Kuphatikiza mitundu ya mitengo ya zipatso ndi njira yawo

Ngati simukukhutira ndi zina za zokolola zomwe mumapeza kuchokera ku mtengo wanu wa zipatso, musafulumize kuchotsa pa siteti ndikubzala imodzi yatsopano. Pali njira zingapo zabwino zowonjezera zizindikiro zapamwamba ndi zowonjezereka za fruiting - pogwiritsa ntchito katemera kwa achinyamata a cuttings achinyamata ndi masamba ena. Nkhaniyi ikugwiritsidwa ntchito polumikiza mitengo kumapeto kwa masika ndi autumn, masiku abwino kwambiri ochita zimenezi, imapereka mavidiyo akufotokoza njirayi, imanena kuti nthawi yochuluka bwanji kuti katemera asamalize.

Mitengo ya zipatso

Budding ndi njira yothandizira mitengo ya zipatso, yomwe imaphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito diso (mphukira), kudula ndi kachigawo kakang'ono ka khungwa ndi gawo lochepa la mapulogalamu. Amagwiritsa ntchito njira yabwino komanso yodziwika kwambiri ya katemera. Poyerekeza ndi njira zina, kuphulika kumapangitsa kuti munthu akhale ndi moyo wabwino kwambiri, chigwirizano cholimba cha scion (chikhalidwe chophatikizidwa) ndi chitsa (chikhalidwe chimene grafting chikupangidwira) chimafuna kusonkhanitsa pang'ono ndi kosavuta kuchita.

Mukudziwa? Malingana ndi zomwe Plutarch akunena "Zamalumikizidwe", njira iyi yosinthira zachilengedwe za zomera idadziwika ngakhale nthawi zakale.
Nthaŵi yabwino yopanga masamba ndi nthawi ya kutaya madzi otentha: mu kasupe, pamene masamba ayamba kuphuka, ndi m'chilimwe - kuchokera kumapeto achitatu a July mpaka sabata yoyamba ya August.

Budding, yomwe imachitika kumapeto kwa nyengo, imatchedwa kutulutsa maso kapena impso, ndipo chilimwe - diso logona kapena impso.

Kulimbana ndi mitengo ya zipatso

Njira imeneyi ikuphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito mphukira yachinyamata yomwe ili ndi masamba ambiri. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, kudula kwa oblique kumapangidwira kudula, komwe kumayenera kugwirizanitsa ndi mdulidwe womwewo pa katundu, pambuyo pake kukonzekera kumachitika mothandizidwa ndi zipangizo zosiyanasiyana.

Ndikofunikira! Pogwiritsira ntchito njira iyi yothandizira, ndikofunika kuonetsetsa kuti zidutswa za kudula kumtengowo ndi mizu ya machesi kapena pafupifupi ofanana.

Kuwongolera kumachitika kumapeto kwa nyengo, pamene masamba akuyamba kuphulika. Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito njira yothandizira mitengo ya zipatso asanayambe kuyamwa. Nthaŵi yoyenera yopitilira ndi opaleshoni nthawi yomweyo kutentha kumayamba kugwira ntchito kunja.

Woyamba kuphunzitsa zipatso za miyala, monga chitumbuwa kapena chitumbuwa, pangТono pang'ono - pome (mapeyala, maapulo). Lamulo lalikulu la kukambirana bwino ndikulumikiza kwake panthawi yomwe chigamba chikuyamba kudzuka kuchokera ku hibernation, ndipo kuphatikizidwa sikukuphulika pambuyo pa nyengo yozizira.

Zotsatira zimapezeka ngati inoculum inakololedwa nthawi yopumula (kumayambiriro kwa masika, m'nyengo yachisanu kapena kumapeto kwa nthawi ya kugwa) ndipo mpaka nthawi yosungidwa ikusungidwa mu nyengo yozizira.

Mudzakhala okondwa kudziwa zambiri za kumtengako mapeyala, maapulo, mphesa.

Katemera wa makungwa

Njirayi imalimbikitsidwa kuti izi zitheke panthawi yomwe kayendedwe kowonjezera kamangoyamba ndipo khungwa limadzipereka bwino kuti likhale losiyana ndi mtengo. Nthambi yowonjezeredwa imachotsedwa ndi kudula, kuchoka pamtunda ndi 20-30 masentimita, koma mungathe kusankha malo kuti mugwire ntchitoyi pamtunda. Kenaka, 3-5 masentimita azitengedwera kuchokera kumalo omwe anadulidwa akadulidwa, awononge makungwawo ndi mpeni ku nkhuni ndipo mosamala kuti asawonongeke.

Kenaka amatenga zowonongeka ndikuziyika kumalo omwe adadulidwa, ndikukwera pamwamba pa khungu lachitsulo. Tsamba lazumikizanitsa likulumikizidwa mu pulasitiki, ndipo, poyang'ana bwino, gawo lakumwamba la filimuyi likulumikizidwa mwamphamvu ndi pepala lapoto.

M'malo mwa odulidwa nthambi ya nthambiyo, onetsetsani dothi kapena dzenje la munda.

Phunzirani zambiri zokhudza kudyetsa, kudulira ndi kupopera mitengo ya zipatso.

Katemera Wotsalira Pamtunda

Nthawi yoyenera yothetsera vutoli ndi kuyamba kwa nyengo yachisanu, yomwe ndi nthawi yomwe masamba amayamba kuphulika, koma kuyambanso kuyamwa kutayika sikunayambe.

Katemera uwu ndi wabwino chifukwa ndi mofulumira komanso wosavuta:

  1. Pansi pamunsi mwa kudula kokolola, muyenera kupanga odulidwa oblique, pafupifupi kutalika kwa magawo atatu a kudula.
  2. Kenaka, chodulidwa chofanana ndi chiyenera chiyenera kupangidwa kuchokera kumbuyo kwa mfundo zomwe ziyenera kuikidwa. Maonekedwe onse a scion yomalizidwa ayenera kufanana ndi mphete ziwiri.
  3. Pamwamba pa kudula ayenera kudula 0.7-1 masentimita pamwamba pa kachiwiri Mphukira.
  4. Pangani mbali ya malo otsika. Kuti muchite izi, m'pofunika kuika mpeni pang'onopang'ono 15-30 °, kuti musadulire khungwa, komanso kuti mupange matabwa pansi pake. Kuzama kwake kuyenera kufanana ndi kutalika kwa kagawo kamene munapanga kale pa chogwirira.
  5. Kenaka, kudula kumalowa mkati mwa makinawo, ndipo muyenera kuyesetsa kufanana ndi zigawo za cambial m'kati mwa ndege. Njira yokhayo ikanakhala yabwino kuti mukwaniritse mgwirizano wonse wa malowa.
  6. Malo ogwiritsira ntchito katemera ayenera atakulungidwa ndi kukulunga kwa chakudya kapena katemera, ndipo pamwamba pazitsulo zazitsulo ziyenera kuikidwa ndi chithupsa.

Mukudziwa? Ndi izi mwa kuphatikizira njira, mungathe kuyendetsa kayendedwe ka korona potembenuza mbali yodulidwa pamtengo ndi kutsogolo kwa impso pazitsulo zomwe mukufuna.

Kugawaniza Mzere

Kuphatikizidwa kwa mitengo ya zipatso kumachitika masika kusanayambe kuyamwa kutayika kwayamba. Nthambi zamakono ziyenera kudulidwa, kusiya 20-30 masentimita mpaka thunthu. Kenaka, m'malo odulidwa, tawonani kutalika kwake, kutalika kwake komwe sikuyenera kukhala kuposa 4-5 masentimita.

Kuti muchite izi, pamalo omwe mukufuna kuti mugawikane, choyamba muyenera kupanga incision yopanda kanthu.

Ndikofunikira! Sichikulimbikitsidwa kuti mugwire pamene mukugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi manja anu kuti mupewe matenda. Pa chifukwa chomwecho, zipangizo zonse ziyeneranso kukhala zoyera.
Kenaka, mpeni kapena chisel imalowetsedwamo, ndipo kupatukana kumapangidwa ndi kuwala koma kayendetsedwe ka chikhulupiriro. Pofuna kuteteza kupatulidwa kwa kutseka, ndibwino kuti tiike mpeni, mphete yamatabwa kapena zowonongeka.

Pambuyo pake, muyenera kupereka mapeto a mawonekedwe a mphete. Kutalika kwa mphete kuyenera kukhala pafupifupi mofanana ndi kuya kwa kupatukana. Dothi limene munapanga kumapeto kwa kudula liyenera kukhala lopanda kanthu, mutha kuika mpeni pambali pake, ndipo ngati mulibe mipata pakati pake ndi mdulidwe, mwachita zonse molondola. Kenaka muyenera kuchotsa mpheteyo kuchoka pa chingwe ndipo mwamsanga muziika kudula mkati mwake kwa utali wonsewo. N'zotheka kuphatikizira awiri cuttings pa nthambi imodzi kamodzi, chifukwa chaichi iwo ayenera kuyika mbali zotsutsana.

Njira imeneyi ya katemera ndiyoyendetsedwa bwino ndi mnzanuyo, chifukwa zonsezi siziyenera kutenga masekondi osachepera 30. Kuchitapo kanthu pang'onopang'ono kungayambitse kuyanika kwadulidwa pamwamba pake ndi zitsulo zake.

Kutanthauzira (kumtumikizanitsa)

Njira yosavuta, koma yosavuta yomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito katemera. Zimatanthawuza kuphulika kumene kumamera patali pafupi ndi mzake. Kuphatikizidwa sikudulidwa panthawi imodzimodzi, koma imangogwiritsidwa ntchito ku katundu. Njira imeneyi sizimagwiritsidwe ntchito polembera mitengo ya zipatso.

Njirayi ndi iyi:

  1. Zosungiramo zikhomo zimayenera kutsukidwa kwa makungwa, ndi kupanga zigawo zofanana ndi kutalika pa zigawo zonsezo.
  2. Kenaka, kuphatikiza ndi chitsa chimagwiritsana ntchito m'magawo m'njira yoti zigawo zawo zochepa kwambiri pansi pa makungwa ziphatikizidwe.
  3. Malo otsekemera amadzala ndi chidwi chapadera ndi pepala lophatikizira kapena lophatikizapo lopangidwa ndi pulasitiki kapena phula la munda.
  4. Mzerewu ukamakula bwino pamodzi ndi katundu, womwe umatenga nthawi pafupifupi miyezi 2-3, ukhoza kuwalekanitsa ndi amayi. Zisanachitike, m'pofunika kuchotsa zinthu zomwe zidagwiritsidwa ntchito popunthira, ndi kudula mphukira zomwe zinapangidwa pa mphukira.
Kumbukirani nthawi ya zochitikazi. Sitiyenera kuchitika autumn grafting ya mitengo ya zipatso, ngakhale kuti nthawiyi ikhoza kugwiritsidwa bwino ntchito yokonzekera cuttings. Musaope kuyesera ndi kuyesa njira zosiyana - zotsatira sizingakhalenso kubwera.