Kupopera mphesa kumapeto kwa matenda

Ndizitsamba zonse zowoneka ngati zophweka, zitsamba zamtunduwu ndizowonongeka komanso zimakhudza kwambiri kusintha kwa nyengo kapena maonekedwe a zamoyo zomwe zimayambitsa chomera. Ndicho chifukwa chake ndikofunika kwambiri kukonza za mphesa kumayambiriro kwa masika kuti muteteze ku matenda ndi tizirombo.

Kodi ndi chiyani?

Si chinsinsi kuti mphesa zabwino kwambiri ndi zokoma mwachibadwa ndizo zovuta kwambiri. Amatha kutenga kachilombo kosiyanasiyana, kuchokera ku mildew mpaka powdery mildew. Ndipo ngakhale zipangizo zamakono zaulimi sizithandiza pano. Vuto lina ndi kusintha kwa nyengo, kuchokera mvula yamkuntho mpaka masiku otentha, omwe amachulukitsa chiopsezo cha matenda a mphesa ndi matenda a fungal.

Pogwiritsa ntchito izi, kugwiritsidwa ntchito kasupe kwa munthu wofunika kwambiri m'munda wanu kumathandizanso kuteteza zodalirika ku zowononga zachilengedwe, kukula kwakukulu ndi zipatso zabwino.

Ndikofunikira! Samalani maonekedwe a shrub pambuyo pa chisanu. Ngati pali madontho a madzi ndi maphuphu pa masamba a mphesa - Ichi ndi chizindikiro chotsimikizirika kuti ndi nthawi yogwiritsira ntchito mwamsanga mbewu.
Processing kumayambiriro kasupe ayenera kuyamba ndi woyenera kutsegula kwa shrub pambuyo yozizira pogona. Ngati chiopsezo cha chisanu m'dera lanu ndi chochepa, ndiye kuti mphesa zikhoza kutsegulidwa nthawi yomweyo kuchokera pamene mpweya ukuwombera kutentha -2-0 ° С. Ngati mumakhala m'dera limene chimakhala chimfine kapena mawonekedwe ake, pangani maenje apadera a nyengo yachisanu. Kutsegulira kumene kwa mbeuyi kumangotangika pambuyo pa kumera kwa masamba ndi mawonekedwe a chomera chobiriwira.

Pambuyo pake, ndibwino kuti tiyambe kugwiritsira ntchito ndondomeko ya shrub yokha.

Onetsetsani mitundu ya mphesa ngati Helios, Kishimish, Memory of Negrul, Akazi aakazi, Chameleon, Gala, Vostorg, Veles, Harold, Sphinx, Rochefort "," Owonjezera "," Mkazi Wabwino ".

Njira

Kuti chiwonongeko cha matenda onse ndi tizilombo toononga sichidzathandizira kokha mankhwala a chitsamba chomwecho. Mukasintha khalidwe la nthaka, limangowonjezera zotsatira zake.

Kupopera mbewu

Mankhwala amtunduwu adzakuthandizani pa chiwonongeko cha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi chitetezo cha zomera ku mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kuwonongeka nyengo yonseyi. Kuchitira mphesa mphesa pambuyo pachisanu ndi kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa kumathandiza kuti asatengeke ndi bowa ndi mabakiteriya. Ngati mukuwopa mankhwala owopsa kwa zinyama kapena zomera, gwiritsani ntchito mankhwala apadera omwe ali otetezeka kwathunthu.

Kuti chitetezo chodalirika, m'pofunika kupanga stumps, manja, shrub mpesa ndi mitengo.

Mukudziwa? Zakudya zamtundu, kuphatikizapo mafuta, mphesa zili pafupi kwambiri ndi mkaka.

Chithandizo cha dothi

A kwambiri agrotechnical njira kwa kukula izi mbewu ndi kulima nthaka ya mpesa. Yoyamba kasupe nthaka mankhwala ikuchitika pambuyo kudula tchire, koma pasanapite masamba pachimake. Pambuyo pazitsamba zouma, mukhoza kuyamba kuyigwiritsa ntchito. Dulani nthaka mozama masentimita 15 pogwiritsa ntchito khasu. Chithandizo chachiwiri kumapeto kwa May, pamene namsongole akukula mochuluka kwambiri. Zinthu zakuthambo, zachilengedwe za nthaka, zizindikiro za chinyezi ndi udzu zidzakuthandizani pakuwerengera chiwerengero cha mankhwala.

Pachifukwa ichi, onetsetsani kuti mukupereka mpata wa chomera ndi oxygen yambiri. Mulching pristvolnyh mabwalo pogwiritsira ntchito peat kapena kompositi idzakhala yabwino kwambiri kuwonjezera pa mankhwala oyambirira a kasupe.

Nthawi: Kodi mungakonze nthawi yotani?

Kusankha nthawi imene mukufuna kupopera mphesa mumasika, kumbukirani kuti kukonza kungatenge magawo angapo, aliyense ali ndi zizindikiro zake komanso zofunikira.

Mitengo ya mphesa iyenera kukonzedwa nthawi yomwe mutsegulire tchire ndi njira yothetsera sulphate mu chiŵerengero cha 300-500 g pa 10 malita a madzi. Gwiritsani ntchito 200-300 g ngati kutupa kwa maso kukuwoneka. Mankhwalawa samatsimikiziranso kuti zomera zimatetezedwa ku matenda a fungal.

Cholinga chake chachikulu - kulimbana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe amatha kukhala m'nyengo yozizira, komanso pamwamba pa zonse - ndi nkhungu yomwe idakhazikika pamunda mutatha kukumba.

Ndikofunikira! Musatsatire lingaliro lovomerezeka kawirikawiri kuti ngati mwatengera kale shrub mumphuno, kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa kungatheke.
Zotsatirazi zikuchitika kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, pamene tsamba la 5 liyamba kuonekera pa chitsamba chaching'ono. Choncho dzina lake lofanana - "pa tsamba lachisanu." Komanso, nthawi yamagwiritsidwe ntchitoyi ikhoza kuwerengedwa ndi zizindikiro zina: mvula yoyamba yoyamba, kutentha kwa mpweya tsiku ndi tsiku pamwamba pa 10 ° С ndi ena. Musanayambe kukhala otsimikiza kuti mupange choyamba chowonongeka, kuchotsa mphukira zochulukirapo ndi kuyamba kwake. Zopindulitsa kwambiri kwa mbeuzo zidzakhala zokonzekera zomwe zimasonyeza kuti zimakhudza ngakhale nyengo yozizira ("Horus" kapena "Strobe").

Kuti mukhale ndi zotsatira zabwino, mukhoza kuwonjezera tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe amathandiza kuwononga nkhupakupa. Mwachitsanzo, "Actellic" kapena "Fufanon". Kukonzekera komwekukuyenera kuchitika m'chilimwe, nthawi yomweyo maluwa asanayambe, pamene masango asamba kale.

Izi zidzakulitsa chitetezo cha shrub, komanso chiteteze ku zochitika za matenda a fungaleni ndikuletsa kusayidwa msanga kwa masamba. Pofuna kukolola mphesa yabwino, perekani nthawi yochuluka ndikuyang'anapo, penyani pang'ono pang'onopang'ono kusintha kwa mbeu.

Njira za mphesa

Amaluwa ambiri amakumana ndi zovuta kusankha momwe angagwiritsire ntchito mphesa kumapeto kwa nthawi yomweyo. Anthu ena amakonda zosungiramo katundu, pamene ena amatsatira njira zodziwika bwino, powalingalira kuti ali ochezeka komanso otetezeka.

Mukudziwa? Pafupifupi makilomita 80,000 pa dziko lapansi lapansi lodzala ndi mphesa. 71% ya mbewu imagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga vinyo, 27% amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zipatso komanso 2% monga zipatso zouma.
Musanayambe kupopera mbewu, m'pofunika kuti muzitsatira tchire, motero muchotse pansi. Izi zingathandize trellis kapena waya.

Izi zidzateteza chomera kuti zisapweteke matenda oterewa komanso okhumudwitsa monga mildew, omwe amayamba chifukwa cha kutentha kwa mpesa ndi mvula. Onetsetsani kuti muzimangiriza kokha m'nyengo youma.

Mafungicides ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda

Mafungicides ndi mankhwala omwe amayenera kumenyana ndi matenda a fungal ya zomera, komanso mbewu yobvala, chifukwa cha zomwe amamasulidwa ku spores wa parasitic bowa. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, tizilombo timagwiritsidwa ntchito bwino pakuwononga tizilombo towononga.

Phunzirani momwe mungasinthire mphesa, momwe mungadyetse, momwe mungadyetse, momwe mungabwerere, momwe mungadulire ndi momwe mungagwirire ndi tizirombo ta mphesa.
Mitundu yonse ya fungicides ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda imagawidwa m'magulu atatu:

  1. Chiyanjano chochita.
  2. Zochita zachitidwe.
  3. Zotsatira zokhudzana ndi njira.
Mankhwala okhudzana ndi mankhwalawa amakhudza tizilombo toyambitsa matenda pokhapokha ngati mankhwalawa akugwirizana ndi owonetsa matenda. Iwo sangalowe mkati mwakuya, kumenyana ndi maselo a chomera, ndi kumachita kokha pamwamba pake.

Mankhwalawa amadziwika ndi nthawi yayitali yodikira, mofulumira komanso mofulumira amawononga fungal spores. Amatha kubwezeretsanso chitsamba, popeza tizilombo toyambitsa matenda sitikuzoloŵera ndipo ntchito iliyonse idzakhala yogwira ntchito. Pa nthawi yomweyi, zochita zawo zidzakhala zochepa kwambiri ndi matenda aakulu a maselo; sizilimbana ndi mphepo, zomwe zimapatsa iwo ntchito zabwino kwa kanthaŵi kochepa chabe.

Kukonzekera mwatsatanetsatane kumalowa mu minofu ya mphesa mofulumira ndi kupereka chomera ndi pafupifupi chitetezo chathunthu. Iwo ali ndi machiritso ozama ndi othandizira kwambiri pa chitsamba chonse, izi zimatetezeranso mu kukonzanso kwa masamba.

Kulemba mvula kuti imvula, motero kumateteza chitetezo. Mankhwala othandiza amakhala ndi nthawi yaitali yolindira. Ntchito yawo siyikulimbikitsidwa kuposa kawiri pa nyengo.

Mankhwalawa amatha kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala, motero, amakhala ndi zovuta pa mphesa, kuphatikizapo katundu wa mitundu iwiri yomwe yafotokozedwa pamwambapa. Ganizirani payekhapayekha, penyani mwatsatanetsatane zomwe mukugwiritsa ntchito. Ambiri wamaluwa amakonda kuwaza mphesa m'chaka cha matenda a mkuwa sulphate. Zimagwira ntchito nthawi iliyonse ya chaka, ndiyo njira yotsika mtengo kwambiri. Ngati chomera chikudwala, ndipo masamba ake akugwa, omwe amasonyeza kusowa kwachitsulo, onetsetsani kuti mukugwira ntchito ya mankhwalawa.

Mwanjira imeneyi, sikuti mumateteza mphesa ku matenda osiyanasiyana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, komanso mumatulutsa feteleza zabwino kwambiri za nthaka.

Njira za anthu

Njira zofala zimafala chifukwa cha chitetezo chawo ponena za anthu ndi zinyama, zomwe sitinganene za njira zamagetsi. Komabe, ngati chomeracho sichitha kuteteza nthawi ndipo chitenga kachilomboka, zimakhala zopanda ntchito. Ofala kwambiri: anyezi anyezi, yisiti, uchi, masamba a celandine, aloe, soda, sopo komanso njira zina.

Mankhwala otsika mtengo kwambiri, otchuka komanso ofala pakati pa ogulitsa vinyo ndi kulowetsedwa komwe kunapangidwa kuchokera ku peyi ya anyezi. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza zomera asanayambe maluwa ndi pambuyo pake.

Iyenera kuphikidwa motere: theka la chidebe cha anyezi la peel ndi madzi, wiritsani kwa mphindi 20, ndipo pita maola 24. Kenaka, onjezerani madzi ku buku la 10 malita, kuwonjezera supuni 1 ya uchi, mavuto ndi okonzeka kulowetsedwa akhoza kupopera mbewu za mpesa.

Chida china chofala kwa wamaluwa ndi kulowetsedwa kwa udzu kuvunda. Zimathandiza poteteza chomera kuchokera ku oidium. Pophika, lembani chidebe ndi udzu wouma, kuphimba ndi madzi ndikupita kwa masiku 7 mpaka 10, kenako muzitsatira molimba mtima shrub. Mukasankha momwe mungasamalire mphesa zokhazikika kumapeto kwa nyengo kuti muziteteze ku matenda ndi zoopsa zonse, zitsogoleredwa ndi dziko lanu. Ngati ali ndi thanzi labwino, koma pali zizindikiro zochepa za matenda, gwiritsani ntchito mankhwala abwino a anthu.

Mwanjira imeneyi mumateteza ndi shrub, komanso thanzi lawo. Ngati chiwindi cha matenda kapena tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi chachikulu, mosakayikira mugwiritsire ntchito mankhwala omwe angathandize kuthetsa mavutowa mwamsanga.