera kukhala masentimita angapo pamwamba pa nthaka.
  5. Phulani chingwe cha mbeu bwino, kenaka mudzaze dzenje.
  6. Lembani nthaka pang'ono, kenaka chemba dzenje pamtunda wa masentimita 30 kuchokera ku chomeracho ndikutsanulira madzi 30 mm.
  7. Pamene madzi akuyamwa bwino, dulani chigawo cha pafupi ndi mbiya ndi mulch (atsopano lapansi, chips, peat).
  8. Gwirani nyemba ku khola. Ikani mapulitala pamtunda wa mamita 2.5-3 kuchokera pamtengo.

Zimapereka chisamaliro cha nyengo yamatcheri

Pomwe kubzala kwa mtengo kumafuna chisamaliro chonse. Kusamalira chitumbuwa chambiri kumaphatikizapo kuthirira nthawi zonse, dothi limamasula kuzungulira mtengo, umuna, nthawi zonse kudulira, ndi chitetezo ku matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Kuthirira ndi kumasula

Mwamsanga mutabzala, kuthirani chomeracho osachepera 3 ndowa madzi otentha otstoyannoy. Popeza "Morozovka" imalekerera mosavuta chilala, pangani madzi okwanira pokhapokha ngati pakufunika.

Gwiritsani ntchito ulimi wothirira pambuyo pa maluwa, kuti mtengo ubale chipatso chabwino, ndipo zipatsozo zidzakhala zokoma. Madzi amodzi mtengo waukulu 4 pa mwezi, ndowa imodzi yamadzi m'mawa ndi madzulo.

Ndikofunikira! Onetsetsani kuti chinyezi sichitha pang'onopang'ono panthaka, koma chimalowa mpaka masentimita 45.

Pambuyo kuthirira, kumasula nthaka. Kusokoneza uku kumathandiza kupereka mpweya ku mizu ya mtengo. Choyamba, yaniyeni bwalo la ulimi wothirira kumsongole umene umatulutsa zakudya kuchokera pansi. Kenaka dulani dera lozungulira bwalo la bwalo 10-15 masentimita. Mimbayi iyenera kukhala yoyendetsedwa ndi korona. Ndi kumadera awa pafupi ndi madzi omwe amaperekedwa madzi.

Feteleza

Mtengo wa m'tsogolo ukololedwa kumatsatira kachipangizo kogwiritsira ntchito kodyetsa mtengo wa chitumbuwa.

Fukuta nthaka pa chinyezi ndi wosanjikiza wa mulch wopangidwa ndi utuchi ndi humus. Kutalika kofunikako kwa wosanjikiza ndi 2 cm.

Zaka 7 zoyambirira zimabzala mtengo chaka chilichonse. M'tsogolomu, onani kusiyana pakati pa kuvala. Zakudya zamchere zopangira zaka 2 mutabzala, ndi feteleza organic - zaka 4 zilizonse.

Kulimbana ndi matenda ndi tizirombo

Maofesiwa amawotcha matenda oopsa. Komabe pali matenda ambirikumene mtengo uyenera kutetezedwa:

Coccomycosis (Causative wothandizira matendawa ndi bowa la Sossomuse s hiemalis). Ndi matenda aakulu, tsambali liri ndi maonekedwe ofiira. Posakhalitsa pepalalo limangoyima ndipo limagwa. Mtengo umafooketsa, umatha kutaya bwinobwino ndikufa nthawi isanakwane. Pochizira coccomycosis yamatcheri, perekani katatu mankhwala a nkhuni ndi fungicides. Tengani mankhwala oyamba musanayambe mphukira; yachiwiri - kumapeto kwa maluwa; kachitatu, spray mbewu 2-3 masabata mutatha.

Anthracnose. Pa khungu la zipatso zazing'ono zimawoneka zazing'onoting'ono-bulauni kupanga. Mawanga amakula mofulumira, akumenyana ndi chitumbuwa chonse. Posakhalitsa thupi limasanduka bulauni. Kudya zipatso zomwe zakhudzidwa n'zosatheka. Komanso, timadontho tating'onoting'ono timayang'ana pa masamba. Masamba samauma, koma pang'onopang'ono akugwa. Kupewa antithracnose kumapopera mankhwala ndi njira yothetsera 0.2% ya zinc kapena manganese sulphate. Ngati mtengo uli kale wodwala, nthawi yomweyo taya zipatso zomwe zakhudzidwa. Kenaka chitani nkhuni ndi fungicide ("Poliram", "Topsin-M", "Topaz", "Horus"). Kupopera mbewu kumapanga asanayambe kapena pambuyo maluwa. Ndondomekoyi iyenera kubwerezedwa pambuyo pa masiku 12-14.

Maonekedwe a perforated. Mabala a Brown ndi mdima wamdima akugwedezeka pa masamba. Pofuna kupewa izo, nthawi zonse musonkhanitse ndi kuwononga masamba akufa, kenako mosamala musani nthaka. Musanafike kapena mutatha maluwa, perekani mtengo ndi "Hom", mobwerezabwereza patatha masiku 15-20.

Monilioz. Matenda a chibwibwi ndi kuvunda mwadzidzidzi masamba aang'ono. Masamba amawotchedwa. Zipatso zili ndi kukula kwa spore. Kupewa kasupe kupopera nkhuni ndi nthaka pansi pake ndi 3% Bordeaux madzi amathandiza kupeƔa kuipitsidwa. Polimbana ndi moniliosis musanayambe impso, chithandizo cha mankhwala a ferrous sulphate (3%) chikuchitidwa. Musanafike nthawi yamaluwa "Horus", "Fundazol", "Azofos", "Zircon". Kuwonjezera pa matenda, mitengo ya chitumbuwa nthawi zina imayesedwa. tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Taganizirani zofala kwambiri:

  1. Aphid. Mdani wamng'ono uyu wa mtengo wa chitumbuwa amavutitsa mphukira zake ndi masamba. Ngati kumayambiriro kwa kasupe mumayika mikanda, ndiye kuti nsabwe za m'masamba zimatha kupezeka. Chochitika ichi sichilola nyerere kukoka mphutsi za aphid pa chitumbuwa. Mukhozanso kuopseza nyerere ndi kulowetsedwa madzi kwa adyo.
  2. Ntchentche - Chinyama chachiwiri ndi choopsa kwambiri cha chitumbuwa. Akuluakulu oponderezedwa pansi pa chomeracho, ataikidwa m'manda. Mphutsi ya ntchentche imayambitsa kuwonongeka kwakukulu - imalowa mkati mwa ovary ndipo pakapita nthawi yakuphuka kwa mwanayo kumakhala mphutsi yoyera mpaka 1 cm kutalika. Pali njira zingapo zothana ndi ntchentche yothamanga. Onetsetsani kuchotsa zipatso zonse zakugwa pansi pa mtengo ndi kukumba mtengo wa mtengo. Kutchera dothi kudzaundana, ndipo ntchentche yozizira idzafa mwachibadwa.

Ndikofunikira! Yesetsani kulimbana ndi matenda ndi tizirombo pa mitengo ya chitumbuwa mu njira zotetezeka, popanda kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala.

Kupanga korona ndi korona

Cherry "Frost" imafunikanso kudulira nthawi zonse ndi mapangidwe a korona. Njira yokongoletsera ikulimbikitsidwa kumayambiriro kwa masika ndi autumn. Pofuna kudulira mitengo, mudzafuna saw, pruner, mpeni, ndi var var. Garden var - mankhwala omwe amatha kuteteza mtengowo kuchokera ku tizirombo ndi matenda. Kukonzekera nkhondo ya m'munda yomwe mufunika:

  • mafuta a nyama (gawo limodzi);
  • mtengo phulusa (gawo limodzi);
  • turpentine (magawo asanu);
  • kumwa mowa (magawo awiri);
  • rosin (magawo 10).
Sungani katundu mu zitini zotsekedwa.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati mumanyalanyaza kudulira, chiwerengero cha mphukira chidzawonjezeka kwambiri, chomwe chidzakhudza kwambiri zokolola za mtengo wa chitumbuwa.

Chiwongolero:

  1. Fufuzani masamba onse opanda kanthu a korona.
  2. Siyani 5 mphukira zamphamvu pamtengo. Nthambi zoterezi ziyenera kukhala m'mizere ingapo (3 mphukira pa mzere woyamba, nthambi ziwiri pa yachiwiri ndi 1 pachitatu).
  3. Pambuyo popanga mapulogalamu a longlines, kudulidwa komweku kumaphatikizapo kuchotsa mphukira zomwe zimakula kwambiri.

Chitetezo ku chimfine ndi makoswe

Ngakhale kuti "Freezer" imaikidwa ngati mitundu yosautsa chisanu, ndiyenela kuisamalira kukonzekera mtengo m'nyengo yozizira:

  • kusonkhanitsa masamba onse ogwa pafupi ndi mtengo wa mtengo;
  • perekopyvayte ndi mulch padziko lapansi ndi peat, udzu kapena utuchi pambuyo pa ulimi wothirira;
  • kuyeretsa pamwamba pa thunthu ndi chigoba cha mphukira za makungwa akufa, ndiye whiten;
  • m'madera akummwera a shtamb, ndi zofunika kukulunga mapepala kapena kusungira.

Njirazi zidzateteza mtengo ku zotsatira za nyengo yovuta.

Kuyambira makoswe, kuwononga makungwa ndi kuchepetsa mphukira za mtengo, kupulumutsa kutambasula kwa thunthu ndi ukonde wapadera kapena zamtundu wina uliwonse.

Monga momwe tikuonera, Morozovka chitumbuwa ndi mchere wosiyanasiyana wodabwitsa kwambiri. Kuti mtengo wanu wa chitumbuwa ukhale wathanzi ndikusangalatsani mbewu zabwino, musaiwale kutsatira ndondomeko yonseyi.