Momwe mungamwetse tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha

Tsabola wobiriwira wokoma kapena wowawa pamudzi adzakhala bwino kuwonjezera pa mbale zambiri pa tebulo lanu. Komabe, ngati mukufuna kukula mbewu zabwino kwambiri, makamaka kumadera okhala ndi nyengo yoziziritsa, muyenera kulandira chidziwitso pa malamulo a kulima mbewu (makamaka ulimi wake wothirira) mu nyengo yotentha.

Mavuto akukula

Musanayambe kukambilana za mfundo zazikuluzikulu za mutuwu, ndi bwino kudziwa momwe zidzakhalira bwino tsabola. Tiyenera kukumbukira nthawi zonse kuti izi ndi zachikhalidwe kwambiri, ndipo kumunda kumabweretsa zokolola zabwino kudera la kumwera kwa madera okwera ndi nyengo yofunda.

M'madera ambiri a Russian Federation, iwo makamaka akukula mu nthaka yotsekedwa, chifukwa mwinamwake tsabola amalephera kapena sabala zipatso konse. Komabe, kuti pakhale kukolola kochuluka, kukhalapo kwa chophimba sikukwanira, ndipo mukadzala zomera mu wowonjezera kutentha, zifukwa zina zambiri za kukula kwathunthu ndi kukula kwa tsabola ziyenera kuganiziridwa. Amaphatikizansopo zotsatirazi:

  1. Sikoyenera kudzala zomera kusiyana ndi masentimita 25 kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzake, popeza zikukula, zidzasokoneza anzako - ndi bwino kusiya masentimita 80 pakati pa mizere.
  2. Pomwe mapesi a tchire atakhala okwanira, ayenera kumangidwa msangamsanga kuti azitha kuswa.
  3. Ndikofunika kuunikira mokwanira ku malo onse okhalamo, monga tsabola ndi chomera chokonda kwambiri (kwa mbewu yabwino, maola a masana sayenera kukhala ochepera maola 12-14 pa tsiku).
  4. Nthaka yotentha mu wowonjezera kutentha imayenera kusungidwa pa 15 ° C, ndipo mbande ziyenera kubzalidwa mmenemo pasanathe masiku 55 mutabzala mbewu mu miphika yoti imere (pakupanga zipatso, zidzakhala bwino kutulutsa kutentha kufika pamtunda wa 18 ... + 20 ° C)
  5. Onetsetsani kumasula gawolo musanadzale tsabola ndikupitiriza kuchita izi nthawi zonse mosamala, osalola kuti nthaka ikhale yotsika (kuti chitukuko chikhale bwino, mizu ya chomera imafunikira mpweya wokhazikika nthawi zonse).
  6. Ndipo ndithudi, tumizani ku ndondomekoyi ndi kuchuluka kwa kuthirira, zomwe tidzakambirane mopitirira.
Ndikofunikira! Izi zikulimbikitsidwa kwambiri, monga zosiyana zake ndi zofunika kwambiri pakukula chikhalidwe. Pa phukusi ndi mbewu zogulidwa, nthawi zambiri mukhoza kupeza zambiri zokhudza nyengo yoyenera kutentha, kuyatsa kwa mulingo woyenerera ndi zovuta zina za kukula kwa tsabola wobiriwira mu wowonjezera kutentha.

Mthunzi ndi Pepper

Mwina chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri polima tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha ndikupanga chinyezi chabwino, mlengalenga ndi nthaka. Pachiyambi choyamba, mtengo wapatali ndi 70%, ndipo wachiwiri - 60%, koma pamene chipatso chimabala zipatso zambiri, chinyezi mu greenhouse chimakula kufika 80%.

Momwe mungamwetse tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha?

Pokhala ndi "nyumba" yabwino kwambiri ya tsabola, zimatsalira kuti mudziwe mfundo ina yofunika kwambiri: nthawi ndi nthawi yowonjezera bwino tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha kwa polycarbonate. Ndiyenera kunena kuti yankho la funsoli liri ndi zigawo zingapo.

Nthawi

Ndipotu, nthawi yothirira mbewu zomwe zimalima zimakhala ndi gawo lalikulu mukumwa kwa mbewu yamadzi, chifukwa ngati mutabweretsa nthaka m'nthaka yotentha, idzaphulika mwamsanga, nthaka idzagwedezeka, ndipo masamba otsala a zomerawo adzauma. Pachifukwa ichi, kuthirira tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha kumachitika m'mawa, dzuŵa lisanayambe kutentha dziko lapansi. Kuwonjezera apo, ngati chilala ndi kutentha tsiku lonse, chikhalidwe nthawi zambiri amamwetsa ngakhale madzulo, dzuwa litalowa.

Mukudziwa? Kugwiritsa ntchito tsabola wa ku Bulgaria nthawi zonse ndi osuta fodya (kuphatikizapo osuta fodya) kumachepetsa kwambiri mwayi wokhala ndi khansa mwa iwo. Chowonadi n'chakuti khansa yomwe ili mu utsi wa ndudu imathandizira kuti chitukuko cha vitamini A chichepetse, ndipo tsabola, wolemera mmenemo, ikhoza kulipiritsa vutoli.

Zofuna za madzi

Chinthu chachiwiri chofunika pa njira yothirira kuthira ndi madzi abwino. Ngati m'deralo kutentha kwa usiku sikukwera kwambiri, ndiye bwino kugwiritsa ntchito madzi ofunda kuti amwe madzi otentha.

Madzi oyenerera amaphatikizapo patsiku mu mbiya pansi pa dzuŵa, monga momwe zilili, amatha kutenthetsa mpaka kutentha kwambiri, wokhala ndi tsabola yabwino. Zikhoza kukhala madzi amvula kapena madzi opopi. Musaiwale kuti muziyendetsa chinyezi mu wowonjezera kutentha poyendetsa pogona.

Nthawi zambiri kumamwa

Kodi ndizomwe mungatsitsire tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha, tawona, zimangokhala kuti muwone kuti nthawi zambiri mumafuna kuti madzi azikhala pansi. Kawirikawiri, njira yabwino ingakhale kamodzi pa masiku awiri, koma panthawi yokolola ya mbewu kapena fruiting, izi zimachitika kawirikawiri, kangapo pa sabata.

Mfundo yakuti tsabola imafuna kuwonjezeranso chinyezi, mumati " masamba ndi masamba owuma.

Chiwembu cha ulimi wothirira chimakhala choyenera kwambiri popanga tsabola: Othello, Health, Chikondi, Orange Chozizwitsa, Usiku, Njovu, ndi ena. Koma kuti mutsimikizire kuti chisankho choterocho ndi cholondola, mukhoza kuzindikiranso nokha ndi zofunikira za osankhidwa osiyanasiyana m'deralo.

Ndi bwino kumvetsera zofunikira zodyetsera mitundu yotchuka ya tsabola monga zodabwitsa za California, Habanero, Claudio F1, Gypsy F1, Bogatyr, Ratunda.
Pali malamulo angapo okhudza ubwino wa kuthirira tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha:

  • Zomera 20 zitsamba ziyenera kukhala ndi malita 10 a madzi, ndipo ngati zikukula pamtunda kapena mchenga, ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito madzi okwanira 1 litre pa chitsamba chilichonse;
  • madziwa ayenera kugawidwa mosamalitsa momwe zingathere kuti pasakhale mitundu yosiyanasiyana yazomera kuzungulira chomeracho. Ngati gawo lanu mu wowonjezera kutentha liri pafupi ndi zisindikizo zotere, ndiye kuti simungaiwale za kumasula nthaka muzitsamba;
  • Kukula kwa yunifolomu ya zomera, ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito madzi okwanira amodzi, pamene madzi akugwiritsidwa ntchito kumbali imodzi ya chitsamba ndipo kumbali ina nthaka imamasulidwa, ndipo nthawi yotsatira yomwe madzi akuwonjezeredwa, mbalizo zimasintha;
  • panthawi yopanga mazira ambiri, sikofunika kuthirira tsabola kawiri pa sabata, koma mbande imayenera njirayi masiku onse ochepa.
Choyamba chidziwitso chamadzimadzi chimachitika patsiku lopiritsira mbande, ndipo kachiwiri chikhalidwe chimathiridwa madzi masiku asanu okha mutatha.

Mukudziwa? Ku Russia, tsabolayo inabweretsedwa m'zaka za m'ma XVI, ndikupereka ku Turkey ndi Iran.

Njira zothirira

Ngati muli ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timapatsa, ndipo mukukula tsabola pokhapokha ngati mutagwiritsa ntchito, ndiye kuti mungathe kuthirira, koma minda ikuluikulu idzafuna madzi osakaniza. Tidzatha kumvetsetsa zomwe zilipo.

Kumwa madzi - yophweka kwambiri, koma panthawi imodzimodziyo yothetsa mavuto, yomwe imafuna kupezeka kwa zipangizo zoyenera: zitini zodyera, hoses kapena akasinja amadzi. Kumbali ina, simusowa ndalama zambiri kuti muzitha kukhazikitsa njira zothirira. Njira yothirira makina - ili ndi mtundu wa "golidi" amatanthauzira pakati pa kupanga njirayo ndi kugwiritsa ntchito. Pamafunika kuyambitsa ndegeyo ndikuonetsetsa kuti madzi akuyenda bwino kwambiri. Munthu sayenera kudzisankhira yekha, koma pokhala ndi mapaipi mkati mwake ndikuika ma droppers abwino pa iwo, uyenera kuyesa.

Mitengo ya ulimi wothirira imapereka kayendedwe ka madzi ogwiritsira ntchito, omwe angakhale chitoliro chachikulu, chophimba bwino, kapena bwino nthawi zonse ndi zipangizo zonse zoyenera kupopera.

Ndikofunikira! Popeza ntchito yamapampu idzafuna magetsi, m'pofunika kuti pasakhale zosokoneza. Apo ayi, ndi bwino kuwonjezera malo ogwiritsira ntchito madzi pa siteti - njira yoperetsera ulimi.
Nthawi zambiri, kachitidwe ka ulimi wothirira kawirikawiri nthawi zambiri imakhala ndi mapaipi ndi mapepala ambiri mkati mwa wowonjezera kutentha, omwe, ine ndiyenera kunena, si nthawizonse yabwino.

Kuwaza ulimi wothirira

Kuwombera wothirira mwachangu ndi njira yowunikira kwambiri yothirira nyemba mu wowonjezera kutentha. Zonse zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mapaipi ndi mazitoti ndi apamwamba kwambiri poyerekeza ndi zipangizo zamakina, koma kugwiritsa ntchito njirayi sikuloledwa kwa tsabola yamtundu uliwonse.

Ndifunikanso kumvetsetsa kuti ndibwino kuti musankhe chisankho chimodzi chokha cha ulimi wothirira, malinga ndi zomwe tsabola zimabzalidwa mu malo otentha. Mwachitsanzo, mu malo omwe nthawi zonse amapangira dothi lowala, ming'oma ya pamtengayo iyenera kukhala pa masentimita 10-20, pa dothi lopambanitsa - 20-30 cm, ndi dongo kapena lolemy 30-35 masentimita

Kuthamanga kwa madzi kuyenera kukhazikitsidwa mwanjira yakuti pamtundu wina wa dothi ndi wogawidwa m'magawo. Ngati madzi alibe nthawi yogwiritsira ntchito, mafinya amawoneka pamwamba, omwe si abwino kwa kukula kwa tsabola.

Zomera zobiriwira zogwiritsiridwa ntchito m'nyumba ndizo zimapanga, tomato, nkhaka, ndi strawberries.

Mawu ochepa ponena za kudyetsa

Pofuna kupeza zokolola zambiri za tsabola kuchokera ku wowonjezera kutentha, kuwonjezera pa kuthirira kwa nthawi yake, nkofunikanso kudyetsa zomera zazing'ono mutabzala mumkhalidwe watsopano. Chifukwa cha izi, njira yothetsera mullein m'madzi (pa chiŵerengero cha 1:10) kapena slurry yofanana ndi yoyenera, koma yayamba kugwiritsa ntchito zitosi za nkhuku (1:12). Kudya kwa zakudya zoterezi kumakhala pafupifupi 5 malita pa 1 mamita okonzedwa.

Phulusa la nkhuni limagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chovala chokwera pamwamba pa 150 g pa 1 mamita, kusinthanitsa mawu ake oyambirira pogwiritsa ntchito mavitamini apamwamba. Komanso, kuti manyowa awononge nthaka ndi kuteteza zomera ku matenda, zitsamba zotchedwa infusions zimagwiritsidwa ntchito, makamaka kuchokera ku nettle.

Poganizira momwe mungadyetse tsabola mu wowonjezera kutentha, musaiwale kuti zomera izi zimakonda kwambiri mankhwala omwe ayenera kukhala ndi urea (pafupifupi 10 g) ndi superphosphate (5 g) omwe amatsitsidwa mu chidebe cha madzi. Onetsetsani kuti mudikire kuti zigawozo zithetsedwe, kenako mutha kuzidyetsa mwa kutsanulira 1 lita imodzi ya yankho pansi pa mng'oma uliwonse. Ngati pali malasha ndi ayodini mu famu (ngati madontho angapo) mukhoza kuwonjezerapo.

Amaluwa ena amawona tsabola kukhala chomera chosafuna, koma, potsata malamulo osavuta kumalima, kuphatikizapo m'mitengo ya greenhouses, mudzawona kuti khama lidzapindula mokwanira.