Kodi kuchotsa pinefly sawfly: mitundu yambiri ndi njira zotetezera

Ndizosangalatsa kuyenda kudutsa m'nkhalango ya pinini - mitengo ikuluikulu, yaying'ono ya mitengo yamtengo wapatali, yomwe imakhala yonyezimira pamwamba, mpweya umadzaza ndi fungo la singano. Nkhalango ya Pine imapatsa munthu mtengo wamtengo wapatali ndi kuyamwa, amagwira nthaka pamodzi ndi mizu yake ndikuwonjezera chinyezi kuzungulira, ndipo mpweya wake ukuchiritsa. Nkhalango ya Pine imalimbikitsa, imabweretsa mtendere ndi chimwemwe pamtima. Mutalima mapiritsi angapo m'nyumba mwanu, mungapange kachipangizo kakang'ono koti mupumule ndikupumulira, ndipo ndizosasangalatsa pamene mitengo yanu ya mapiritsi ili pangozi. Kuwonjezera pa moto ndi matenda osiyanasiyana, chimodzi mwa ziopsezo zazikulu ndi kuphulika kwa tizirombo tizilombo. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa ndi mapiritsi a pinini.

Kufotokozera ndi mitundu

Masamba a pinini ndi tizilombo ta dongosolo la Hymenoptera. Mitundu yawo imakhala kumadera onse kumene mitengo ya pine ikukula komanso mitengo ya coniferous. Ndi imodzi mwa tizirombo toopsa kwambiri m'nkhalango ya pine. Akuluakulu amuna ndi akazi ali ofanana ndi ntchentche kapena ntchentche, amasiyana ndi maonekedwe awo, monga lamulo lomwe samadya konse kapena amadyetsa timadzi tokoma. Kuwonongeka kwakukulu kumayambitsidwa ndi mphutsi zomwe zimawoneka ngati mbozi, chifukwa chake nthawi zambiri zimatchedwa mbozi.

Pakati pa pine sawflies, sawflies omwe amawoneka ndi ofiira ndi ofiira ndi omwe amafala kwambiri m'nkhalango zathu, mitunduyi ili m'njira zambiri.

Zidzakhalanso zothandiza kwa inu kuti muphunzire momwe mungagwirire ndi tizirombo ngati tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, cruciferous utitiri, dzombe, mphepo, maso, maso, njoka, maso a golidi, nyongolotsi, nyemba zam'mimba, nyongolotsi, masamba, mpunga, mealybug, Cycadata, whitefly, kiviski .

Zachilendo

Akuluakulu: Mkaziyo ali ndi thupi lozungulira, mtundu umasiyana ndi wofiira mpaka utoto wonyezimira, mutu wakuda, pali mdima wakuda thupi, kufika kutalika kwa 10 mm. Amuna ali aang'ono kuposa azimayi, thupi ndi lochepa kwambiri, mtunduwo ndi wakuda kwambiri, nkhono zimakhala zofiira.

Amakonda kukakhala m'nkhalango yaing'ono ya pine, koma amapezeka m'nkhalango zosiyanasiyana zapine komanso zosakanikirana. Mazira - oval, greenish, mpaka 1.5 mm, akugona mu singano zapine chaka chatha, pamwamba pake ndi thovu lobiriwira.

Mphutsi - yaikulu tizilombo. Mtundu - kuchokera ku chikasu mpaka kubiriwira, pa thupi lakuda pamwamba pa mwendo uliwonse, kukula mpaka 2.8 cm. Sungani zisa, kusuntha ndi kusunthira.

Nkhupa imakhala ndi khola lofiira, lofiira kapena lofiirira, pafupifupi masentimita 1.

Mukudziwa? Kafukufuku wamba wa sapine woyamba unafotokozedwa mu 1758 ndi amene anayambitsa mtundu wa mitundu, Carl Linney monga diprion pini. Auburn inafotokozedwa mu 1785 monga Neodiprion sertifer, katswiri wa zamoyo wa ku France Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Kufiira

Akuluakulu: Mkaziyo ndi wozungulira, thupi limakhala lofiira, kufika mamita 9 mm. Mphongo ndi yaying'ono, mpaka 7 mm, thupi ndi lochepa kwambiri, mtundu uli wakuda kwambiri, zinyama ndizophwanyidwa. Makhalidwe ali ofanana ndi mitundu yapitayi. Mazira ndi ovunda, oyera.

Mphutsi imakhala imvi, imitu imakhala yakuda, pali mzere wowala kumbuyo kwake ndi malire kumbali, mzere wakuda kumbali, wakuda ndi malire owala, kukula mpaka masentimita 2.5. Makhalidwewa ali ofanana ndi a commonfly.

Nkhupa imakhala mu khola lolimba la mtundu wa golide wonyezimira. Amakhala m'nkhalango mpaka atachoka.

Mukudziwa? Parthenogenesis ndi chikhalidwe cha akazi a redfly pine sawfly. - akhoza kubala ana okha, opanda amuna. Pachifukwa ichi, ndizilombo zokha zokha zomwe zimawonekera.

Zochitika pa moyo

M'madera ambiri a sawfly, mibadwo imodzi kapena iƔiri imakula chaka chimodzi, malingana ndi chigawocho, yoyamba imatha kumapeto kwa kasupe-kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe, yachiwiri imachokera pakati mpaka kumapeto kwa chilimwe. Mkaziyo amachoka pomwepo kuchokera mazira 8 mpaka 35, kulowa muzitsulo zomwe anapanga pa singano, ndi kuziphimba ndi zovala zoyera kuti asungidwe. Nkhumba, monga lamulo, chaka chatha, nthawi zambiri pamwamba pa korona. Kenaka, kwinakwake masiku 20, mazirawo amakula, ndipo mphutsi imatuluka mwa iwo masiku 3-4.

Mphutsi imakhala m'magulu akulu, idyani ndikukula. Malingana ndi kutentha kwa tsiku ndi tsiku, nthawi ya chitukuko cha mphutsi imachokera masiku 25 pa 26 ° C mpaka miyezi iwiri pa 10 ° C. Atatha kumadya, mphutsi zimapanga cocoon ndi pupate.

Mbadwo woyamba umakwera korona, chitukuko chimatha masiku 6-12, mbadwo wachiwiri umapita kumtunda, komwe kumadzulo. Achikulire nthawi zambiri amasankhidwa ku pupae madzulo.

Mu barefly yofiira ya pine, mbadwo umodzi wokha umakula mu chaka, kuchoka kumapezeka kumapeto kwa chilimwe ndi kumayambiriro kwa autumn. Mayi amaika mazira pa singano pafupifupi 1.5 mm, pafupifupi, mazira 100 amapangidwa pa mphukira, ndipo pakapita mliri kufika pa mtengo umodzi. Kukula kwa mazira kumatha m'chaka. Mphutsi imakhala chimodzimodzi ndi machalawa wamba. Kutalika kwa nthawi ya chitukuko kumadalira kutentha, kuyambira masiku 30 kufika + 27 ° C mpaka miyezi isanu ndi theka ku 13 ° C. Mphutsiyi imakhala muzitsulo za m'nkhalango kufikira August, kenako pupate.

Amapanga mphutsi ngati mphutsi, komanso amakhala mazira.

Kuvulazidwa kochitidwa

Mphutsi za pinfly zimadya zisoti. Pankhani yobereka, nthambi zimakhala ndi mphutsi, imodzi kapena ziwiri pa singano. Mphutsi yaing'ono imadya zisoti m'mphepete mwake, imasiya mitsempha yokha ndi yapamwamba, pamene singano ziphulika, zimasintha ndi kutembenukira chikasu.

Mphutsi yakale imadya udzu kwathunthu, pansi. Pakukula, mphutsi imodzi imadyetsa singano 30 mpaka 40, onse aang'ono ndi achikulire. Chotsatira chake, nsonga za mapaini zimauma, mitengo imachepetsa kukula, kufooketsa, komwe kumabweretsa matenda ndikukhazikika ndi mitengo ikuluikulu. Kawirikawiri amakhudzidwa ali aang'ono, mpaka zaka makumi atatu, akumala kumapiri apamwamba, ndi kutentha, nyengo youma kumapeto kwa kasupe ndi kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe.

Ndikofunikira! Mbalame yamtengo wapatali ya pinini siimera pamitengo ya thin-pine monga Siberia Pine ndi Weymouth Pine, popeza akazi sangaike mazira pa singano zawo. Crimean pine ndi yochepetsetsa kuti iwonongeke ndi tizilombo.

Zotsatira zoletsa

Ngati zinthu ziyenera kuchitika, kuwonjezeka kwakukulu kwa chiwerengero cha tizirombo kumachitika. Kulimbana ndi mapirafini a pinini pamunda wamaluwa komanso makamaka m'nkhalango ndizovuta kwambiri, zimatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito, makina kapena mankhwala.

Mu nkhalango

Mlingo wa infestation wa mitengo umatsimikiziridwa kuwonetseredwa ndi chiwerengero cha mphutsi zikuyenda pa mitengo ikuluikulu, ndi zinyalala ndi chiwerengero cha nkhuku m'nkhalango. Mankhwala: Mu nkhalango, kuchotsa mphutsi ku nthambi pamanja sizingatheke. Chinthu chokha chomwe chingagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi kulengedwa kwa misampha pa mitengo ikuluikulu yomwe imateteza mphutsi kuti zisatsike ndi kukwawa pamtengo ndi mtengo.

Mapiritsi angakhale othandizira kapena kupha pamene mbiya yophimbidwa ndi nsalu ndi wothandizira woyenera.

Mankhwala amtundu: Pamene anthu ambiri a pine sawflies amadziwika, monga momwe zimawonongeka kwambiri ndi singano za mitengo, ndi kwanzeru kulimbana nawo ndi mankhwala osokoneza bongo.

Mitengo imayambitsidwa ndi mankhwala osokoneza bongo omwe amaphatikizapo zochitika zonse za mkati, kupha onse omwe akukumana ndi tizilombo, komanso kudzera mu zakudya. Ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito tizilombo tosiyanasiyana tikamagwiritsa ntchito.

Mankhwala otsatirawa akulimbikitsidwa:

  • Aktara - mankhwala othandiza - thiamethoxam;
  • Creocide Pro, Arrivo-cypermethrin;
  • Vermitek - amectin;
  • Fufanon, Novaktion - Malathion;
  • Inta-Vir, Actellic - pyrimiphos-methyl.
Zomwe zimayambitsa zamoyo: Polimbana ndi sawfly, mungagwiritse ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo kapena, mosamala kwambiri m'nkhalango, kukonzekera malinga ndi zochita za tizilombo toyambitsa matenda zomwe ziri zoopsa kwa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Pine sawfly imakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi kukonzekera kotereku: Fitoverm, Lepidotsid, Bitoksibatsillin, Lepidobaktsid.

Kukonzekera kwachilengedwe kumaphatikizaponso "Akarin", "Glyocladin", "Bi-58", "Albit", "Gaupsin", ndi "PhytoDoctor".
Njira zotsalira zamoyozi zimakhala zowonjezereka.

Pamunda wamunda

Ngati pine sawfly imaonekera m'dzikoli, ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito mofanana ndi m'nkhalango, koma malinga ndi kufunikira kwake. Kuonjezera apo, njira zowonjezera zomwe sizikupezeka m'nkhalango chifukwa cha kukula kwake.

Mankhwala: Chinthu chosavuta kwambiri ndikutolera mbozi m'magulu ndi thunthu, kapena kuwagwedeza ndi madzi amphamvu. Mphutsi imayenera kuchotsedwa pansi, ndikumba nthaka pansi pa mitengo.

Ndikofunikira! Zikakhala zoopsa, mphutsi za mphutsi zimapanga mankhwala oopsa omwe amachititsa kuti anthu asamayende bwino. Choncho, nkofunika kusonkhanitsa mphutsi mu magolovesi.
Zamoyo: Mudzikoli mungagwiritse ntchito mankhwala osiyana, omwe amadziwika bwino kwambiri ndi kulowetsedwa kwa adyo, kulowetsedwa kwa fodya kuphatikizapo mpiru ndi nsonga za phwetekere. Lembani ndi lita imodzi ya madzi 250 magalamu a mankhwala omwe mwasankha ndipo mupite tsiku limodzi kutentha kwake. Kuwongolera, kulowetsedwa kokonzeka kumaphatikizidwa ku chidebe cha madzi ndi kutsanulira mitengo yomwe imakhudzidwa.

Pofuna kuteteza ndi kulimbana ndi tizirombo, tikulimbikitsanso kubzala tomato pafupi ndi mapiritsi, kununkhira kwawo kumatsutsa sawfly. Ndi cholinga chomwecho, mukhoza kukopa adani achilengedwe a sawfly, monga nyerere ndi mbalame zosautsa, mwa kuika odyetsa kapena kusakaniza shuga.

Njira zamagetsi sizisiyana ndi zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'nkhalango. Mitengo imatha kuthandizidwa ndi karbofos kapena chlorophos (10 g pa 10 l madzi).

Kupewa

Pine Sawyer amakonda malo otentha, owuma, otseguka. Kuchuluka kwa chinyezi kumabweretsa matenda ndi imfa ya tizilombo toononga. Komanso, ali ndi adani ambiri achirengedwe: mbalame, nyerere, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda komanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, mabakiteriya ambiri omwe amabweretsa matenda. Zonsezi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'nkhalango pofuna kupewa.

Pogwiritsa ntchito mitengo, m'pofunika kuti ikhale yosakanikirana, yosinthanitsa mapini ndi malo a mitengo yowonongeka, yogawanika bwino, popanda mipata, mipata ndi mazenera. Mphepete ayenera kuchita wandiweyani, ndi wandiweyani. Dothi la sandy losalemera mu nayitrogeni liyenera kupindulitsidwa podzala lupins losatha.

M'chaka, nkofunika kuyesa mitengo ndi zinyalala pansi pawo kuti zikhale ndi makoko ndi ziphuphu. Tetezani ndi kulimbikitsa kufalikira kwa zitsamba, kukopa ndi thandizo la odyetsa, mbalame zothamanga.

Kulimbikitsa kufalikira kwa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda - tihins ndi anthu okwera pamahatchi. Ambiri mwa iwo ndi enieni a sawfly. Choncho, tetrastihus ndi mavitamini pa mazira, ndi microelectron, Gambrus ndi majeremusi a mphutsi mu ma cocoons. M'munda, njira zopewera ndizosavuta. Mukadzala pine simukusowa kukhala pafupi. Ndikofunika kuyendera mitengo nthawi zonse, kuyeretsa za singano zakugwa, nthambi zowuma, namsongole ndi kukumba nthaka pansi pawo. Kubzala tomato. Chiwonetsero cha mbalame ndi nyerere.

Mu nyengo yozizira, mukhoza kuonjezera chinyezi cha mitengo yambiri, imathandizanso kuchepetsa chiopsezo cha tizilombo.

Ngakhale sawfly ya pine ingakhale yoopsa kwambiri kwa nkhalango zapine, koma popewera moyenera chiopsezo cha chiwopsezo chake chacheperachepera, ndipo kuyang'ana nkhalango nthawi zonse, kufufuza nthawi yake ndi njira zowonongeka zomwe zatengedwa kuti zithane nazo zimathandiza kuti nkhalango zapine zikhale zathanzi ndi zokongola.