Oyambirira kucha kucha nkhaka "Crispin F1"

Amaluwa ambiri amasangalala ndi mbewu zomwe zimawathandiza kukolola kale kuposa nthawi zonse. Ziribe kanthu ngati mukukula tomato, nkhaka kapena masamba - nthawi yoyamba kapena nthawi yomwe yakucha yakakhala yotsutsana kwambiri pazinthu zosiyanasiyana.

M'nkhaniyi tizakambirana zokhazokha zokhudzana ndi nkhaka, zomwe zimakulolani kukolola mbewu yoyamba mu nthawi yochepa.

Tiyeni tiwone zomwe ziri "Crispin F1" zosiyanasiyana, komanso zomwe mukufunikira kudziwa za zovuta za ulimi wake pamalo otseguka komanso m'malo obiriwira.

Ndemanga yosakanizidwa

Pofotokozera chikhalidwe chilichonse, ntchito yofunika siyimangidwe ndi zotsatira za chipatsocho, komanso chifukwa cha chomera chokha, chomwe zipatsozi zimawoneka, choncho timapereka tcheru kumbali zonse ziwiri za nkhaka za Crispin F1.

Mitengo

Mitundu imeneyi imayimilidwa ndi zomera zowonjezera kukhala ndi miyendo ya miyendo yayitali ndi mizu yabwino kwambiri. Izi ziyenera kunenedwa kuti ndizo mizu yolimba yomwe imapatsa chomeracho ndi zakudya zonse zomwe zimafunikira, makamaka chinyezi, chomwe nthaka sichikwanira.

Masamba a leaf pa nkhaka si aakulu, ngakhale kuti ndi kosavuta kuzindikira pang'ono pang'ono. Mtundu wa masamba umadalira kuchuluka kwa kuwala ndi kutentha komwe kumabwera kwa iwo: ambiri a iwo, mdimawo udzakhala. Pafupifupi 3-5 masamba amapangidwa mu sinus iliyonse ya chitsamba.

Posankha mitundu ya kulima, phunzirani makhalidwe a nkhaka Taganay, Palchik, Masha f1, Mpikisano, Zozulya, German, Courage.

Zipatso

Ndi kukula ndi chitukuko cha mbande pa tchire timapanga kukula komweko zipatso ndi 10-12 masentimita yaitali ndi 4 masentimita awiri. Mulu wa nkhaka imodzi imatha kufika 100-120 g. Iwo ali ndi mawonekedwe ozungulira ndipo pali mpweya waung'ono kumtunda. Ponena za mthunzi, umatha kukhala wobiriwira kupita kumdima wobiriwira, ndipo nthawi zambiri mitundu yonseyi imapezeka pa zipatso zomwezo. Komanso pa Zelentsah ndi zophweka kuona zofiira zoyera za mawonekedwe ozungulira, mikwingwirima yeniyeni ndi pubescence ndi zofiira zoyera. Mnofu wa nkhaka ya Crispin ndi zonunkhira komanso zopanda phokoso, popanda kuwawa. Muzinthu zambiri chifukwa cha zizindikiro izi, zipatso zimagwiritsidwa bwino ntchito mwatsopano pokonzekera saladi, komanso monga gawo lalikulu la kukolola nyengo yozizira. Kuwonjezera pamenepo, nkhakazi zimapirira mosavuta kayendetsedwe ka nthawi yaitali, zomwe zimawathandiza kuti azikula malonda.

Mukudziwa? Kuswana kwa mtundu uwu wosakanizidwa kunkachitika ndi obereketsa kuchokera ku Holland, ndipo mu 2000 kunalowa mu State Register of the Russian Federation ndipo unali malo osiyanasiyana omwe ndi abwino kukula mu nyumba zachinyumba, m'madera akumidzi ndi m'minda yaing'ono. Oyenera kulima pafupifupi madera onse a nyengo, chifukwa akhoza kukula mnthaka, komanso mu greenhouses kapena greenhouses.

Makhalidwe

Chimodzi mwa zizindikiro zazikulu za "Crispin" ndizo mphamvu yake yodzipangira mungu, zomwe zimachepetsera ntchito yolima mlimi. Pa nthawi yomweyi, kukanika kwa matenda osiyanasiyana, kusintha kwa nyengo ndi zolakwitsa zimapangitsa kukula bwino nkhaka ngakhale oyamba kumene mu bizinesi ili.

Ngati mukufuna kupeza zokolola zambiri, ndiye kuti kutayika kuyenera kumangirizidwa ku chithandizo. Koma izi siziri zofunika ndipo zipatso zidzapangidwa ngakhale zitayikidwa kumbali (nthawi zambiri zimangowonjezera pansi).

Mitundu yosiyanayi si yodalirika pamtunda winawake monga nkhaka zina, ndipo ngakhale theka la nyengo yokula kutentha sikungakhale koopsa kwa izo. Pafupifupi, kuchokera pa 1 lalikulu. m kukusanya pafupifupi 6.5 makilogalamu a Zelentsov.

Mphamvu ndi zofooka

Zopindulitsa zazikulu za mitundu ya nkhaka ya Crispin ziyenera kukhala nthawi yaying'ono yokolola, kukana matenda ndi zina zowonongeka, zokolola zambiri ndi zipatso za zipatso. Ndipotu, chinthu chabwino pa kulima chikhalidwe ndi kupanda kwathunthu kwa minda yolima.

Kukula mbande

Mukamakulitsa nkhaka za mitundu yosiyanasiyana, mukhoza kufesa mbewu nthawi yomweyo, koma monga momwe mukuwonetsera, mungathe kukwaniritsa zokolola zambiri mothandizidwa ndi mbande zisanayambe kukula. Izi zimangokulolani kuti mupeze nthawi yokolola, koma imapulumutsanso mbeu nthawi yomweyo kuti muteteze zomera zazing'ono kumayambiriro kwa chitukuko chawo.

Mukudziwa? Nkhakazo zinalemekeza mzinda wa Ukraine wa Nizhyn, chifukwa ndiwo omwe anapereka khoti lonse lachifumu panthawi ya ulamuliro wa Catherine II mpaka 1917. Mu 2005, nkhaka za Nezhin zinayikapo chipilala.

Kusankha ndi kukonzekera mbewu

NthaƔi zambiri, mbewu zimatumizidwa ku msika kapena malo ogulitsa, ndipo ndi bwino ngati mwasankha kale zosiyanasiyana zoyenera kwa inu. Inde, mukamagula m'sitolo, simungathe kutsegula phukusi ndikuyang'ana zomwe zili mkati, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti posankha mbewu za mtundu wa Crispin, muyenera kutsata ndondomeko yoyenera: yang'anani tsiku lomaliza (onani pa phukusi) ndikuyang'ana maonekedwe a thumba, ziyenera kusemphana, zowonongeka, zonyansa, ndi zina zotero.

Komabe, ngakhale mutayesetsa kupeza mbewu zabwino kwambiri komanso zabwino, popanda kukonzekera koyenera, sangathe kubweretsa zotsatira. Ambiri amaluwa amalangiza, mosasamala kanthu za chitetezo chosanjikiza chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi wopanga, kuti achite mbewu yokonzekeretsa mbewu.

Choncho, mutsegulire mbeu pakhomo, musanayambe kubzala, m'pofunika kuti muzitsitsiramo mbewu zonse m'madzi, kenako muyese: kwa mphindi khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri (10-15), mbewuzo zimalowetsedwa mu mankhwala a saline (30-50 g mchere amatengedwa madzi okwanira 1 litre) sankhani zofooka ndi zopanda moyo, mukusiya zitsanzo zazikulu komanso zokhutira.

Chinthu choyenera chiyenera kuvutikidwa pochiyika mu thumba lachakumana ndikuchiponya mu thermos ndi madzi kwa maola 1.5-2 (kutentha kwa madzi kumafunika ku 50% +55 ° C). Pofuna kupiritsa mankhwala osokoneza bongo, imathandizidwa ndi njira yowonjezera potassium permanganate, yothetsera potsimikiza potanganum permanganate kwa mphindi 25-30. Pambuyo pomaliza ndondomekoyi, mbeuyi iyenera kutsukidwa pansi pa madzi.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati mukufuna kukulitsa mbeu zanu ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, mutha kugwiritsa ntchito phulusa m'madzi (supuni 2 pa madzi okwanira 1 litre), momwe mbeu imayambira kwa maola atatu, kenako imachotsedwa ndikutsukidwa ndi madzi oyera.

Kukonzekera kwa kufesa nkhaka "Crispina" imapereka gulu la gawo loyenera kwambiri.

Kukonzekera kwa dothi

Akatswiri amalimbikitsa kufesa mbewu mu nthaka yopatsa thanzi, kapena mwachindunji m'miphika ya peat.

Ndi njira yotsirizayi, ndipo zonse zimveka bwino, koma ngati mukukula mbande mu miphika yamba, muyenera kuzidzaza ndi chisakanizo cha peat, humus ndi sod land mu chiwerengero cha 3: 1: 1. Komanso, ammonium nitrate, potaziyamu sulphate ndi superphosphate amakhalanso ndi zotsatira zake.

Onetsetsani kutsatira zizindikiro za acidity za gawo lokonzekera - sayenera kupitirira 6.2-6.5 pH, ndipo kuti mizu ya nkhaka ikhale ndi malo okwanira kuti zitheke bwino, peresenti ya miphika ikhale yosachepera 9 cm.

Mukamabzala mbewu nthawi yomweyo mu wowonjezera kutentha kapena m'munda, kukonzekera malowa kumapanga mapangidwe ang'onoang'ono m'mitsinje yotsatira ndi nkhaka, zomwe zimapanga feteleza ndi feteleza. Adzatha kuonetsetsa kuti chitukuko chikukula bwino. Mu nthaka yotsekedwa, kutalika kwa mtunda nthawi zambiri ndi 15-20 masentimita, ndipo mtunda wa mamita 0.9-1.0 umakhala pakati pa mizere.

Ndikofunikira! Pambuyo pa kufesa ndi pamaso pa mphukira yoyamba, boma lakutentha m'chipinda ndi mbande liyenera kusungidwa mkati mwa 25% +28 ° C. Atangoyamba kuphulika, amachepetsa masana mpaka 18 ° + 20 ° C, ndipo usiku mpaka 14+ + 15 ° C, kuthirira nthawi komanso kutsimikizira kuti mpweya wabwino ndi wochuluka.

Kubzala nkhaka

Ngati mukukula nkhaka za Crispin mu njira ya mbeu, ndiye kuti pa tsiku la 25 mutengapo mbande zoyamba, ziyenera kuikidwa kuchokera ku miphika kupita ku malo osatha, nthaka yomwe iyenera kutentha kufika ku17 ° C. Inde, ndibwino kuti musamuke ku wowonjezera kutentha, koma ngati mutasankha kudzala zomera zing'onozing'ono pabedi la munda, ndiye kuti muzisamalira malo oyenera (mwachitsanzo, tambani filimuyi kapena mugwiritse ntchito zipangizo zapadera).

Mukamabzala, yang'anirani mtunda wa pakati pa 35-45 masentimita, womwe umadalira mwachindunji kupatulira kwa mzere. Pafupifupi, mamita 100 lalikulu. Mitengo yowonjezerayo iyenera kuwerengera pafupifupi 200-250 mbande. Kubwerera mmbuyo kuchokera ku zomera ndi masentimita 5-20, mukhoza kuyika ma tubes kuti amwetse madzi a nkhaka, omwe amachepetsa kwambiri kumwa madzi pa kuthirira ndikupanga kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wambiri ndi zoteteza (kuchokera ku tizirombo ndi matenda) ntchito yosavuta. Komanso malo osungirako malo okhala ndi filimu ya mulch.

Kumera chisamaliro

Nkhaka ndi zomera zokonda zomera, chifukwa chake zimalimbikitsidwa kuti zibzalidwe m'malo owala bwino, kapena kuti mthunzi wake umakhala mthunzi. Pamene mukukula mbande "Crispin F1" panyumba ndi maonekedwe oyamba, iyenera kusamutsira ku sill yowunikira kwambiri ndipo nthawi ndi nthawi imitsani filimuyi kuti imere mbande.

Ngati munabzala nkhaka nthawi yomweyo mutseguka, kenaka perekani chophimba cha zomera kuchokera mphepo. Pa ntchito ya dothi lachilengedwe ndi chimanga choyenera, chomwe chimabzalidwa kumbali zonse za nkhaka mumzere umodzi. Pankhaniyi, mbali yakum'mwera sitingatseke.

Kuti zimere kukula ndikukula bwino, kutentha kwa masana kumafunika kusungidwa pa +22 ° C, koma zolakwika zing'onozing'ono zingatheke kumbali zonsezi. Pa nthawi yomweyo, pang'ono frosts akhoza kuwononga mwana mphukira. Inde, zimakhala zosavuta kulamulira njira yobzala mbande kunyumba, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mudzakhala ndi mbande zowonjezereka komanso zowonjezereka.

Momwe mungasamalire zomera zazikulu

Zingamveke ngati wina atatha kukula mbande ndikuziika pamalo osatha, zovuta kwambiri zatha. Koma zipatso zambiri ndi zokoma za Crispina nkhaka makamaka amadalira chisamaliro cha zomera pa mapangidwe a losunga mazira. Choncho, zimakhala zothandiza kwa aliyense m'munda kuti aphunzire momwe angagwiritsire ntchito bwino madzi, manyowa, ndi kusunga, komanso kuti asamalidwe ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda komanso matenda.

Kuthirira

Mitundu iliyonse ya nkhaka sitingathe kuchita popanda kuthirira nthawi zonse, makamaka popeza masambawa, ali ndi chinyontho chokonda zomera zomwe zimakonda kwambiri chinyezi. Kuyamba kwa madzi akumwa m'nthaka ndi mbali yofunika kwambiri yosamalira mbande pa nyengo yonse yokula ndi fruiting nthawi, chifukwa kupanda madzi kulibe ngakhale kuti Crispina, yomwe sichimvetsa chisoni, imabweretsa zotsatira zowawa.

Ndikofunikira! Kuthirira kumachitidwa kokha ndi kugwiritsa ntchito madzi ofunda, mwinamwake zomera zidzaponderezedwa ndipo zingakhudzidwe ndi zowola.
Pofuna kuteteza chinyezi m'nthaka kuzungulira tchire, timaphimba ndi mulingo wa mulch, womwe umagwiritsidwa ntchito moyenera kwa zipangizo zamatabwa monga nkhuni ndi peat. Sikuti zimangosunga zinyontho zokhazokha, komanso, zowola, kutulutsa kutentha kokwanira ndikudyetsa gawolo ndi zinthu zothandiza.

Musaiwale kuti nthawi zambiri madzi amalowa m'nthaka amachititsa kuti thupi liziyenda bwino, chifukwa chake mizu ya nkhaka nthawi zambiri imasowa mpweya. Kwa mizu ya zomera sinavutike ndi kusowa kwa mpweya, akatswiri amalangiza kuti apange madzi okwanira ndi kumasula gawo lapansi.

Chokhacho muyenera kuchita ndondomekoyi, osati pogwiritsa ntchito mafoloko, omwe amathyola nthaka. Choncho simungasokoneze mizu yovuta ya nkhaka ndikukonzekera kuthamanga kokwanira kwa mpweya ku mizu.

Feteleza

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana "Crispina" imatamanda kwambiri pamwamba ndi pansi, choncho n'zomveka kuganiza kuti nkhaka sizingatheke popanda chakudya chokwanira. Mizu ya mbewuyo imayankha bwino poyambitsa feteleza mwa kugwiritsa ntchito ulimi wothirira mwadongosolo kudzera m'deralo, koma ngakhale ngati mulibe izo, sizowopsya, mukhoza kuthetsa kusakaniza komwe mumasankha ndikuzitsanulira pansi pa tchire. Pambuyo pa zitsanzo zingapo za zipatso, zomera zonse zimamera ndi mankhwala a nayitrogen-potaziyamu, yomwe imayenerera bwino mchere (monga njira yothetsera manyowa kapena manyowa), monga calcium nitrate ndi potaziyamu sulfate kapena potaziyamu nitrate.

Ndikofunikira! Pogwiritsira ntchito mchere m'nthaka yotsekedwa, munthu sayenera kuiwala za kufunika koyambitsa nayitrogeni mu nitrate, ndipo pakagwiritsa ntchito ammonium sayenera kupitirira 20% ya chiwerengero cha nayitrogeni yomwe imayikidwa mu mchere. Kudyetsa kumachitika kamodzi katatu.-Masamba 14.

Masking

Wakulira mu wowonjezera kutentha zinthu, nkhaka baka za zosiyanasiyana mawonekedwe mu phesi limodzi lokhala ndi mapazi olowera. Pa nthawi yomweyo, mu 4-5 tsamba loyamba la axils la tsinde lofunikira, m'pofunika kupanga glare - ana onse opeza ndi mazira awo amachotsedwa. M'madera ena 3-4, muyenera kusiya ovary imodzi ndikuchotseratu. Choncho, chomera chilichonse chidzatha kuika zakudya zamtunduwu mpaka kufika pamtunda ndikubweretsa zokolola zambiri zoyambirira. Mu 4-5 mazenera omwe apitirira, onse opanga mazira amasiyidwa, ndipo ana opeza amatsitsa pambuyo pa tsamba loyamba. Kenaka, kusunthira phesi, amamangiriza tsamba la 2-3, poganizira kukula kwa zomera. Pambuyo pamene tsinde loyamba lifika pamtunda wozungulira, liyenera kukulumikizidwa mozungulira ndi kugwetsa pansi, kukanikiza pamtunda wa mamita 1-1.5 kuchokera mu nthaka.

Pamene chomera chikukula, kapena, moyenera, zomera zomwe zakhala zachikasu, zimachotsa kubzala, ziyenera kuchotsedwa nthawi zonse, zomwe zidzasintha mpweya wa mpweya mu wowonjezera kutentha ndikuthandizira kuteteza nkhaka kuchokera ku chitukuko cha matenda omwe amapezeka ndi mpweya wa mpweya.

Mukudziwa? Mtsogoleri wotchuka wa ku France dzina lake Napoleon Bonaparte ankakonda nkhaka kwambiri moti analonjeza kuti adzapindula ndi ndalama zokwana madola 250,000 kwa aliyense amene angaganizire njira yowasunga nthawi yayitali. Zoona, ndalama zimenezi sizinathe kupeza wina aliyense.

Chitetezo ku matenda ndi tizirombo

Monga mitundu yambiri ya nkhaka, zomera za Crispin F1 nthawi zambiri zimavutika ndi zowola (tsinde kapena mizu). Matenda ambiri, matendawa amavutitsa mbande zazing'ono pa mmera, choncho, akatswiri amalangiza mankhwala ndi machitidwe okonzekera. Mbewu zitasunthira kunthaka, chithandizo chawo mothandizidwa ndi mankhwala amapitirizabe. Pofuna kupatsa zomera zonse zotetezeka, chithandizocho chimachitika musanakhazikitsidwe chipatso, ndi masiku asanu ndi limodzi (8-14), zomwe zimadalira nyengo. Ngati kuli kofunikira kupopera mbewu zina pa fruiting, nkhaka zonse zakupsa ziyenera kukonzedwa kale ndikukonzedwanso kachiwiri. Yambani kubzala zipatso sikukhalapo kale kuposa masiku atatu.

Pochiza nkhaka za matenda ndikuchotsani namsongole, tikulimbikitsidwa kugwiritsa ntchito zolembedwera m'madera ena. Akatswiri m'minda ya mankhwala otetezera zomera adzakupatsani inu chidziwitso chokhudza mankhwala ena ndi kukuthandizani kupeza mlingo woyenera kwambiri.

Njira zamakono zothandiza kuteteza nkhaka ku matendawa tizilombo. Mwachitsanzo, kuchotsa nthata zamagulu zomwe zimakhala pamasamba a zomera kuchokera ku minda ya Crispin, masamba a soya ayenera kufalikira kuzungulira palimodzi ndi phytoseiulus. Kuthandiza ndi whitefly fodya kumathandizira ndi nyumba ya Enkarzia wokwera, ndipo aphidius wokwera kapena anyamatawa amalowa bwino polimbana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba. Zonsezi zikhoza kupezeka mosavuta m'zipangizo zamakono zogwirira ntchito ku greenhouses.

Monga mukuonera, kulima nkhaka za Crispin sikudzatenga mphamvu zambiri kuchokera kwa inu, chifukwa kulima ndi kusamalira izo sizowoneka mosiyana ndi zofanana ndizo polima mitundu ina iliyonse. Izi ndizo, ngati mupanga khama kwambiri, ndiye kuti mudzalandira zipatso zokoma ndi zonunkhira patebulo.