Mankhwala asanu ndi awiri a kukula kwa pakhomo

Malingana ndi tanthauzo la sayansi la epiphytes ndi zomera zomwe zimagwiritsira ntchito moyo wawo wonse kapena gawo lake popanda nthaka. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, mitundu imeneyi siimayambitsa moyo wathanzi, koma mtundu wa zamoyozi umalandira zakudya zonse kuchokera ku chilengedwe.

Kwa oimira ambiri a epiphytes, malo okhalapo ndi malo am'madera otentha m'minda yambiri yamapiri. Chinthu chabwino kwambiri cha mtunduwu wa zomera zimapanga mthunzi wa nkhalango zam'madzi. Choncho, sizodabwitsa kuti mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya udzu imakhala pakati pawo.

Ambiri mwa mamembala a gululi ndi amtundu wautchire, koma munthu wamba pampiphyte mumsewu amadziwika ngati zipinda zapanyumba, zomwe ndi mitundu yochepa yokha yomwe imakonda kwambiri.

Pansipa tifunika kuphunzira zomwe epiphytes zilidi, zochitika zawo komanso mavuto omwe amawasunga kunyumba.

Orchid

Orchid ndi imodzi mwa epiphytes yotchuka kwambiri, yomwe kwa zaka zambiri yakula bwino pawindo lazenera la kunyumba. Maluwa a chomera samadabwa kokha ndi mitundu yambiri yowala, koma ndi malo ovuta kwambiri. Home orchid ndi chomera chosavuta komanso chokoma bwino chomwe chimakhala ndi phesi lamchere, yomwe imakhala pang'onopang'ono.

Mitundu yambiri ya maluwa am'maluwa imakhala yochititsa chidwi - miltonia, Venerin slide, ludisia, phalaenopsis, cymbidium, dendrobium, maluwa achikoma akuda, bletilla, Wanda, tselogin.
Thupi lalikulu la orchids limanenedwa kukhala mizu yopuma, kuwonongeka komwe kungapangitse kufa kwa mbewu. Mothandizidwa ndi mizu, duwa limatha kuyamwa chinyezi kuchokera ku chilengedwe, chimene orchid imasonkhanitsa masamba ake ndikugwiritsa ntchito ngati pakufunika.

Mukudziwa? Mitundu ina ya maluwa otchedwa orchid, timadzi ta tizilombo timakhala ngati mankhwala. Zotsatira zake, tizilombo sizingatheke maluwa kwa mphindi 40. Mwa njira yovuta kwambiri, duwa "adaphunzira" kuti lizitha kuyendetsa bwino kwambiri mu zovuta zachilengedwe.
Ananena kuti kukula kwa orchids n'kovuta kwambiri. Ndipotu, kusamalira maluwa ndi kophweka, koma pali Zina mwazinthu:

  1. Pambuyo pa malo ogulitsira maluwa, orchid iyenera kusungidwa kwa milungu ingapo kumalo osiyana ndikukhala ndiokha ndikukhazikitsidwa pafupi ndi zomera zina.
  2. Ndikofunika kusankha nyali zoyenera, ma orchids osalola kuti dzuwa liwonekere, kumene angamwalire.
  3. Malinga ndi mtunduwo, ndikofunikira kusankha madzi okwanira, koma lamulo lofunika kwambiri ndi lakuti ma orchids sakonda chinyezi.
Zinthu zosavuta, koma zofunika kwambiri zimathandiza kuti zitha kuwonjezera nthawi ya maluwa a chipinda cha orchid nthawi zina, komanso kuonetsetsa kuti zomera zimakhala ndi moyo wautali.

Mukudziwa? Malinga ndi akatswiri ambiri a maganizo, kulingalira tsiku ndi tsiku kwa maluwa a orchid kumateteza kuteteza kusokonezeka kwa nyengo.

Guzmania

Guzmania ndi imodzi mwa epiphytes yodabwitsa kwambiri, yomwe anthu ambiri amagwirizana ndi chizindikiro cha "moyo wamwamuna wautali." Chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake osadziwika bwino a maluwa, ngakhale okonda chabe, kapena osonkhanitsa enieni a mitundu yosawerengeka amadana.

Kumtchire, Guzmania imakonda kukhala pa nthaka yachonde mumthunzi wa mitengo ya kanjedza kapena mitengo ina, kukwera pa nthambi zawo.

Mukudziwa? Guzmania anatchulidwa ndi munthu wotchuka wa ku Spain ndi woyambitsa zachilengedwe Anastasio Guzmán, amene anaphunzira zinyama ndi zinyama zakutchire moyo wake wonse.
Maluwawo ndi ofunika kwambiri kuphulika ndi mtundu wowalazomwe zimasiyanasiyana ndi mabala ofiira ndi alanje kupita ku burgundy. Chidwi chodabwitsa cha chomera ndicho chikhalidwe chake. Masamba a m'munsi a duwa ndi aakulu kwambiri kuposa apamwamba, kotero jugu yaying'ono ikuwoneka pano, momwe chinyontho chofunikira chimasonkhanitsidwa.

Mu chisamaliro cha guzmaniya modzichepetsa, chomeracho chimamvera malamulo onse a kusamalira mitundu yambiri ya maluwa (orchid, etc.). Koma adzamva bwino kwambiri pawindo lakumadzulo kapena kummawa.

Ndikofunikira! Pambuyo pa maluwa, guzmania iyenera kudulidwa, kenako mphukira zazing'ono zimawoneka kuti ziyenera kuikidwa. Popanda opaleshoniyi, sikungatheke kuwonjezera mbewu yomwe idagulidwa.
Guzmania safuna kudya wapadera, kwanira kudzala duwa mu gawo lokonzekera. Chifukwa cha kupunduka kwa mizu Kubwezeretsa sikuvomerezekaNgati, komabe, mwadzidzidzi tawuka, ndiye epiphyte iyi yabzalidwa mu mphika wawung'ono.

Guzmania ndi yabwino kwa iwo florists amene amayamikira pachiyambi, kuwala ndi mlengalenga wokongola.

Ndikofunikira! Guzmania si chomera chakupha, koma muyenera kuchiyang'anira mosamala. Madzi a maluwa wagwiritsanso ntchito mobwerezabwereza maonekedwe awo pa khungu ndi mucous membranes.

Schlumberger

Schlumbergera ndi wozoloŵera kwa onse okonda malo okongola omwe ali m'munda wa botanical kuyambira ali mwana. Epiphyte iyi ndi chitsanzo chabwino cha chomera chomwe chapeza chikondi chonse kwa mitundu yambiri kuyambira nthawi imeneyo pamene kunali kotheka kusaganizira zapadera ndi yodabwitsa.

Schlyumbergera adatchuka chifukwa cha makhalidwe ake. Maluwa okongola a mitundu imeneyi akhala ofunika kwa anthu okhala nawo, chifukwa maluŵa ofunika kwambiri amakondweretsa amayi athu ndi agogo aakazi m'nyengo yozizira. Schlyumbergera imayamba kuphulika kwambiri mu December, chotero dzina lotchuka lakuti "Decembrist" linali pafupi kwambiri ndi mitundu iyi. Kumtchire, Schlumberger amapezeka m'nkhalango zamvula za ku Brazil ndi South America. Mu mthunzi wa chipewa cha m'nkhalango, mtundu uwu umamva bwino, ukukhazikika mu mizu ndi nthambi za mitengo.

Epiphyteyi imadziwika mosavuta ngakhale ndi munthu wosadziwa bwino botanist chifukwa cha nthambi yowoneka bwino komanso yambiri, yomwe ili ndi mphukira yowoneka bwino, yomwe imakongoletsedwa ndi duwa lowala kwambiri lomwe lili ndi zizindikiro zowonongeka pa nthawi ya maluwa.

Pali mitundu yambiri ya Schlumbergers, yomwe imadziwika kwambiri ndi mtundu wa maluwa. Zina mwa izo ndi zoyera, pichesi, zachikasu, zofiira zam'lanje komanso oimira multicolor.

Mofanana ndi mamembala ambiri a gulu lake, Schlumbergera amakonda malo okongola, opanda dzuwa. Bzalani kwambiri kulekerera kutenthazomwe zimamuthandiza kuti amve ndikumasuka momasuka kutentha kuchokera ku +2 mpaka madigiri 388, komabe, momwe zilili mkati mwake + 18 ... +30 ° C.

Kutentha kwakukulu ndi chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri kuti Schlumbergers azilima bwino, choncho duwa liyenera kukhala ndi madzi okwanira nthawi zambiri, makamaka nthawi ya maluwa.

Ndikofunikira! M'nthaŵi yachisanu ndi yozizira, m'pofunika kulimbikitsa chisamaliro, chifukwa kuuma kwa mlengalenga kungayambitse kutaya masamba.
Mu chisamaliro cha Schlumberberger m'malo mowonetsa undemanding. Pa nyengo yokula (kuyambira March mpaka September), mitundu iyi imasowa feteleza ndi kuthirira. Mu nthawi yokonzekera maluwa (kuyambira September mpaka November), m'pofunika kuchepetsa kuthirira maluwa, pokhala ndi ndalama zofunikira. Pokonzekera maluwa, khonde losawonetsedwa lidzakhala malo abwino a Schlumbergera.
Ndikofunikira! Ndikofunika kwambiri kuti chomeracho chikhale ndi nthawi yochepa kutentha kwa mpweya;
Kumayambiriro kwa November, Schtumberger imabweretsedwa m'chipinda chozizira, kenako mtunduwu umamasula kwambiri mpaka January. Panthawiyi ndikofunika kuthira madzi epiphyte ndi potaziyamu ndi phosphorous yochokera feteleza. Pambuyo pa mapeto a maluwa mpaka nthawi yatsopano ya kukula kwakukulu (kuyambira mu January mpaka March), Schrumberberger ili okonzekera moyo watsopano: mphukira yakale imadulidwa, chitsamba chimapangidwa, kuikidwa ngati kuli kofunikira.

Ehmeya

Mtundu uwu umaphatikizapo nthumwi omwe chilengedwe chawo chili ku Central ndi South America. Echmea adatchulidwa dzina lake chifukwa cha maonekedwe a bracts, omwe amafanana ndi nsonga za mapiri, omwe kuchokera ku Chigiriki amveka ngati "ehme."

M'chilengedwe chake, Achmea amapezeka mvula yam'mvula yamkuntho, imatha kukhala mumtengo wapatali wa mitengo. Chinthu chosiyana cha ehmey ndi momwe amachitira. Masamba a chomeracho amachoka pambali pa kukula ndikupanga mtundu wa phokoso, pomwe mvula imagwa pansi pamasamba ndikukhalabe kwa nthawi yayitali.

Mizu ya nthumwi imeneyi imayambitsa bwino. Mizu imangokhala ngati chipangizo chogwiritsira ntchito pamwamba, chifukwa pafupifupi pafupifupi sangakwanitse kuyamwa zakudya kuchokera ku gawo lapansi.

Monga pet ehmeya wosadzichepetsa, koma ndikofunikira kusunga malamulo ena opindulitsa. Chomera ndi thermophilicChoncho, kutentha kwa mpweya kumakhala pafupi ndi 20 ... + madigiri 2323 (makamaka nthawi ya maluwa).

Kuwala kwa dzuwa kumapweteka maluwa, makamaka makamaka pachilimwe. Ehmeya amakonda chinyontho, makamaka m'chilimwe kutentha, ndipo sichimalola kulephera kwake, koma m'nyengo yozizira ndikofunika kuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa madzi. Feteleza ndi chinthu chofunika kwambiri. Ehmei yonse imakonda feteleza potashi, zomwe zimalimbikitsidwa kuti zikhale zokha m'chilimwe. Epiphyte iyi safuna kuika nthawi zonse, koma pamene mphika uli wodzaza ndi mizu ya mbewu, imakonzedwabe, kasupe kokha.

Platicerium

Platicerium ndi mitundu yochokera ku fern, yomwe malo ake okhala ndi malo otentha a m'mphepete mwa nyanja, Australia, Africa, South Asia ndi India. Mitundu imeneyi imadziwika kuchokera kutali, pakati pa platicerium ikufanana ndi kabichi yoyera, yomwe masamba ake amakhala ofunda, omwe amafanana ndi nyanga zakuda, achoka. Ndicho chifukwa chake mitundu iyi ya epiphytic imatchedwa "antler" kapena "flathead".

Mizu ya oimira onse ndi yamphamvu komanso yowonjezereka. Izi zimathandiza zomera kuti zigwirizane kwambiri ndi gawo lapansi. Platicerium ndiwopambana kwambiri.

Chomera chokhwima chingathe kufika mamita 1, koma mu zochitika zokha mlimi adzatha kulikula osati masentimita 40 mu msinkhu. Kunyumba, kukula kwa platicerium ndi kovuta kwambiri, mtundu wa fern kumafuna chidwi chowonjezeka, makamaka mukamwetsa ndikusankha malo a mphika.

Izi zimapanga kuwala. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuti apeze kuwala kwa dzuwa, choncho maluwawo ayenera kuyima pawindo la sunniest. Kutentha kwa mpweya ndi kofunika kwambiri, kuyenera kukhala mkati mwa madigiri 23, koma ngakhale izi, ma platiceri amatha kupirira nthawi yaitali ndi 0, ndipo + Madigiri 40.

Ndikofunikira! Masamba a platicerium amaletsedwa kupukuta, popeza ali ndi tsitsi lolemetsa. Dusting iyenera kuchitidwa mofatsa komanso ndi burashi yofewa.
Mamembala onse a mtundu uwu amakonda kwambiri chinyezi ndi kuthirira, kutentha kwake ndi 50%. Choncho, platicerium iyenera kuthiriridwa bwino ndi kuyimitsa mpweya m'chipinda, koma chinthu chofunikira sikuti chiziwonongeke, chifukwa kuchuluka kwa chinyezi kudzakhudza nthawi yomweyo.

Vriesia

Ichi ndi chimodzi mwa zosazolowereka, koma pa nthawi yomweyi, maluwa owala bwino. Mosiyana ndi zomera zina zakutchire, mitundu imeneyi imawoneka yodabwitsa, makamaka imawonekera panthawi yamaluwa. Mamembala onse a mtundu uwu ndi a zomera za herbaceous, zachilengedwe zomwe zili m'madera otentha a ku Central ndi South America. Ambiri a mafani a maluwa amkati, woimirira wa gulu la epiphytic adakondana ndi mabala obiriwira a mabulosi ofiira kapena a lalanje. Monga malo okhalamo, ambiri amagwiritsa ntchito thunthu kapena mtengo.

Kukula kwa maluwa a nyumbayi ndi ochepa, mu malo am'chipinda kudzatha kukula variegia osaposa 35 masentimita mu msinkhu. Vriesias imayamba kuphuka chilimwe, koma izi ndizochindunji zimadalira nthawi yobzalaamene amagogoda moyo wa chomera chamoyo kwa miyezi ingapo.

Mukudziwa? Kulimbikitsidwa kwa maluwa vriezii ikuchitika ndi ethylene mpweya. Kuti muchite izi, yikani chipatso chamtundu (makamaka banki kapena maapulo angapo) pafupi ndi chomera ndikuchiphimba ndi thumba la pulasitiki.
Mu chisamaliro cha chomera ichi ndi wodzichepetsa, koma muyenera kudziwa zinsinsi pang'ono zomwe zingathandize kuti pakhale kuswana kwa vriezii kunyumba. Epiphyte iyi ikufuna koposa zonse kuti ziwotche. Kutentha m'munsimu + madigiri 17 kumakhudza kwambiri duwa, komanso kusowa kwa chinyezi. Vriesia amakonda madzi, kotero zidzakhala zofunikira pano kuti asamangomwa madzi okhawo pansi, koma ndi mvula. Chofunikira choyamba ndi kukhetsa maluwa pamtunda pawokha makamaka makamaka rosette. Ndikofunika kutsanulira madzi muchitetezo popanda kudandaula, koma panthawi yomweyi mutsegule pambuyo pa maola angapo.

Palibe chofunika kwa gawo ndi feteleza mu vriezii, chikhalidwe chachikulu ndi nthaka yolemera ndi kuvala pamwamba. Kuika maluwa kumachitika popanda zofuna zapadera.

Ripsalis

Rhipsalis ndi zokondweretsa ku munda wa zomera zam'madzi osati kokha woyimira gulu la epiphytes, komanso kuti ndi yabwino kwambiri yosatha. Oimira a mtunduwu akhoza kutchulidwa mwachinsinsi kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, m'malo mwa chipululu chouma, anagonjetsa nkhalango yaikulu ya ku North ndi South America. Chomeracho chili ndi mawonekedwe olimba, tsinde lamakhala ndi miyala yaying'ono yomwe imapanga chipewa chozungulira. M'chilengedwe chilengedwe chimayambitsa moyo wadziko lapansi, kudzimangiriza ku thunthu la mitengo. Izi zimathandiza kuteteza chomera kunthaka kwambiri.

Chomerachi chimamasula kwambiri, tsinde lakhala likuphimbidwa ndi maluwa ang'onoang'ono kuchokera ku zoyera mpaka kufiira mdima wofiira.

Ripsalis safuna chisamaliro chapadera cha pakhomo, choncho mitundu iyi yakhala yotchuka pakati pa mafani a zinthu zachilendo zachilendo. Maluwawo abzalidwa mumphika, omwe amapachikidwa pamtunda. Kutentha kwabwino kwa kulima bwino epiphyte iyi kudzakhala madigiri +15.

Ndikofunika kumwa madzi mopitirira malire, komabe nthawi zambiri zimakhala zofunikira kuti zitsitsimutse mizu ya "ripsalis" makamaka m'chilimwe. Dyetsani chipatso cha epacthytic feteleza ndi fetereza feteleza komanso panthawi ya kukula kwachangu. Kupalasa kwa Ripsalis kumachitika ngati tsinde likukula, pokhapokha panthawi yonse. Ngakhale zovuta zonse zomwe zakhala zikusamalidwa ndi kulima epiphytes, gululi la zomera linagonjetsa bwino banja lililonse lachiwiri. Amakopa munthu wophweka mumsewu, makamaka chifukwa cha mawonekedwe awo odabwitsa, maluwa owala ndi zina. Si kovuta kukula epiphytes m'moyo wa tsiku ndi tsiku, komabe, kutsata uphungu wathu, njira iyi idzasangalatsa kwenikweni, monga mbewu yabwino idzayamika wokhalamo chifukwa cha maluwa ake owala.