Alfalfa: momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito monga siderata

"Sitingakhoze kuyembekezera chifundo kuchokera ku chirengedwe, kuchotsa kwa iye ndi ntchito yathu" - mawu a katswiri wa sayansi yodziwika bwino ndi wofalitsa I.V. Michurin anakhala chizindikiro cha nthawi yonse ya malingaliro a ogula ku chuma chachilengedwe. Chikhumbo chofuna kutenga zambiri chinayambitsa kuthetsa kwa nthaka yachonde ndi mchere wa feteleza wa mankhwalawa ndi feteleza awo. Chothandiza "choyamba chothandizira" kuti zitsitsimutse zokolola za nthaka ndi zomera.

Kodi mtengo wa sideratov ndi wotani?

Izi feteleza wobiriwira ali ndi katundu wambiri, kuonetsetsa kuti zida zowonjezera zimakhala bwino.

  • Kukhalapo kwa dziko la mphutsi ndi tizilombo tosiyanasiyana kumasonyeza kuti "thanzi". Otsatira ndiwo chakudya cha ozilenga awa.
  • Mitengo yomwe imapangidwa bwino kwambiri ya zomera izi "zowonjezera" zowonjezera mchere kuchokera ku nthaka zakuya, ndikuthandizanso nthaka yosasunthika, kupereka mpweya wabwino.
  • Mavitamini onse a manyowa obiriwira amafunika kuti kukula ndi fruiting za zomera zowonjezeka zikhalepo ndikusungira kumtunda kwa dziko lapansi, kumene mizu ya "ward" yawo ilipo.
  • Othandiza oteteza nthaka amateteza nthaka kuti ikhale yozizira m'nyengo yozizira, komanso kutentha kwakukulu m'chilimwe, komanso kuwonongeka kwa mphepo ndi mvula. Mitengo yaukhondo ya manyowa zomera zimagwirizana ndi kuyeretsa kwa nthaka kuchokera ku tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi tizirombo.
  • Kukula kwanthawi yaitali kwa "feteleza zamoyo" zodabwitsa kwambiri pa malo osayenera, otopa, otayika, amatha kubwezeretsa mphamvu zawo za fruiting.

Ndikofunikira! Zida zimapanga ntchito zosiyanasiyana pamtundu wosiyanasiyana wa dothi: zimalimbitsa mchenga, ndipo zimawamasula.

  • Kukula mobiriwira mobiriwira kungagwiritsidwe ntchito ngati chakudya chophatikiza ndi chakudya chamagulu.
  • Zomera zazitsamba sizimalola kuti namsongole awoneke m'dera lawo.
  • Manyowa obiriwirawa amatha kulimbana ndi acidification ya nthaka, kuwazaza ndi nayitrogeni, potaziyamu, phosphorous, calcium, sulufule. Zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito monga feteleza madzi kuthirira mbewu.

Alfalfa monga mbali: ubwino ndi chiwonongeko

Mmodzi mwa olemekezeka kwambiri a mndandandawu ndi nyemba - chikhalidwe chosatha cha banja la legume.

Mukudziwa? M'chilengedwe, mitundu yoposa 100 ya pachaka ndi yosatha ya mbewu imeneyi imadziwika.

Pofuna kukula nyemba monga siderata imanena zambiri makhalidwe abwino.

  • Iye, monga mitundu yonse ya zinyama, sitolo yabwino komanso gwero la nitrogen. Njirayi ndi yopitirira, ndipo mizu ndi zotsalira za zobiriwira zimakhala zofunika.
  • Mizu yomwe imakula bwino, imalowa m'nthaka, imayendetsa mpweya ndi chinyezi nthawi zonse.
  • Zomera zimenezi sizikusowa zofunikira panthawi yomwe ikukula. Kuzizira kozizira: kutentha kwa kumera kumatha kufika madigiri 3-5. Kusamba madzi nthawi zonse sikutanthauza, pamene mizu imapereka chinyezi. Choncho tikhoza kunena kuti chomerachi ndi chilala chosagonjetsedwa. Ndipo mvula itatha, kutchetcha ma volumes kudzaposa zonse zomwe zikuyembekezeredwa.
  • Chimodzi mwa zinthu zopindulitsa za alfa monga siderata chitha kutchedwa kuti mphamvu yake yokonzetsa nthaka. Ndipo ponena za kukhuta kwake ndi zinthu zakuthupi, chomerachi n'chofanana ndi manyowa.
  • Ngati mukukula nyemba kwa zaka zopitirira ziwiri, mungathe kusintha kwambiri mkhalidwe wofooka, nthaka yosasamalidwa. Mukamakolola m'chaka choyamba, dzikolo lidzapindula, koma mphamvu zonse za feteleza zobiriwira sizingagwiritsidwe ntchito.

Mukudziwa? Mu chaka choyamba cha kukula, nyemba mizu imakula mpaka 1.5-2 mamita. M'chaka chachiwiri, amalowa mkatikati mwa mamita 3-4. Ndipo ngati chomeracho chikhalabe m'dera limodzi kwa nthawi yaitali, ndiye kuti kutalika kwa mizu kungathe kufika mamita 10.

Pogwiritsa ntchito zothandiza pamwambapa, chikhalidwe ichi chimakhala ndi zovuta kapena zosayembekezereka za kulima kwake.

  1. Mbewu zakuthupi ndi zotchuka komanso zodula, zomwe zimakula kokha chaka chilichonse.
  2. Mwezi woyamba mutatha kufesa ndizovuta kwambiri pa nyengo yokolola, zomwe zimaonedwa kuti ndizitali. Amafuna mokwanira chinyezi, chosatsegulidwa. Pansi pazinthu zina, nyemba sizingakhoze kukwera konse, kapena kukwera malo.
  3. Kudyetsa wothandizira wobiriwira pa nthaka yambiri yamchere kapena ya saline kumafuna ntchito yoyamba ya mandimu. Apo ayi, zomera izi sizidzachulukitsa zomera, kotero kuti kupambana kwake kosatha pa malo awa kudzakhala kuchepa.

Zomera monga oats, buckwheat, mpiru, phacelia, ndi lupine zimagwiritsidwanso ntchito monga feteleza wobiriwira.

Katswiri wamakono

Monga mu bizinesi iliyonse, pakukula nyemba monga manyowa wobiriwira, pali zofunika zina za teknoloji iyi.

Ndi mbewu zotani zomwe zimabzala

Kuti mupeze phindu lopanda chonde, muyenera kukumbukira kuti pali zomera zomwe zili "ogwirizana", koma pali zosiyana ndi "otsutsana". Mbali imeneyi ndi yofunikira kuganizira pamene mukugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wobiriwira pa malo ena. Lucerne amafesedwa bwino pambuyo pa chimanga, mbatata, chakudya cha nyengo yozizira, ndi mbewu zazu. Pa nthakayi, ndiye kabichi, radishes, radish, tomato, thonje, ndi mbewu za tirigu zimapereka zokolola zabwino.

Nthawi komanso momwe mungabzalitsire mchere

Musanagwiritse ntchito mbewu za nyemba monga siderata, muyenera kupeza nthawi yofesa bwino ndikukonzekera bwino nthaka. M'dzinja, malo omwe amasankhidwa ndi cholinga choyenera kukumba kapena kulima kwa 25-30 masentimita. Ngati pangakhale malo awa ali ndi acidity kapena saline, ndiye kuti ndikulimbikitsanso kuti mupange mapaipi musanayambe kukumba.

Kumayambiriro kwa nyengo, kukhwimitsa kumapangidwira kumtunda ndikusunga chinyezi, kenako nyemba imafesedwa. Popeza mitundu yambiri yake ili ndi mbewu zing'onozing'ono, pofuna kugawidwa mofanana pamtunda pa dziko lapansi, zimapangidwa pamodzi ndi mchenga. Kufesa koyamba mbewu za tirigu, kuvuta, ndiyeno kufalitsa kosavuta kwa mbewu za siderata kumachitika.

Kuzama kwa mbeu ya nyemba sikuyenera kupitirira 2 masentimita. Kawirikawiri, mutatha kufesa, kuti mugwirizane ndi dothi m'derali, malo apadera kapena opangidwa ndi nyumba. Popeza chomera ichi ndi chazing'ono ndipo zotsatira zake zikuluzikulu zimachitika m'chaka chachiwiri ndi zotsatizana, zimakhala zofunikira kwambiri kubzala m'mayiko osanyalanyazidwa.

Mutha kufesa nyemba ngati nyemba kuyambira kasupe mpaka autumn. Mkhalidwe waukulu wa kumera bwino - kupezeka kwa chinyezi. Ndibwino kuti mupitirizebe kubzala udzu kumayambiriro kwa masika. Ndipotu, nyengo yozizira itatha, nthaka imadzazidwa ndi madzi.

Ndikofunikira! Kuti mbeu ikhale yabwino kumera, nyemba zimakhala zouma padzuwa ndipo zimaphwanya kukhulupirika kwa chipolopolocho.

Momwe mungasamalire

Kwambiri moistening wa nyemba plantings kungachititse kuti kawirikawiri sprouting wa tchire. Kawirikawiri chinyezi chokwanira chimalowa kuchokera m'madzi ndi kupyolera mu mizu yochokera pansi pa nthaka. N'zotheka kuonjezera kuchulukitsa kwa maluwa ndi mineral kuvala musanayambe chikhalidwe. Mwamwayi, ndizovuta powdery mildew, spotting, fusarium wilt. Pa zoyamba za matenda ayenera nthawi yomweyo ankachitira mbewu Bordeaux madzi.

Nthawi yoti ugule

Nthawi yoyamba feteleza imamasula maluwa 50-60 mutabzala. Ndi nthawiyi yomwe iyenera kutchetchedwa ndi kutsalira kuti ikhale yovunda, kapena isonkhanitsidwe pa kompositi, kapena yogwiritsidwa ntchito popatsa ziweto. Alfalfa pambuyoblown idzaphuka mu masiku 30-40. Palibe chifukwa choti tipewe mapesi a chikhalidwe ichi kuti asavutike, chifukwa zimakhala zovuta kufotokoza zowuma mu nthaka monga feteleza. Nthawi yake yosinthidwa idzachedwa ndipo sidzabweretsa zotsatira zofunikira pa nthawi yofunikila.

Kugwirizana ndi luso la kufesa zakuthupi, kukonzekera dothi, kusinthasintha kwa mbeu, kusamalira bwino komanso kusakaniza kwa udzu kwa nthawi yake kumathandiza kuti pakhale kukula kwa alfalfa, kotero kuti ulemere nthaka ndi zakudya zowonjezera, kuonjezera chonde.