Mbali za kubzala ndi kusamalira lupine masamba ambiri

Lupine monga chomera chokongola ndi gawo lotchuka la zojambula zakuthambo. Kuwonjezera apo, nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zopatsa chakudya ndi zamapira, mapepala, komanso kupanga zodzoladzola ndi mankhwala, sopo, mapulasitiki ndi zina.

Chomera chodabwitsa ichi chiri ndi mitundu yambiri, yomwe ili ndi annuals, biennials ndi perennials. Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza za lupini, masamba ambiri, zomwe zimafesedwa ndikuzisamalira.

Kufotokozera za mitundu

Lupine (Lat Lupinus polyphyllus) ndi mtundu wodzichepetsa wosatha wamaluwa okongola. Oimira zamoyozi ali ndi ziwalo zoongoka ndi masamba a palmate, mapulosi akuluakulu a makandulo (maluwa a lupine amafanana ndi maburashi) ndipo amatha kufika mamita 1.5 m'litali. Mizu yawo imalowa pansi pa 1.5-2 m. Chomera ichi ndi cha banja la legume. Zipatso zake ndi nyemba ndi mbewu (mpaka ma PC 45). Kuwoneka kuti lupine ikuwonetsedwa mu chithunzi.

Mukudziwa? Zopindulitsa katundu wa lupine ndi mapangidwe a nitrogen muzu tubers.
Chomera chosathachi chikufala m'dera lathu chifukwa cha kukana kwa chisanu. Pali mitundu yambiri ya mitundu yake, yomwe imadziwika ndi kuwala.

Mitundu yotchuka

Flower amalima amapereka otsatirawa mitundu yambiri masamba:

  • "Gallery Gallery";
  • "Tutti Frutti";
  • "Fräulein";
  • "Gladiator";
  • "Persian Slipper";
  • "Manhattan Lights";
  • "Safironi".
Mukudziwa? Mitundu ina ya lupine imatha kukula ngakhale m'madera a m'chipululu ku United States, Chile, Peru, ndi m'malo odyera ku Sahara.

Imodzi mwa mitundu yotchuka kwambiri - "Gallery Red". Chomeracho, chofuna chonde, chonyansa ndi dzuŵa, chimamasula kawiri pa chaka - June, August. Kutalika kwake ndi 50-55 masentimita. Mitundu yosiyana "Fräulein" ndi chikhalidwe chofewa chofiira ndi choyera, chomwe chimasintha kuchokera pa June mpaka August. Monga zomera za zosiyanasiyana "Gallery Red", oimira ake amakonda malo otseguka ndi dzuwa.

Kwa okonda dzuwa ndi oimira mitundu "Gladiator" ndi "Safironi". Zachiwirizi zimakhala ndi inflorescences zachikasu. Oyimira a mitundu yofananayo "Gladiator" amaimira mtundu wa salmon ndi utali wa masentimita 60.

Lupine, mofanana ndi zina zambiri zamagulu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito monga siderata. Kupititsa patsogolo mapangidwe a nthaka kumagwiritsidwanso ntchito mpiru woyera, phacelia, rye.
Mitundu yambiri "Tutti Frutti" imamera kuchokera mu July mpaka September ndipo imapatsa dothi loyera lomwe limatulutsa mthunzi. Mitengo yamitengo imatha kufika mamita 1. Mitengo ya zomera "Persian Slipper" imasiyanitsidwa ndi maluwa awo oyera. Amatha kufika masentimita 90 mu msinkhu ndikuyamba pachimake kuyambira May mpaka Oktoba.

Panthawi imodzimodziyo, maluwa okhala ndi chikasu-violet inflorescences amapezeka, omwe ali a mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya "Manhattan Lights". Ali ndi kutalika kwa pafupifupi masentimita 60. Mphepete yamapirisi yambiri imasowa zofunikira zapadera, koma funso la momwe mungalimire bwino bwino likupitirizabe.

Kumene angabzala chomeracho?

Ngakhale kuti chomeracho chili chosavuta, ndi bwino kuyandikira kusankha malo oti mubzala mwanzeru. Mitundu iliyonse ili ndi zokhazokha zowunikira ndi nthaka, koma palinso zowonjezera kwa onse.

Malo ndi kuunikira

Monga lamulo, chikhalidwe ichi chabzala m'chaka (April - zaka khumi zoyambirira za May) kapena kugwa. Zomera zimabzala bwino dzuwa. Penumbra ndiyenso njira yabwino yoyendera. Koma mu malo amdima kwambiri, oimira awa a nyemba sadzakhala mizu. Malo oti kubzala kumayambiriro a kasupe akonzedwe mu kugwa.

Mtundu wa dothi wa lupins

Chomeracho chimadziwikanso ndi kudzichepetsa kwa nthaka. Chofunika chachikulu ndi nthaka yatsopano. Kupindulitsa kwa nthaka ndi feteleza kumakhudza kwambiri maluwa a chikhalidwe chokongola. Ndibwino kuti mukhale ndi masamba ambirimbiri a tsamba kapena a alkali pang'ono kapena a asidi, a loamy kapena a mchenga. Dothi lakuda kwambiri liyenera kugwedezeka (kupanga ufa wotchedwa dolomite kapena laimu), mwinamwake chomeracho chidzafooka ndipo masamba ake adzakhala otumbululuka. Njira yowonongeka mobwerezabwereza ingafunike patatha zaka zisanu zokha. Dothi la mchere liyenera kukumbidwa ndi peat, mwinamwake obzalidwa mbewu adzadwala tsamba la chlorosis (matenda omwe masamba a chomerawo amatembenukira chikasu).

Kuswana

Lupin imabereka pogwiritsa ntchito mbewu kapena cuttings, chifukwa cha akatswiri omwe amasiyana ndi mitundu iwiri:

  • kubereka mbewu;
  • zofalitsa zamasamba.

Mbewu

Panthawi yokolola, zipatso za legume zimasweka, ndipo mbewu zimafalikira ndi mphepo kuzungulira dera lapafupi ndipo zimamera (masamba ndi stomata amaonekera). Kuti mupeze mbande, muyenera kuyamba ndikukonzekera nthaka ndi peat, nthaka ndi mchenga. Kupititsa patsogolo kukula kwa mabakiteriya omwe amawathandiza akhoza kupindula mwa kusakaniza mbewu za lupine ndi mizu yambiri ya munthu wamkulu.

Mukudziwa? Maonekedwe a lupine ali pafupi ndi mafuta; ndizosiyana kwambiri ndi kupezeka kwa zinthu zomwe zimachepetsa kuchepa.
Mbewu za Lupine, ngakhale kusiyana kwa mawonekedwe, kukula kwake, mtundu, zimakhala ndi chivundikiro chokongola komanso chapamwamba chomwe chimapangidwa pamwamba ndipo chimakhala chokhazikika kwa zaka zisanu. Chonde dziwani kuti simukufunika kuika mbewuzo mwakuya. Pofuna kusungunuka mosamala, muyeso wokwanira ndikuphimba kufesa ndi filimu kapena nsalu yonyowa. Samalani chikhalidwe cha kutentha. 20-22 ° C - kutentha kwakukulu kwa kupeza mwapamwamba mmera zakuthupi. Kusunga chinyezi choyenera mu chipinda chofunda, mudzawona mphukira yoyamba pambuyo pa masabata awiri. Pambuyo pa kuoneka kwa 3-5 kusiya masambayo kumafuna kuika pamalo osatha. Kusintha kwachedwa kwambiri kungakhudze kwambiri mizu. Mbewu ya Lupine ikhoza kukulira pamtunda. Mtunda wovomerezeka pakati pa mbande ndi wolemera 30 mpaka 50. Pa nthawi yomweyi, kukula kwa mbeu sikuyenera kupitirira 2-3 masentimita. Pamene mukukula lupine kuchokera kumbewu, ndikofunika kumvetsetsa nthawi yobzala mbewu ndikudikirira mphukira zoyamba. Ngati kufesa kumachitika mu April (chisanu chimasungunuka), ndiye kuti n'zotheka kuyang'ana maluwa mu May chaka chotsatira. Ndi bwino kuyika mbeu kumapeto kwa mwezi wa October kapena kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa November pamtunda wa masentimita 2-3. Pambuyo pake, kumayambiriro kwa May chaka chamawa, mukhoza kuyembekezera mphukira zoyamba, ndipo mu August mukhoza kuyang'ana maluwa. Kufalitsa mbewu sizinthu zodalirika zedi. Ngati pali mitundu yambiri yokongoletsera, mbewu zimagawanika ndi mtundu. Kubzala masamba kumagwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga chomera choyera.

Zamasamba

Njira yocheka ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa lupins wa zaka zitatu zokha. Zitsamba, zomwe zili kale zaka zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri, sizomwe zili zoyenera kufalitsa zomera chifukwa cha kusowa kwa masamba. Komabe, pogwiritsa ntchito mpeni kudula masamba omwe ali pafupi ndi tsinde (ndi gawo la mizu ya mizu) ndikubzala mumchenga mumchenga, patapita mwezi umodzi muzuwo umakhala wocheka ndipo udzakhala wokonzeka kuwombera m'malo osatha. Ndibwino kudula masamba atsopano mwamsanga chilimwe maluwa.

Ndikofunikira! Kupaka pamwamba - gawo loyenera la kubereka. Chosakaniza cha peat, turf ndi mchenga mu chiŵerengero cha 1 mpaka 1 ndi 0,5 ndibwino kwambiri fetereza kwa lupine.
Njira yochepetsera ndi tchire zaka zitatu iyenera kuchitika m'chaka. M'nyengo yozizira, pa cuttings mutenge mphukira (tsamba hem). Ngakhale kuti kuphweka kwa lupins kosatha, pali zinthu zina zobzala ndi kusamalira iwo.

Malamulo osamalira

Kawirikawiri palibe mavuto ndi chikhalidwe ichi. Kupalira ndi kudyetsa ndizo zigawo zazikulu za kusamalira mbewu.

Kupalira ndi kusamalira nthaka

Monga mbewu zina zokongoletsera, lupins amafunikira nthawi yowonjezera nthaka, kuthirira moyenera, kupalira, kudumpha ndi kuthandiza (kwazitali ndi zomera zosakanizidwa, panthawi yamphepo yamphamvu ndi zina). Thandizo likhoza kukhala zingwe zamatabwa. Mmera wamkulu amafunikira zotsatirazi:

  • kudulira zowonongeka ndi maluwa otayika;
  • kusungunula pansi kwa nyengo yozizira (kawirikawiri ndi utuchi ndi peat);
  • kupewa matenda.
Ndikofunikira! Lupins amafunika kutetezedwa ku nsabwe za m'masamba, mphutsi zouluka, mphutsi zakuda, sulfure ndi zowola mizu. Kuonjezera apo, amakhala otengeka kwambiri, amawonongeke, amaoneka ndi dzimbiri.
Ngati mtundu wa chomeracho wafota mofulumira, uyenera kuchotsedwa. Lupins, omwe ali ndi zaka zoposa zisanu, ayenera kuti m'malo mwawo asinthe. Chomera chomwe chafika zaka ziwiri zimafuna kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza mchere.

Kupaka pamwamba

Kumayambiriro kwa masika, chikhalidwe chisanafike maluwa, m'pofunika kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza kunthaka. Kugwiritsa ntchito superphosphate ndi potaziyamu chloride pa 1 lalikulu. M ndi pafupifupi 15-20 g ndi 3-5 g, motero. Njira yabwino yopangira feteleza ndi feteleza wa nayitrogeni. Samalani ndi mlingo! Musaiwale za organic feteleza. Phulusa likhonza kuthandizanso pa tsamba la tsamba la lupini (mapiko awiri pansi pa chitsamba chilichonse). Pothiro la mchenga, ufa wa magnesium ndi dolomite udzakhala feteleza wabwino kwambiri.

Mukudziwa? Matani 20 a manyowa panthaka ndi ofanana ndi hekta imodzi ya lupine.
Lupine ndi chimodzi mwa mbewu zokongola kwambiri zokongola. N'zosavuta kudzala ndi kusamalira. Nthawi yake maluwa ikhoza kubwereza ndipo imatha masiku 20-30. Oimira awa a banja la legume akhoza kukula kuchokera ku cuttings, mbande ndi mbewu mwachindunji kuthengo. Ndi chisanu chopanda madzi ndipo sikutanthauza madzi okwanira ambiri. Nthaŵi zambiri, chomeracho chimasowa chithandizo pa nthawi ya maluwa ndi kutentha kwa dzinja. Lipine lamapiko ambiri omwe ali ndi masamba ambiri kwa zaka zisanu lidzakusangalatsani ndi maluwa ake.