Cherry "Chernokorka": makhalidwe, zinsinsi za kulima bwino

Pakati pa nthawi zambiri acidic zipatso za chitumbuwa pali mitundu yosiyana mwachilungamo lalikulu ndi yowutsa mudyo zipatso, popanda mwachizolowezi mphamvu acid. Ng'ombe ya Chernokorka, yomwe yakula bwino mu gawo la Ukraine ndi madera ena a Russia kwa nthawi yoposa chaka, ndi imodzi mwa iyo. Pa kufotokoza kwa zosiyanasiyanazi pali mitundu yambiri yosangalatsa, yomwe tsopano tiyiuza.

Mbiri yopondereza

"Chernokorka" amalingaliridwa kuti ndizochokera kwa ntchito za Chiyukireniya obereketsa omwe anatha kupeza mtengo wokongola kwambiri ndi pafupifupi nyengo ya zipatso yakucha. Apeza kufalikira kwa gawo lathu kuyambira 1974 ndipo lero likukula ambiri Ukraine zigawo: Dnipropetrovsk, Luhansk, Kirovograd, Zaporozhye, Odessa ndi zina zigawo.

Kuwonjezera apo, yamatcheri a zosiyanasiyanazi amakula m'midzi yambiri ya Russian Federation, makamaka kumpoto kwa Caucasus.

Mafotokozedwe ndi zosiyana za zosiyanasiyana

Pofotokoza mitengo ya zipatso, n'kofunika kuganizira osati zenizeni za chipatso, komanso momwe zimakhalira chomeracho, popeza zokolola zimadalira kwambiri.

Mukudziwa? Kugawo la Russia, anayamba kulima yamatcheri pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1800, koma mwamsanga anayamba kutchuka ndikufika kumadera akutali kwambiri a dzikoli (chifukwa cha kuzizira kwa mitundu ina ya zakutchire, amapezeka ngakhale ku Himalaya).

Mtengo

Kunja, chitumbuwa chotchedwa "Chernokorka" chimapangidwa ngati mawonekedwe a nthambi yamtengo wapatali, mofanana ndi shrub yaikulu, mpaka mamita atatu pamwamba. Korona wake ndi yotseguka ndipo kuchokera kumbali ikuwoneka ngati wilted. Zomera zonsezi zimalekerera chilala mwangwiro ndipo sizikusowa chinyezi chambiri.

Kuphatikiza apo, amachitanso bwino ndi chisanu cha chisanu. Fruiting kawirikawiri imapezeka kumapeto kwa June kapena kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa July, ndipo zaka zisanu zokha mutabzala.

Onani mitundu yamatcheri monga Morozovka, Uralskaya Ruby, Turgenevka, Molodezhnaya, Vladimirskaya, Black Large, Shokoladnitsa, Kharitonovskaya.

Zipatso

Mchere wamatope amakhala ndi pafupifupi 4.5 g ndipo amadziwika ndi kupezeka kwa khungu loyera komanso konyezimira. Mnofu wofananawo umakhala wowometsera kwambiri komanso wokoma kwambiri mu kulawa, chifukwa chipatsocho chimakhala ndi chidziwitso chokwanira kwambiri.

Iwo ali oyenerera kuti azigwiritsa ntchito mwatsopano, ndi mitundu yonse ya kutetezedwa mwa mawonekedwe a compotes, kupanikizana kapena jams.

Kulekanitsa ndi zipatso za yamatcheri "Chernokorka" - yonyowa, ndipo fupa laling'ono liri bwino losiyana ndi gawo lofewa. Mtengo wolimba wa zipatso umagwira chipatsocho, choncho ndi bwino kuyesetsa pang'ono kuchotsa. Kawirikawiri, n'zotheka kukolola makilogalamu 30 a yamatcheri kuchokera ku mtengo umodzi chaka chilichonse, komanso pansi pa nyengo yabwino komanso nyengo yabwino, zokolola zimakhala pafupifupi 60 kg pa mbewu.

Mukudziwa? Cherry amatha kuthana ndi kufooka kwa khunyu, ndipo asanafike mankhwala amasiku ano, ochiritsa ambiri amalimbikitsa odwala kudya mabulosiwa, komanso ochuluka.

Zimbudzi

Izi zimakhala za gulu lodzibala, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti kuti mupeze mitengo yochuluka ndi yapamwamba kuchokera ku yamatcheri a Chernokorka, m'pofunika kudzala mitengo yoyenera pollinating pafupi nayo.

Mitundu ya Cherry monga "Donchanka", "Annushka", "Aelita", "Don Beauty", "Pink Pink" ndi yabwino kwambiri pa ntchitoyi, ndipo Lyubskaya zosiyanasiyana ayenera kutchulidwa pakati pa abwino oyandikana nawo yamatcheri.

Kusankhidwa kwa mbande kubzala

Si chinsinsi kuti pobzala mtengo wa zipatso pa chiwembu chanu, choyamba, muyenera kugula sapling yabwino yomwe ingabweretse zokolola zabwino m'tsogolomu. Amakhalabe kuti aphunzire momwe angawonetsere kusiyanitsa chabwino chodzala ndi chomera chosafunika.

Choncho, posankha chitumbuwa chotchedwa "Chernokorki" muyenera kumvetsera zotsatirazi:

  • Izi ziyenera kukhala chomera pafupi mamita awiri msinkhu, ndi rhizome ya nthambi yabwino ndi michere yambiri;
  • Ziwalo zake zonse zikhale zotsekemera ndipo zisakhale ndi zizindikiro za matenda, kaya pamakungwa kapena pamapope a masamba;
  • Ngati pang'onozing'ono pang'onoting'ono (kumangoyamba kulowera) mu mbeu yabwino mukhoza kuona maselo obiriwira, koma ngati ali owuma ndi imvi, ndiye kuti mutenge malo otere pa tsamba lanu simudzabweretsa zotsatira zoyenera.
Ndikofunikira! Gulani mbande zokha kuchokera kwa anthu otsimikiziridwa kapena m'masitolo apadera, ndipo ngakhale chitumbuwa chikugulitsidwa ndi mizu yotsekedwa, yesetsani kupeza njira yowunika momwe mizu imakhalira: mwachitsanzo, mungathe kukambirana ndi wogulitsa ndikuchotsa mosamala gawo la gawolo.

Kusankha malo abwino pamalo awa

Pambuyo posankha mbewu yabwino, imakhalanso yosankha malo abwino odzala. Mu funso ili nkofunikira kulingalira mfundo zazikulu ziwiri: kuwala kochepa komanso mtundu wa nthaka.

Kuunikira

Ngati mukufuna kukula yamatcheri a mitundu yosiyanasiyana, muyenera kumvetsetsa kuti kuti mukolole zochuluka, ayenera kulandira kuwala kokwanira kwa dzuwa, ndiko kuti, kukhoza kungoyikidwa pamalo okhazikika.

Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, mitengo siigonjetsedwa bwino ndi chisanu, choncho ndibwino "kuwabisa" kumbuyo kwa nyumba iliyonse yomwe imatha kuteteza "Black Forest" ku chimphepo. Malo abwino kwambiri, poganizira zofunikira zonse, zikuyang'ana kumpoto kwa gawolo, bwino ndi dzuwa.

Kuonjezerapo, onetsetsani kuti mitengo siimakula mkati mwa mamita 4-5, monga oimira mitunduyi salola kulemba pafupi, ndipo pamwamba pake siyiyikidwa mipesa yomwe ikhoza kumeta mchere.

Ground

Cherry "Chernokorka" imapanganso zofuna za nthaka pamalo omwe mwasankha kubzala. Pachifukwa ichi, makondomu ayenera kuperekedwa kwa magawo a loamy, kumene madzi akubwera sali pafupi kwambiri.

Ndikofunikanso kuti nthaka ikhale yopanda ndale, pamtunda wa 6.5-7.0 pH, ngakhale m'mbali zonsezi ziyenera kuwonjezeredwa ndi feteleza komanso nthawi zambiri laimu.

Mudzakhala ndi chidwi chophunzira momwe mungakolole yamatcheri, malamulo a kudulira, phindu la thupi la munthu.

Ntchito yokonzekera

Kubzala kwa zomera zomwe zafotokozedwa pansi zimapangidwira pomwepo, dziko lapansi likadzangoyamba kukwanira pansi pa kuwala kwa dzuŵa, koma njira zothandizira zimayambira pasadakhale.

Makamaka, dzenje lodzala limakonzedwa pafupi mwezi umodzi asanalowetsedwe mmera, posankha miyeso yake molingana ndi mphamvu ya mizu. Kuti "Chernokorki" ikamera kuti "ikhale pansi" mofulumira m'malo atsopano, feteleza organic (mwachitsanzo, manyowa a mahatchi) amaikidwa pansi pa dzenje lakubzala, kuwonjezera iwo superphosphate ndi potaziyamu kloride, yotengedwa mofanana.

Ndikofunikira! Nthawi zambiri, kukula kwake kwa dzenje kudzakhala masentimita 70-80 cm komanso 50-60 masentimita.
Musanayambe kubzala mbeuyo pansi, muyenera kuyang'anitsitsa (makamaka ngati mutagula mmera) ndipo munadula nthambi zonse zomwe sizikukula kapena kuzizira pambuyo pa nyengo yozizira. Mizu ya sapling imadulidwa ku 1/3 ya kutalika kwake.

Khwerero ndi Gawo Malangizo Akufika

Mungathe kulima yamatcheri pa chiwembu chanu m'nyengo ya masika ndi m'dzinja, koma, monga momwe mukuwonetsera, Chernokorki njira yoyamba ndi yabwino kwambiri.

Pa kubzala kwadzinja, pali mwayi waukulu kwambiri wa imfa ya chomera chifukwa cha chisanu chosayembekezereka.

Njira yamakono yobzala mbande ndi iyi:

  • Mbewu imayikidwa mu dzenje lokonzekera lokonzedwa ndi mchenga wothira pansi ndi nthaka (imasakaniza pasadakhale ndi feteleza), mofatsa imayikuta iyo ndi kusiya mizu ya mizu 5 cm pamwamba pa dzenje;
  • Nkhumba imathamangitsidwa mkatikati mwa dzenje (ikhoza kuchitidwa mwamsanga) ndipo mmera umangirizidwa kwa icho, ndikupangitsa kukhala bata;
  • liphimbe dzenje ndi dziko lonse lapansi ndikuphwanyika gawo lapansi pamtengo waung'ono pang'ono;
  • imwani chomera ndipo, ngati kuli koyenera, sungani mtengo wa mtengo ndi utuchi kapena peat;
  • Choponderetsa chadothi chimatsanulira pamtunda wa thunthu, zomwe zingalepheretse kumwa madzi mopitirira muyeso.
Ndikofunikira! Zomera za rootstocks zamphamvu kuti zikhale ndi moyo wabwino zimafuna malo odyetsera osachepera 12 mamita, pamene zomera zomwe zimakhala ndi mizu yachitsulo zingakhale pamalo okwana 9 mamita.

Zosamalidwa za nyengo za nyengo

Mofanana ndi mitundu yambiri ya yamatcheri, Chernokorka ili ndi chosowa chofunika kwambiri cha kuthirira kwa nthawi yake, kumasula, kudulira ndi zina zazikulu zaulimi zomwe zidzakuthandizira kukula ndikugwirizana. Taganizirani zochitika za njira iliyonseyi.

Kuthirira, kumasula

Nthawi yoyamba mutabzala mbande pamalo atsopano, kuthirira kumachitika nthawi zonse ndikugwiritsa ntchito madzi okwanira okwanira.

M'tsogolomu (pafupifupi miyezi ingapo), mtengo ukangowonjezereka, chidebe chimodzi cha madzi nthawi imodzi pamwezi chidzakwanira. Chakumapeto kwa autumn, kuchuluka kwa kuthirira kwafupika, ndipo kumayambiriro kwa September ayenera kukhala atayimitsidwa.

Cherry "Chernokorka" imayankha bwino kuti ikamasulidwe panthaŵi yake ndi kusamalira bwino mtengo wa mtengo, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti nkofunika kuchotsa nthawi zonse namsongole ndipo mosamala kukumba izo, simungakhoze kufota pa bayonet yonse.

Kupaka pamwamba

Chaka chilichonse, pamaso pa maluwa a chitumbuwa, m'pofunika kudyetsa ndi mchere feteleza, anapereka mawonekedwe a aqueous yankho la urea, superphosphate ndi potaziyamu mankhwala enaake.

Kuonjezerapo, pafupifupi dothi lililonse liyenera kuwonjezeredwa powonjezera mchere wamtengo wapatali kapena ufa wa dolomite, kuchuluka kwake komwe kumadalira mtundu wa gawo lapansi.

Pambuyo maluwa, chomeracho chingagwiritsenso ntchito mankhwala monga feteleza: manyowa, kompositi, kapena mankhwala omwe amapezeka mosavuta m'sitolo iliyonse yapadera.

Manyowawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofukula, kapena amasungunula ndi kutsanulira nthaka pamtunda.

Pamene yophukira kudyetsa yamatcheri (pambuyo pochotsa chipatso), mungagwiritse ntchito chilichonse chokonzekera chopangidwa ndi michere yosakaniza, koma popanda nayitrogeni. Potaziyamu ndi phosphorus ziyenera kukhala zofunikira pazovala zapamwamba.

Kuchiza mankhwala

Zowopsya kwambiri kwa wamaluwa ambiri, Chernokork yamatcheri samatsutsa bwino zotsatira za tizirombo tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimayambitsa chitukuko cha coccomycosis.

Zizindikiro zoyamba za kukhalapo kwa matendawa zimawonekera kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe, ndipo nthawi ya kukula zimatha kubala mibadwo isanu ndi itatu. Zizindikiro zazikulu za coccomycosis pa chernokorka chitumbuwa ndi zochepa zazing'ono za bulauni kumtunda kwa masamba ndi pinki zoyera pansi.

Mu gawo lachiwiri la mwezi wa July, mtengo waukulu ukhoza kutaya hafu ya masamba ake, pamene mbande zazing'ono zimakhala zosalekeza.

Njira zazikulu zothana ndi matendawa zikuphatikizapo kusonkhanitsa kwa masamba omwe akuyenda bwino ndi kuwonongeka kwathunthu, kutsatiridwa ndi kupopera mankhwala a chitumbuwa ndi antifungal fungicidal kukonzekera pambuyo pa kutha kwa maluwa ndi pambuyo pokolola chipatsocho. Kuyimitsidwa kwapadera, komwe mungathe kukonzekera kwanu, ndi katswiri wotsutsa mankhwala.

Zonse zomwe mukufunikira ndikuthandizira 100 g wa sulfure ndi laimu (50 g ya mankhwala) mu 10 malita a madzi ndipo, mutatha kusinkhasinkha yankho, perekani mitengo nthawi zambiri pa nyengo.

Kwa munthu, mankhwala oterewa ndi otetezeka, koma ngati pali zipatso kale pamtengo, ndipo simunazindikire zizindikiro za matenda, ndi bwino kubwezeretsa chithandizochi.

Palibe njira zina zothandizira kuti "Chernokorka" zisaperekedwe - zokwanira zogwirizana ndi zofunikira za agrotechnical.

Kudulira

M'chaka choyamba mutabzala chitumbuwa cha malo osiyana siyana m'deralo, muyenera kuchotsa maluwa osachepera 80%, omwe amathandiza kuti zakudya zowonjezera zikhale bwino ndikulola kuti ziwone mphamvu zowonjezera.

Kukula kwa mizu komwe kumapangidwanso kungathetsedwe, chifukwa izi zingachepetse kuyamwa kwa zakudya, motero kuwonjezera zokolola zamtsogolo.

Musanyalanyaze kufunika kwa kupopera kwa korona kwa chaka ndi chaka (kuchitidwa kumayambiriro kwa masika kusanayambe kuyamwa kutuluka) ndi kuchotsedwa kwa mphukira zonse zofooka ndi zopotoka.

Ndikofunikira! Chiwerengero chachikulu cha nthambi zodula siziyenera kupitirira ¼ pa chiwerengero chawo chonse. Dulani kokha mphukira zomwe ziri zopanda pake, mwinamwake chitumbuwa sichidzalola kulowerera kumeneko.
Komanso nthambi zowonongeka ndi zipatso zomwe zikukula pansi zimatha kuchotsedwa, ndipo ngati mtengo watha kale kufika mamita atatu, ndiye kuti kukula kwake kungakhale kochepa chifukwa chodula pakati pa nthambi ndi nthambi zikukula mmwamba. Pachifukwa ichi, mdulidwe uyenera kuchitidwa "pa mphete."

Kukonzekera nyengo yozizira

Cherry "Chernokorka" ali ndipamwamba kwambiri msinkhu wotsutsa chisanu, chomwe, ngakhale, chiri chosiyana kwa mitundu ina. Komabe, ngati nyengo yozizira idzaonekera ndi chisanu pang'ono, ndiye kuti mwina kuthawa kuwonongeka kwa mphukira sikungapambane.

Ndichifukwa chake kumapeto kwa autumn ndikofunika kuteteza mizu momwe zingathere poyendetsa nthaka ndi kavalo humus kapena utuchi m'mitengo ya mitengo. Thunthu palokha limakulungidwa ndi zinthu zoteteza. Ngati chipale chofewa chigwerabe m'nyengo yozizira, ndiye kuti mungagwiritse ntchito pogona.

Cherry "Chernokorka" ndi njira yabwino kwambiri kwa minda yambiri: silimasiyana mosiyanasiyana, imatha kupeza mbewu zochuluka komanso nthawi imodzi yokoma. Kuchita khama pang'ono, ndipo posakhalitsa yamatcheri okoma ndi amchere adzawonekera pa tebulo lanu.