Mitundu yayikulu ya okolola ndi makhalidwe awo

Bizinesi yamakono masiku ano ikukula mofulumira. Pofuna kukolola mwamsanga, njira zosiyanasiyana zamagetsi, maginito ndi makina amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kukolola tirigu ndi mbewu zamasamba tsopano sizingatheke kulingalira popanda kugwiritsa ntchito mbewu zambewu. M'nkhani yathu, tiyang'ana zomwe mutu wamutu umapanga, ndi mitundu yanji komanso mafano otchuka.

Kufotokozera ndi Cholinga

Tiyeni tiwone chomwe wokolola akuwunika. Wokolola ndi wokolola tirigu wokonzedwe kukolola mbewu, komanso kuyika mbewu pamtunda kapena kuwutumiza kumalo opunthira a chophatikiza.

Phatikizani okolola monga Don-1500 ndi Niva SK-5 amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokolola mbewu za tirigu.

Magulu amenewa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokolola mbewu za tirigu, chifukwa cha mbewu zambewu. Palinso mutu wapadera wa kukolola mpendadzuwa ndi chimanga. Zonsezi ndi zosiyana mosiyanasiyana.

Mukudziwa? Agriculture inayamba m'zaka za m'ma 1000 BC. Chiyambi choyambirira cha ulimi chinacitika pamene mafuko osamalika anayamba ulimi. Ndipo patatha zaka zikwi zitatu zokha, njira yoyamba ulimi wothirira inayamba.

Chifukwa cha kamangidwe kake, mutu ndi mawonekedwe:

  1. amapanga mpukutu wabwino;
  2. ali ndi zokolola zabwino;
  3. kuchepetsa ndalama zomwe zimagwiridwa ndi zokolola zosiyana;
  4. sichifuna chisamaliro chapamwamba ndi chovuta;
  5. yogwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zosiyana zamakono zamakono;
  6. zokolola mwamsanga komanso mofulumira ndi zochepa zoperewera.

Zojambula ndi ndondomeko ya ntchito

Wokolola akhoza kukhala auger, ndipo akhoza kukhala nsanja. Malingana ndi izi, ntchitoyi ndi yosiyana kwambiri. Mutu wa pulasitiki umagwiritsidwa ntchito pokhapokha kuti udye. Mutu wamabuku angagwiritsidwe ntchito m'mawu awiri:

  • kuphatikiza molunjika;
  • zokolola zosiyana.

Chipangizocho chili ndi zigawo zotsatirazi:

  1. zipangizo zopangira;
  2. chidutswa;
  3. mikanda yopanga belt;
  4. kutsegula mawindo;
  5. thupi lolunjika;
  6. chimbudzi;
  7. kuyendetsa galimoto;
  8. kusinthanitsa njira.

Njira yogwiritsira ntchito zipangizozi ndi izi: chitsamba chimabweretsa mapesi a mbewu ku zida zowonongeka, komanso zimapangitsa mapesi kuti azidula. Kuwonjezera apo, zipangizo zocheka za wokolola zimadula zimayambira za mbewu ngati mchiza. Kenaka misa yosasunthika imasuntha mkati mwa nsanja. Chombocho chimayendetsa zomera zowonongeka kupita kuwindo lakutsegula. Kumeneko, zimayambira zimayikidwa muzitsulo ndi kutulutsidwa pa mapesi.

Kwa alimi alionse ang'onoang'ono motoblock idzakhala yothandiza kwambiri pantchito yake. Phunzirani za mtundu wa tillers: Neva MB 2, Salyut 100, Zubr JR-Q12E.

Mitundu

Pali zigawo zingapo za mitundu ya mitu yoyendetsera, malingana ndi malo, ntchito ndi cholinga. Malo a chipangizo ndi yotsatira, okwera ndi kudzipangira. Amagwirizanitsidwa ndi mgwirizano, thirakitala kapena chisilamu. Malinga ndi gawo lodulira, mutuwo uli kutsogolo ndi mbali. Komanso, zipangizo zosiyanasiyana zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pokolola mbewu zosiyana, pali mitundu yonse yapadziko lonse komanso yapadera. Malinga ndi mpangidwe wopangidwa, iwo amagawidwa kukhala osakwera, othamanga kawiri ndi atatu.

Choyamba kupanga mipiringidzo kunja kwa kutalika kwake. Dulani kawiri muwindo lakutuluka, lomwe liri kumapeto kwa nsanja, pangani mpukutu. Choncho, mtsinje umodzi wa mbewu yotchetchewu umapangidwa ndi conveyor ya chipangizocho, chachiwiri, ndichiwiri, chimayikidwa kudzera muwindo la chipangizocho kumbuyo kwa chidutswa chodula.

Ma subspecies otsiriza a zipangizozi amapanga mphepo mkatikati mwawindo, mbali zonse zomwe zotengerazo zimapezeka, kupanga maulendo awiri omwe akubwera, pamene kutuluka kotsiriza kumapangidwira muzenera.

Mukudziwa? Pulogalamu yoyamba yokhala ndi chilolezo chophatikizana chophatikizana, nthawi yomweyo kudula mkate umene ukupunthira ndi kuyeretsa tirigu ku mankhusu, anati S. Lane mu 1828 ku United States. Koma wolembayo sakanatha kumanga galimoto iyi. Chophatikizacho chinamangidwa ndi ojambula E. Briggs ndi E. J. Carpenter zaka zisanu ndi zitatu kenako mu 1836.

Zokonda

Okolola amawongolera mtundu wa mphutsi ku chithusi chodzimangirira cha chophatikiza kapena thirakitala.

Ntchito za ulimi sizingaganize popanda tekitala. Phunzirani zambiri za matrekitawa: T-25, T-30, T-150, T-170, MTZ-1221, MTZ-892, MTZ-80, Belarus-132n, K-700, MT3 320, MT3 82 K-9000.

Zida zoterezi zimasonkhanitsidwa pa nsanja ya mtundu, yomwe imadalira zojambula nsapato, zomwe zimatsimikizira kuti nthawi zonse zimakhalapo pamtunda.

Kenaka, timalingalira chipangizo cha mitunduyi. Okolola okwera pamwamba ali ndi zigawo zotsatirazi:

Thupi lapamwamba. Ndi gawo ili pamene kayendetsedwe kogwirira ntchito kwa mpeni, yomwe imakhala ndi chitsulo kapena chitsulo cholimba, imadula masamba. Chigawo ichi chimasonkhanitsidwa kuchokera ku chombo chala, gawo la mtundu wa mipeni, zida, ndi kayendetsedwe ka galimoto, zomwe zimapangidwa molingana ndi ndondomeko ya ndodo yolumikiza. Mitengo ya zomera imagwera pa mipeni kudzera mu zipangizo zoyendetsera, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti phokoso likhale lobiriwira.

Bwererani - iyi ndi chipangizo chapadera chomwe chimaonetsetsa kuti kugwa pansi kwa mbeu kumayambira ku thupi lolamulira lomwe limadula. Zomera zowonongeka zimatengedwa ndi chipangizo chogwedeza, pamene zomera zowongoka zimasonkhana ndi nsalu ya paddle. Zomwe zimapangidwira, zimalowa mummimba, ndipo zimalimbikitsa zomera kuti zidulidwe. Pofuna kukweza zitsamba zokhala ndi zokolola ndi zokolola, kugwiritsira ntchito ngodya kumagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Zida zamagetsi ndi belt-belt kapena lamba lamtundu mtundu sungani zitsamba zowonongeka kuwindo la ejection. Ngati kuphatikiza kwachindunji kumagwiritsidwa ntchito, zimayambira kumalo opunthira.

Njira yokonza. Kutalika kwa zimayendedwe ndi kuikidwa kwazitali kwazitsulo kumayendetsedwa ndi njira zowonjezera zowonjezera mavitamini mkatikati mwa 10-35 masentimita. Kuzungulira kwa magalimoto akuluakulu ndi zotumiza katundu kumachokera ku PTO wa chitsime chodzipangira.

Zotsatira

Mtundu uwu wa chipangizo, mosiyana ndi wokwera, wodula pamtunda kumbuyo kwa thirakitala. Mapangidwe a zipangizo zamakono ndi zowonongeka ndi zofanana kwambiri, komabe, pamutu wapamtundu wothandizirayo umalowetsedwa ndi makina opangira makina, ndipo nsapatozo zimachotsedwa ndi mawilo.

Kuphatikiza apo, timagulu tomwe timayendetsa timayendetsedwa pambali pa thirakitala, yomwe imalola kuti tipeze zokolola zambiri, popeza kuphatikiza kumafuna malo ochulukirapo.

Wodzipangira okha

Mutu wamtundu uwu uli ndi mphamvu yogwiritsira ntchito mphamvu ndi njira yosunthira. Chigawochi ndi makina opangira ulimi, omwe ali ndi mutu womangidwa. Njira yotereyi imafunikanso kukolola mbewu zochepa. Pamene kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwathunthu kumagwirizanitsa sikunayeneretsedwe chifukwa cha mtengo wapatali wotumikira palimodzi ndi mafuta, okolola okha omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito, omwe amalola kukolola m'minda yaing'ono, pokhala akusunga pa zipangizo zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito.

Mitundu yotchuka (kufotokoza ndi makhalidwe)

Kenaka tikuyang'ana mitundu yokolola yotchuka kwambiri ya zokolola, makhalidwe awo komanso kusiyana kwakukulu.

ЖВП-4.9

Chipangizo choterechi chimatanthauzira mtundu wotsalira. Cholinga chake ndi kukweta mbewu, tirigu, komanso mbewu. Kuwonjezera pamenepo, chigawo ichi chimayika misa yosungunuka mu mpukutu umodzi wokhazikika. Ndibwino kuti tigwiritse ntchito GVP-4.9 m'malo alionse a nyengo yomwe mitundu yoyeretsera imagwiritsidwa ntchito. Zowonjezera za mtundu uwu ndi zophweka kwambiri kugwira ntchito ndi zodalirika. Mtundu uwu uli ndi zinthu zogwirira ntchito za mtundu wa scissor, zomwe zimapanga kutsogolo kwa mamita 4.9. Zida zaulimi zikulemera matani 1,545 ndipo zimayambitsa (tirigu) mbewu ndi udzu kuti zifike pa mahekitala 2.8, ndipo zimayenda mofulumira pa 10 km / h.

ЖВП-6.4

Ndondomeko yokolola mbewu ZHVP-6.4 ndipamwamba kwambiri ndipo imapereka tirigu, tirigu ndi tirigu, kenaka amaiika pamodzi wosakaniza. Gwiritsani ntchito chipangizo ichi pamagwiridwe apamwamba. Chida choterechi chingagwiritsidwe ntchito m'madera onse a nyengo. ZhVP-6.4 amachepetsa mtengo woyeretsa, ndipo amakulolani kuti mutulutse chogwirizanitsa ndi kugwira ntchito ndi mitu yoyera ndipo mumalola kuti muyambe kuyendetsa magalimoto.

Chigawo cha chipangizocho ndi mamita 6.4 ndikukuthandizani kuti mupeze zokolola mpaka 5.4 ha / h. Chipangizo choterocho chimakhala makilogalamu 2050.

ZhVP ndi ndodo yoyendetsa MKSH

Mutu woterewu ndi wosiyana ndi ena onse pogwiritsa ntchito ndodo yojambulira MKSH (yomwe imatchedwanso "Schumacher"), yomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi mpeni kuti zikhalepo. Makonzedwe amenewa ndi abwino chifukwa amathandiza kuti kusungidwa kwabwino kukhale panthawi ya kudula, komanso kumachepetsa kuyambira pakati pa kudula awiriwa.

Ndikofunikira! Mphungu yokhala ndi mutu wotereyo yafupika kwambiri, kusintha kwa mitsempha yochepetsera kumachepetsa kwambiri kusintha kwa chidutswa.

ЖВП-4.9 А

Zapadera za ZhVP-4.9 zokololazo zinalengedwa kuti zitsegule mbewu ndi tirigu ndikuziika muzitsulo zosakanikirana. Izi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa njira yosiyana yokolola, pa matrekta a MTZ, "John Deere" ndi zina. ZhVP-4.9 A amapereka: khalidwe labwino kwambiri loyeretsa pa mphamvu yabwino; kukolola kwakukulu kwakutchera ndi kusankha; zosavuta kugwira ntchito. Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa chipangizochi cha ulimi kumachepetsa kwambiri nthawi ndi ntchito zothandizira kuti aziyeretsa. Imaikidwa:

  • makina odulidwa;
  • galimoto yodalirika kwambiri (imapereka liwiro lalikulu la kuyeretsa);
  • malo osungirako zinthu, komanso kusintha malo a chithandizo, chomwe chimapangitsa kuti kusamutsidwa kwa mutu kumangidwe ndi kubwerera;
  • Kusinthidwa kwasintha kwazitsulo, komwe kumachepetsa kwambiri kukonzanso.

ЖВП-9.1

Zipangizo za mtundu umenewu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito, monga lamulo, m'madera otentha omwe ali ndi zochepa kapena zochepa. ЖВП-9.1 ndi mutu wodulidwa kwambiri, komanso ukuwonjezeka. Zili zofanana kwambiri pomanga chitsanzo chotchedwa ВVP-6.4, koma zimakhalanso ndi zosiyana siyana, mothandizidwa ndi zomwe zokolola zachangu zimakhala zosavuta. Mothandizidwa ndi zokolola za ЖВП-9.1 za mbewu ndi mbewu za tirigu ndi kukhazikika kwa zimayambira muzitoti.

Ndikofunikira! Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa ZHVP-9.1 kumapangitsa ntchito ya dipatimenti yosungira katundu, kumathandizira ntchito ya makina opanga makina, kuchepetsa kutayika pa nthawi yokolola. Kutalika kwa mutuwu ndi masentimita 8-20, m'lifupi mwake ndi 9.1 mamita. Chifukwa cha mawonekedwe a washer, kupaka kwa chipangizocho ndi mahekitala 8 pa ora, ndipo liwiro lakuthamanga ndi 9 km / h.

Masiku ano, pali mitundu yambiri yamakina olima omwe amapanga mitundu yambiri ya okolola. Pambuyo powerenga nkhaniyi ndikuphunzira kuti chipangizo choterechi chili ndi mitundu yambiri yosiyana siyana, mosakayika mudzapanga njira yokolola bwino kwambiri.

Mlimi akusowa zipangizo zaulimi monga: khama, wamlimi, wolima mbatata kapena fosholo yokhala ndi chotupa, kuti agwire bwino ntchito yake.