Malangizo apamwamba pa chisamaliro ndi kubzala kwa blackcurrant mitundu "Wolimba"

Mitundu yakuda yakuda "Yadrenaya" imadziwika kwa zaka zoposa 30. Zowonongeka ndi alinali a Altai, izi zowonongeka zinadzitchula motero chifukwa cha kukana kwake kozizira kwambiri, zokolola zabwino ndi kukula kwakukulu kwa zipatso (inali imodzi mwa "zimphona" zoyambirira mu dziko la currant).

Currant "Yadrenaya" akupitiriza kutchuka pakati pa wamaluwa. Ndichisamaliro choyenera, zosiyanazi sizochepa, ndipo m'njira zambiri zimaposa zonse mwa magawo onse.

Makhalidwe a mtundu wa currants "Wolimba"

Currant "Yadrenaya" amatanthauza skoroplodny mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya nthawi ya kucha - zipatso zimapsa ndi July 20-25.

Kufotokozera za zosiyanasiyana:

  • chitsamba - kuchuluka kwa msinkhu, kukula kwapakati, ndi mphukira zosawerengeka, kutalika kwa kutalika - 1.5 mamita;
  • akuwombera wandiweyani ndi wamba (kukula - molunjika ndi wobiriwira, lignified - pubescent pang'ono ndi bulauni);
  • masamba - Zisanu zisanu (zowonjezera kwambiri), zobiriwira ndi zonyezimira, zazikulu, zofiira ndi makwinya. Mitsempha pamasamba ndi pinki, kupsinjika maganizo (makamaka pakati, yomwe ndi chifukwa chake tsamba limakhala concave mkati);
  • maluwa - Kukula kwakukulu, sepals mitundu ya kirimu. Zosonkhanitsa muzitsulo zosakanikirana (kuyambira 6 mpaka 12 maluwa), zimakula pambali yolumikiza mphukira;
  • zipatso - kukula kwakukulu (kuchokera 3.2 mpaka 7.8 g), mdima wakuda, kuzungulira ndi khungu lakuda. Nyama ndi minofu ndi mbewu. Zipatso zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri ndi tsinde. Zakudya - zotchedwa currant ndi zowawa (3.8 mfundo zapakati pa 5 kuti ziwononge kukoma). Zakudya za ascorbic acid ndi 96 mg pa 100 g. Zowonjezera zokolola za currants zosiyanasiyana "Yadrenaya" ndi 2-6 makilogalamu pa chitsamba.
Gulu la currant "Yadrenaya" liri ndi hardiness yolimba yozizira (imayima kutentha pansi pa madigiri 30 Celsius). Kulekerera kwa chilala ndizopakatikati. Amakonda nthaka yachonde ndi kuvala pamwamba. Mwachidziwikire zimafalitsidwa ndi cuttings ndi kuika.

Mukudziwa? Mitundu yatsopano yakhazikitsidwa mu 1984 ndi Alta breeder L. Zabelina (Research Institute of Horticulture ya Siberia dzina lake MA Lisavenko). Poyamba, mitundu yatsopano inalengedwa m'madera akumadzulo a Siberia ndi Volga-Vyatka mwa kudutsa mitundu yambiri ("Favorite of Altai", "Dovinka" ndi "Bredthorp"). Mitundu ya "Yadrenaya" ikuwonetsanso zotsatira zabwino ku geoclimatic zikhalidwe za Ukraine ndi Belarus. Pogwiritsa ntchito mitundu yosiyanasiyanayi, obereketsa amapanga mitundu yatsopano yamitundu isanu ndi iwiri ("Spas", "Istok", "Debryansk", "Lucia", "Extreme", "Sadko", "Chernysh").

Mitundu ya mankhwala ndi mitundu

Mitundu yambiri yakuda currant "Yadrenaya" inachokera poyamba monga "abwino" zosiyanasiyana currants. Zambiri zinachitika, monga momwe zinakonzedwera, koma m'zaka zaposachedwa, zovuta zazikulu zakhala zikuwonjezeretsanso kuzipindulitsa zosatsutsika.

Ubwino ndi awa:

  • mitundu yosiyana - yoyamba yokolola ingapezeke kale m'chilimwe chotsatira mutabzala sapling;
  • zazikulu-zobiriwira (mabungwe anali osasuntha - zipatso zopitirira 9.2 g);
  • kukana kutentha kutentha;
  • zipatso zimakula mumphesa, monga mphesa. Zomwe amasonkhanitsa ndi zophweka, zipatso zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri ndi tsinde ndipo sizowonongeka;
  • Currant "Yadrenaya" ili ndi khungu lobiriwira pa zipatso, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mbeu ziziyenda bwino;
  • Kupereka kuli pamwamba payeso.

Ngati tilankhula za chiopsezo, ndi bwino kutchula mitundu ya "kholo" L. Zabelin. AmadziƔa kuti muzochitika zokha za ku Siberia mikhalidwe yonse yapamwamba ya mitundu "Zolimba" imasonyezeratu (zizindikiro izi, monga lamulo, phokoso m'zinenero zamalonda zamalonda). Pamene mukukula mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya currants m'madera ena, chisamaliro chapadera ndi chisamaliro chofunikira, komanso kudya ndi kudulira nthawi zonse.

Zomwe zimakhala zotheka zimatheka pokhapokha pazikhalidwe zabwino (ngakhale Chiyukireniya wakuda dziko lapansi sizitsimikiziranso kuti currant "Yadrenaya" idzatenga mliri wolemera wa zipatso, ndipo kukula kwenikweni kwa chipatso kumayambira 3.2 g).

Mwa zina za "chiwembu chosakonzedwa" chingatchedwe:

  • kukoma kokoma (osati kokoma kokwanira, kotero njira yabwino kwambiri yogwiritsira ntchito ndi kupera currants wa zosiyanasiyana ndi shuga);
  • kuphulika kosagwirizana kwa zipatso mu burashi;
  • Kuphulika kumatulutsa kuchokera ku zipatso za zipatso;
  • osati mavitamini apamwamba;
  • Matenda osakwanira ndi tizirombo - amayamba ndi anthracnose, powdery mildew ndi impso mite (pakati pa msewu);
  • Kukalamba mofulumira komanso kutaya zipatso (kwa chaka chachinayi kapena chachisanu).

Oyenera kubzala currant mitundu "Yadrenaya"

Kusamalira currant "Yadrenaya" kumayambiriro kumapereka chisankho choyenera cha mbande, malo odzala ndi oyenera kubzala mbande pansi.

Tikukulangizani kuti muwerenge za zovuta za kukula ndi kugwiritsa ntchito currants zofiira.

Momwe mungasankhire mbande kubzala

Gulani mbande za currant "Yadrenaya" ziyenera kugulidwa kuchokera kwa opanga omwe mumakhulupirira (kuti musataye ndalama, nthawi ndi khama).

Posankha mmera ayenera kulabadira:

  • nyemba ziyenera kukhala zapakati pa zaka ziwiri (makamaka ziwiri kapena zitatu zazing'ono zopanda masamba popanda masamba.) Ngati pali masamba, ayenera kudulidwa kuti achepetse kutuluka kwa madzi);
  • kukhalapo kwa mizu ya fibrous, kopanda kuwonongeka, kuvunda kapena mizu youma;
  • "Mizu ya mizu" iyenera kukhala ndi masamba angapo, kuphatikizapo. ndi pa mizu yowopsya.

Njira ina yodalirika ndiyo kudzikonzekera kwa mbande (izi zidzatenga chaka). Currant "Wamphamvu" imakula bwino kuchokera ku cuttings lignified: mu September, mphukira wamphamvu, wazaka ziwiri, kapena wazaka zitatu (wolemera kuposa pensulo) wa 20 masentimita amadulidwa (m'munsimu ayenera kukhala pansi pa masamba). Musanadzalemo cuttings usiku, iwo akuviika mu manyowa kulowetsedwa (gawo limodzi la manyowa mpaka magawo sikisi madzi). Ndi bwino kubzala pakati pa September (kutentha kwa kasupe ka cuttings kumapereka mbande za khalidwe lochepa) mu nthaka yosasuntha pamtunda wa madigiri 45, 1-2 masamba ayenera kukhala pamwamba.

M'chaka, cuttings ayenera kudyetsedwa ndi yankho la manyowa ndi urea (supuni pa chidebe). Pali zovala zitatu (pakati pa mwezi wa April, oyambirira ndi pakati pa May). Ngati chilimwe chimakhala chozizira, mukhoza kudyetsa pakati pa June. Manyowa ndi phulusa lapansi pansi pazitsulo zamapope (chidebe cha 3 sq. M). Ngati nsabwe za m'masamba zikumera, perekani masamba pokonza nsabwe za m'masamba (mpaka ma teaspoons awiri pa 10 l).

Ndikofunikira! Pamene mukukula mbande, nkofunika kuti muzitsuka - muzichotsa nsonga ya mphindi 7-10 masentimita. Izi zidzachititsa kukula kwa mphukira yotsatira.

Ndikofunika kuthirira madzi odulidwa nthawi zonse kuti dziko lisakhazikike (mpaka pakati pa mwezi wa August). N'zotheka kuchotsa zitsamba pambuyo pa September 15 (poyamba ndi koyenera kuti musamadziwe bwino kuti musachotse mizu). Mbande ziyenera kucha, pindulani mtundu wa brownish, chotsani masamba owuma.

Ndi liti pamene kulima currant mbande

Mitundu ya currants "Yadrenaya" itabzala mu kugwa ndi masika. Monga momwe chiwonetsero chimasonyezera, ndi bwino kudzala currants yakuda pakatikati pa mwezi wa September (akatswiri ambiri wamaluwa amalimbikitsa izo basi). Kuyala kwa mbande mu September kumachitika zambiri komanso popanda nkhawa kwa mbeu - m'dzinja, zipatso zopanda zipatso zimapita kumalo osungira, zimayendera chisanu, ndipo zimayambira kasupe kukula m'chaka ndi kuyamba kuyamwa.

Kutseka kwa mbande za mbande ndi zotupa zimadzasokoneza zamoyo zomwe zimayambira mu mbeu - mmerawo udzataya mphamvu yakubwezeretsanso, udzayamba kumanga tsamba lobiriwira kuti liwononge mizu.

Kusankha ndi kukonzekera malo osungira

Posankha malo kubzala currant "Yadrenoy", kumbukirani kuti zomera amakonda dzuwa ndi kutentha, sichilola kulemba. Penumbra yowala pamatentha a masana ndi olandiridwa. Mizu ya currant imalekerera madera otsika komanso kumapezeka kwa madzi pansi (pafupi ndi mamita 1).

Zikatero, m'pofunika kuwonjezera dothi (pafupifupi mamita 0.5) kapena kupereka dzenje lokhala ndi madzi (5-7 cm). Chiwembucho chiyenera kukhala chachikulu. Pofuna kutsimikizira zokolola zabwino, mtunda wa pakati pa tchire "Yadrenoy" uyenera kukhala mamita 1.8 m.

Ndikofunikira! Kukoma, kukula kwa zipatso ndi zokolola zimakhudzidwa mwachindunji ndi chinthu monga kusowa kwa kuwala ndi kutentha.

Black currant idzakondweretsa zokolola zabwino, pokhapokha zitasamaliridwa ndi nthaka. Dothi lokondedwa kwambiri ndi kuwala pang'ono kwa asidi, kotayirira ndi yachonde. Ngati mulibe chakudya chokwanira cha nthaka, ndibwino kukonzekera dzenje lapadera (0.5 mamita 0.5 m). Denje limapangidwa milungu iwiri musanadzalemo kuchokera ku chernozem ndi 20 cm ya chapamwamba wosanjikiza - kuchokera kwachonde osakaniza (mpaka 15 malita a ovunda manyowa, 100 g of phosphates, 35 g wa nitrate kapena, mwapadera, mchere feteleza "Autumn", "AVA", "Nitrophoska") .

Mukudziwa? Currant "Wamphamvu" imakula bwino pambuyo pa masamba ndi kukongoletsa maluwa, buckwheat, rye, chimanga, ndi kugwirira. Otsogolera oyipa awa ndi gooseberries ndi zina zilizonse za currants.

Njira Yoyesera Kupangira Maluwa

Musanadzalemo, m'pofunika kukonzekera sapling: 10-15 maola musanadzalemo, kuchepetsa mizu kukhala yofooka njira ya manganese (mungagwiritse ntchito Topaz ndi Epin kukula zolimbikitsa). Maola 2-3 musanadzalemo, sungani mizu mu "phala" la dothi ndi kulowetsedwa kwa manyowa, youma dzuwa.

Njira yobzala:

  • gwetsani pansi pansi pa dzenje lakukwera, moisten;
  • pamtsinje waikidwa pambali Madigiri 45 Mbeu yokonzedwa bwino, yongolani mizu (kuti asayesedwe mmwamba). Kuzama kwa khola lazu sikuyenera kukhalapo kuposa 5-7 cm;
  • kuthira pansi mu dzenje, kutsanulira ndi madzi ofunda (2-3 l) ndi condens;
  • Gwedezani pafupi-tsinde mzere (peat, udzu).
  • kutulutsa mphukira (mpaka 5 masentimita hemp kapena 2-3 masamba pamwamba pa nthaka).

Ndikofunikira! Sawdust mulching kwa mitundu ya currants "Yadrenaya" si yoyenera - iwo amachulukitsa acidity m'nthaka.

Kusamalira bwino - lonjezo la kukolola kolemera

Currant "Yadrenaya" yomwe ikhoza kukhutiritsa zofunikira zirizonse za mundawo, pokhapokha ngati kulima kwake kunachitika mwaluso, motsatira malamulo oyenerera.

Kuthamanga kwa nthaka

Lamulo lofunika kwambiri, lololeza kuti likhale loti likhale ndi mbewu zabwino za currants, koma kawirikawiri kusunga chomeracho, kuti chipulumutse ku kuyanika, ndiko kumera kwa nthaka. Mabokosi opangidwa ndi peat, udzu, chimanga cha chimanga, ndi zina. Bwalo la pafupi-thunthu (mpaka mamita 1.5) limathandiza kuteteza chinyezi (dziko lapansi limakhala lofewa), limateteza kuti currants lisatenthedwe ndi dzuwa lotentha, ndipo limaletsa udzu kumera.

M'nyengo yozizira, mulching (currant "Yadrenaya" imachokera ku Siberia ndipo nyengo yake yozizira siimayambitsa kukayikira) motsutsana ndi kuzizira kwa mizu yotentha kumadera ozizira.

Ndikofunikira! Mitundu yambiri yapamwamba "Wopambana" imasowa mapulogalamu apadera a nthambi. Pakulemera kwake kwa mbeu, mphukira zimakhala ndi matope, zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri kusonkhanitsa, kuteteza komanso kusungidwa kwa currants.

Momwe mungadzamwe madzi

Mankhwalawa amafunikira kuthirira nthawi zonse (makamaka nthawi yakucha) masiku awiri kapena atatu, 12 malita pa chitsamba, m'mawa ndi dzuwa litalowa. Mu kugwa (September), iwo amathirira madzi budding chaka chotsatira. Pansi pa chitsamba - 70-80 malita a madzi. Njira yabwino yothirira kuthirira currants ndi kukonkha (kuchepetsa kutentha, kumawonjezera mpweya wa chinyezi).

Tikukulimbikitsani kuti mudzidziwe nokha ndi zomwe zikukula ndikugwiritsa ntchito white currant.

Zimene mungadye

Zing'ono zingathe kudyetsa 3-4 nthawi (yankho la manyowa ndi urea). Kuti mukolole bwino, muyenera kudyetsa currant "Yadrenaya" kuyambira chaka chachiwiri.

Kumayambiriro kwa nyengo ndi nthawi ya urea umuna (nitrogen-munali feteleza). April-May - manyowa ndi nitroammofoskoy. M'nyengo yozizira (pambuyo pa maluwa) - mapuloteni apamwamba ("Mikom", "Plantafol" kapena potaziyamu permanganate (10 g), boric acid (3 g) ndi mkuwa sulphate (40 g)).

M'dzinja (mutatha kukolola) - organic (humus, zitosi za mbalame), superphosphate, potaziyamu kloride (kusungunuka m'madzi kapena kuwaza). Pakatha zaka zinayi zilimbikitsidwa kuchepetsa nthaka (mpaka 500 g ya laimu pa mita imodzi).

Kukolola

Kwa nthawi yoyamba zokolola zimapereka chitsamba chaka chachiwiri mutabzala. Kawirikawiri zokolola pamtunda ndi 4 makilogalamu. Pakafika zaka zisanu mpaka zisanu ndi chimodzi, zokolola zimachepa.

Kukolola mtundu wa currant "Yadrenaya" umachitika muzigawo zingapo (chifukwa cha kukolola kosagwirizana kwa zipatso). Ndi bwino kuchita tsiku louma, mutatha kusonkhanitsa mame a mmawa. Kusonkhanitsa ntchito zopanda kanthu (pansi pa kulemera kwa zipatso zingathe kuphwanya wina ndi mnzake).

Phunzirani momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito vinyo wokometsera wokha.

Kupindika kwa currant kuli kochepa - ndi kofunika kuigwiritsa ntchito kanthawi kochepa. Kutumiza mitundu ya currant "Yadrenaya" yotsekedwa ndi maburashi, osati kuphwanya zipatso. Mabokosi apamwamba sayenera kukhala oposa makilogalamu asanu a zipatso.

Mukudziwa? Olima munda amalimbikitsa njira zingapo zowonjezera kukoma kwa "Yadrenoy." Kotero, atatha kuphulika kwa currant pa chitsamba, munthu sayenera kuthamangira kuti achotse, koma dikirani masiku atatu mpaka asanu. Nthawi ino idzakhala yokwanira kuti currant isasinthe, koma kuti mupeze kukoma kowonjezereka ndi kukoma. Njira ina yowonjezera kukoma kwa zipatso ndi kuonjezera zokolola ndi kudzala mitundu yosiyana pa malo amodzi.

Kugwedeza katswiri

Currant "Wamphamvu" - pakati pa mitundu yosiyanasiyana, yomwe kutalika kwa chitsamba chimayang'aniridwa ndi kudulira: mphukira zapamwamba zingagwe pansi. Nthawi zonse kudulira kumathandizira kubwezeretsa mbewu (mpaka 20% ya mphukira imachotsedwa pa kudulira) ndi kuthetsa chitsamba chowongolera. Chaka chilichonse, mphukira zatsopano 2-4 zatsala (chiwerengero cha mphukira chiyenera kukhala 10-15). Nthawi yabwino yowonongeka ndikumayambiriro kasupe (asanakhale masamba oyambirira) ndipo nthawi yopuma (pamaso pa chisanu). Zokonzedwa zonse zowonongeka.

Ndikofunikira! Kukonza kumayenera kupangidwa ndi chida chakuthwa komanso chotetezedwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Pambuyo pomaliza, zigawo zonse zikugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi njira ya 5% ya mkuwa wa sulphate, kenaka imaikidwa kupaka munda kapena mafuta ojambula.

Kukaniza matenda ndi tizilombo toononga: kulimbana ngati tikugonjetsedwa

Currant "Yadrenaya" siinali yogonjetsedwa ndi matenda, monga momwe amakhulupirira poyamba, tizirombo sizidananso izi.

Kawirikawiri, currant "Wamphamvu" imayendera matenda awa:

  • Matenda otsekemera (mabala a bulauni pamasamba akuphatikizana, ayambe kuoneka ma tubercles ndi spores, kenako mabowo) ndi septoriosis (mawanga oonekera). Mmene mungamenyere: musanayambe maluwa kutsuka 2% njira ya Bordeaux fluid. Pochitika matenda m'chilimwe kukonza mkuwa wambiri mankhwala (mkuwa sulfate, cuprozan, oleocuprite, etc.);
  • Terry - masamba amasinthidwa ku katatu, maluwa amawonekera. Matenda a chiwindi samachiritsidwa - kuchotsa ndi kuwotcha.
  • Chifuwa chachikulu - nthambi zouma, zophimbidwa ndi ming'alu. Iyenera kuperekedwa Bordeaux madzi ndi "Home".

Powdery mildew ndi dzimbiri sizikhala zofala. Pa tizirombo nthawi zambiri amapita ku currants kuchokera ku nsabwe za m'masamba (pofuna kupewa (asanafike ndi pambuyo pake) mugwiritse ntchito "Aktellik").

Ngati aphid imaonekera pamene mabulosi asanachotsedwe, ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito njira zamakono zolimbanirana, popanda makina (zomwe sizikuvulaza zipatso). Mukhoza kutsuka mafuta a anise (kuwopsya nyerere), infusions wa adyo, anyezi, chitsamba chowawa, ndi zina zotero.