Bowa la Russula lamanyo: kufotokozera ndi momwe angaliyeretse

Russulae ndi a bowa syruphose agaric. M'banja lino, pali mitundu yoposa 250 ya bowa, zomwe zambiri zimayenera kuti anthu azidya. Dzina la banjali linali chifukwa chakuti zaka mazana angapo zapitazo, bowa izi zinagwiritsidwa ntchito ngakhale mu mawonekedwe ake opangira. Mu anthu, pafupifupi bowa onse odyetsedwa amatchedwa nyama ya leishim. Omwe amasankha bowa amadziwa kuti syroezhek yosonkhanitsa imagwera mu June-Oktoba, pamene bowa ndi labwino komanso lokoma. M'nkhani ino tidzakambirana mwatsatanetsatane za ubwino ndi ngozi za russula, komanso njira zotsuka ndikuphika nyama yowonda.

Malongosoledwe a zomera

Russula ndi bowa wophika omwe amakula pamlendo wowongoka. Chipewa chawo ali aang'ono ali ndi mawonekedwe ozungulira, koma kenako chimatha ndi kufika pamtunda wa masentimita 10 kapena kuposa. Bowa kuchokera ku banja lino akhoza kupezeka pafupifupi m'nkhalango iliyonse: chotheka, pine, birch. Kuwonjezera apo, nthawi zambiri russula amapeza oyendetsa bowa pamphepete mwa misewu, pafupi ndi mitsinje ndi mathithi.

Mukudziwa? M'dera la Russia mungapeze bowa weniweni, womwe umatchedwa plasmodium. Plasmodium ndiyomwe imakhala yocheperapo kuposa kamba, koma masiku angapo imatha kukwera chitsa chaching'ono.

Khungu pa kapu imakhala yochepa, mocheperapo - yonyezimira, yopangidwa ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Mipikisano ya kapuyi ndi yosiyana kapena yovuta. Chipewacho chimakhala chosiyana kwambiri ndi mwendo. Nthawi zina kapu ingawonongeke, makamaka ngati bowa ndi akale kapena ngati mvula ikuwonjezeka m'deralo. Chipatso chinamera, kawirikawiri, nthambi. Malingana ndi mtundu wa Syroezhkovs, mbaleyi ikhoza kukhala yodetsa kapena yosunthira mbali. Mtundu wa mbalewo umasiyana ndi woyera mpaka mandimu yonyezimira.

Leg syruzhek ili ndizomwe zimakhala zolimba, zosalala, zozungulira. Mitundu yambiri ya banja ili ndi miyendo yoyera yopanda malire. Mnofu ndi wandiweyani kokha pamlendo, pamutu pamakhala chiwerengero chochepa.

Thupi ndi losiyana ndi chipale chofewa, koma bowa wakale akhoza kusintha mtundu wa zamkati. Ali ndi kukoma kokometsetsa kwambiri, mapulogalamu athu sapeza chidwi cha makutu. Ngati mutatenga bowa ndi kukoma mtima kowawa, ndiye kuti mwatenga nyama yowopsa.

Mitundu ina ya bowa imakhalabe oimira ambiri a banja la Syrmej:

  • scaly russula (greenish). Omwe amasankha amathimita amadziwa kuti woimira banjayo ndi wokoma kwambiri komanso onunkhira bwino, oyenera kuti azitsatira malingaliro ake. Kapu yake ili ndi mtundu wobiriwira wobiriwira ndipo imakhala yaikulu masentimita 12. Pa mfundo yochepetsedwa, zamkati zimapeza chimbudzi chowuma;

Ndikofunikira! Pale toadstool ndi ofanana kwambiri ndi russula, yomwe ndi bowa wodyetsedwa. Koma pali kusiyana kwakukulu: toadstool wotumbululuka ali ndi filimu pansi pa kapu.

  • russula chakudya. Kapu imakhala ndi mawonekedwe osagwirizana, mthunzi wa brownish, womwe umakhala wolemera masentimita 8-10. Bowa ali ndi tinthu tomwe timapatsa thanzi;
  • russule buluu ndi wachikasu. Amasiyanitsa mtundu wa khungu la mtundu pa kapu. Mtundu ukhoza kukhala wofiirira, wobiriwira-wofiirira, maroon. Chophimbacho chikuwala, mpaka masentimita 15 m'lifupi mwake.

Mphamvu yamtengo wapatali ndi kalori

Caloric wokhudzana ndi oimira a Syroezhkov banja akhoza kusiyana 15 mpaka 20 kcal pa 100 g ya mankhwala (malingana ndi mtundu). 100 g ya mankhwalawa ili ndi 0.7 g mafuta, 1,7 g wa mapuloteni ndi 1.6 g wa chakudya. Madzi a bowa ndi 90%.

Phunzirani zambiri za zowonjezera zowonjezereka, zitsambala, mapulala, mapira, bokosi, aspen nkhuni, white podgruzdkah, boletus, boletus, mapa, honey agarics, bowa bowa, mafunde.

Mankhwala amapangidwa

Dzikoli limakhala ndi phula, zakudya zamagetsi, mono / disaccharides, saturated ndi monounsaturated fatty acids, Omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (ya gulu la polyunsaturated fatty acids). Mavitamini ali ndi zotsatirazi:

  • ascorbic asidi;
  • thiamine (vitamini B1);
  • tocopherol (vitamini E);
  • Riboflavin (vitamini B2);
  • nicotinic acid, niacin (vitamini PP).
Russulae ali ndi mchere wofunika kwambiri:

  • ferum;
  • magnesiamu;
  • calcium;
  • phosphorus;
  • potaziyamu;
  • sodium
Ndikofunika kudziwa kuti magalamu 300 a syroezhek amawunikira mlingo wa vitamini PP ndi zakudya zowonjezera, komanso thupi limalandira gawo lachiwiri la riboflavin ndi ascorbic acid.
Phunzirani momwe mungayume, pickle, kuzizira bowa.

Zothandiza

Russulae amathandiza mwatsatanetsatane zakudya zamtundu uliwonse, popeza ali ndi chiwerengero chochepa cha makilogalamu. Zimathandiza pa ntchito zambiri zofunika mthupi chifukwa cha mavitamini ndi macro / microelements. Ndipo chifukwa cha kukhalapo kwa chilengedwe cha lecithin emulsifier, mapira a bowa amalepheretsa kuika kwa "cholesterol" choipa. Madalitso a syroezhek ndi awa:

  • Kusamba thupi kwa thupi, kuwonjezera, kumadzaza ndi zinthu zambiri zothandiza. Mankhwala omwe amapangidwa kuchokera ku bowa amatha kuyamwa poizoni ndi mankhwala owononga ndi kuwachotsa ku thupi;
  • Zomwe zimapangidwanso pamatope zimakhala ndi zinthu zofunikira komanso zosasinthika. Rasulin, yomwe imathandiza kuti mkaka ukhale wambiri.
  • zotsatira zabwino pamagazi ndi kayendedwe ka kayendedwe kake. Lecithin, vitamini C, magnesium, potaziyamu ndi chitsulo zimalimbitsa makoma a mitsempha ya magazi, zimapangitsa kuti mtima ugwire bwino, umeta magazi. Komanso, chitsulo chimakhudzidwa pomanga maselo ofiira a magazi - erythrocytes;

Mukudziwa? Nkhumba ikhoza kutchedwa cholengedwa chachikulu kwambiri kuposa china chilichonse padziko lapansi. Ena a mycelium, amakhala pansi pa nthaka, amakhala ndi mahekitala mazana angapo ndipo ali ndi matani oposa zana!

  • Msuzi wa bowa umalimbana mwamphamvu ndi khungu lolimba pazitsulo. Mimba idzachoka patangotha ​​magawo ochepa chabe a madzi;
  • Phindu la ziwalo za m'mimba zimapezeka chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa m'mimba ndi m'matumbo;
  • Niacin kapena vitamini PP imathandiza kwambiri pang'onopang'ono mphamvu zamagetsi m'thupi;
  • Chifukwa cha acorbic acid, chitetezo cha mthupi chimalimba, chomwe chimatiteteza ku matenda ambiri opatsirana. Kuonjezera apo, vitamini C imathandiza kuwonetsa zinthu zachitsulo kawirikawiri;
  • Riboflavin imateteza dongosolo la kupuma kwa munthu kuchokera ku zotsatira zoipa za zinthu zakunja, zimapangitsa kuti chithokomiro chizikhala bwino komanso ziwalo za masomphenya. Vitamini B2 imathandizanso pakhungu, tsitsi, misomali ndi mucous membrane.
Zoonadi, kukangana sikumakhala ndi zozizwitsa zozizwitsa monga, mwachitsanzo, uchi kapena birch sap. Koma bowa wotere umakhala wovuta kwambiri m'thupi, amathandizira ziwalo za m'mimba, kuzizaza ndi mavitamini ndikuthandizira kutaya mapaundi owonjezerawo.
Pezani zomwe bowa zimakula pa mitengo, ndi mitundu iti ya bowa zomwe zimadya.

Kuvulaza ndi kutsutsana

Russula sichivulaza thupi la munthu, kupatula ngati mutadya anzawo omwe ali ndi poizoni. Akatswiri apeza mndandanda wa zotsutsana ndi kugwiritsa ntchito bowa awa:

  • ana osapitirira zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri;
  • kusagwirizana pakati pa mankhwala ndi thupi. Anthu ena amatha kusokonezeka, makamaka ngati bowa amagwiritsidwa ntchito;
  • Ngati matenda a m'mimba, chiwindi ndi impso zimakhala zovuta kwambiri, bowa ikhoza kudyedwa pokhapokha atakambirana ndi dokotala;
  • Anthu omwe ali ndi gastritis, zilonda zam'mimba ndi chifuwa chachikulu amaletsedwa kugwiritsa ntchito bowa pamtundu wawo.
Kumbukirani kuti oimira banja la Syrrushka akhoza kuvulaza ngakhale mwana wazaka khumi ngati ali okonzeka kugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zamakono.

Kwa chakudya cha ana, bowa ayenera kuchitidwa chithandizo chamatenthe, chifukwa chiwalo chaching'ono chimawona zinthu zina za bowa ngati tizilombo zakunja. Amwino okhulupirira zakudya amakhulupirira zimenezo 150 g ya mankhwalawa amatengedwa kuti ndizolowezi tsiku lililonse la syringes kwa munthu wamkulu.. Ndiyi mlingo umene bowawu udzapindule nawo ndipo sudzapweteka konse.

Kuphika syroezhek

Oimira a dziko la Russia amatha kuthira mchere, wophika, wokazinga, woweta, wamchere. Iwo adzawoneka movomerezeka mwachinthu chirichonse chokongola chodyera. Bowa akhoza kuwonjezeredwa msuzi, saladi, kupanga pies ndi roasts zozikidwa pa iwo.

Ndikofunikira! Mtundu wokometsetsa kwambiri ndi wathanzi ndi iwo omwe alibe mtundu wofiira kapena burgundy pachikwama.
Ndikofunika kuphika bowa m'madzi awiri ndikuyamba kuyamwa mumadzi amchere. Bowa ayenera kuphika kwa mphindi 15-20. Ngati mukufuna kuthamanga russula mu mafuta a masamba, muyenera kuyamba kuwiritsa nawo kwa mphindi 5-7. Pali maphikidwe oposa khumi ndi awiri omwe amapanga bowa. M'munsimu timapereka chitsanzo cha mitsempha yamchere:

  1. Sambani bowa ndi kuchotsa zinyalala zooneka kuchokera kwa iwo.
  2. 500 g wa syroezhek muyike mu chidebe chotola ndi kuwonjezera apo 5 ma cloves apakati a adyo ndi 2 tbsp. l mchere (madzi okwanira 1 litre).
  3. Onjezerani zitsamba ndi zonunkhiritsa (timbewu, timbewu ta dill, tarragon, basil, allspice, leaf leaf, etc.).
  4. Khala ndi chidebe ndikuchiyika pamalo ozizira, amdima kwa maola 10-12.
  5. Kutumikira bowa ku tebulo pamodzi ndi zonunkhira (mukhoza kudzaza mafuta).
Phunzirani momwe mungayankhire bowa la porcini, bowa wa oyster, mapira, chanterelles, bowa zakutchire.

Momwe mungatsukitsire russula

Kukonza syruzhek kuyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito luso lamakono:

  • kuyeretsa zinyalala ndi udzu pa malo osonkhanitsa m'nkhalango (komanso kutaya bowa onse oonongeka ndi osakayikira);
  • kunyumba, nkofunika kuti zilowerere zomwe zinasonkhanitsidwa kuti mbozi yonse ndi tizilombo tisiye malo ovuta kufika;
  • mutatha kutsuka m'pofunikira kuchotsa filimuyo mumutu ndi kudula gawo la pansi pa mwendo kukhala 1/3 m'litali mwake;
  • Pambuyo kuyeretsa, tsutsani bowa kachiwiri pansi pa madzi.
Ngati muwuma russula (osati njira yotchuka kwambiri yophika mtundu wa bowa), ndiye kuti simungawasambe ndi madzi. Ziyenera kukhala zouma zouma, kudula malo owonongeka ndi ovunda ndi kutumiza kukauma.

Kusungirako zinthu

Kusonkhanitsa ma russula sikungasungidwe kwa maola oposa asanu, chifukwa akhoza kusintha mtundu ndi kutaya kukoma kwawo. Bowa wokazinga ndi wophika akhoza kusungidwa mu firiji kapena pa khonde (m'nyengo yozizira).

Bowa wamchere ndi zam'chitini amawasungira osapitirira chaka mu malo amdima, ozizira. Russula youma iyenera kusungidwa mu nsalu kapena mapepala m'mapu pamalo ouma mpweya wokwanira kumene kutentha kwa mpweya sikugwa pansi +15 ° C.

Samalani mbali zosiyana za bokosi, nkhumba, bowa losakanizidwa, bowa, mapulawa a satana.

Kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa zakudya ndi zosakwanira

Chosankha chilichonse cha bowa chiyenera kudziwa malamulo ofunika kusiyanitsa bowa omwe amadya komanso osadulidwa, omwe ayenera kutsatiridwa pamene akusonkhanitsa syroezhek. Nazi zina mwa zizindikiro zazikulu za oimira poizoni a ufumu wa bowa:

  • bowa wosadziwika ali ndi thupi lamtundu wambiri komanso fungo losasangalatsa;
  • mbale zawo zowona, siketi kapena filimu ikhoza kupezeka pa mwendo;
  • mapeto a phazi ndi pinki yokongola kapena mithunzi yake;
  • Mtundu wa kapu womwe uli ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana imakhala ndi mitundu yambiri yoopsa ya bowa, koma ndi mtundu uwu pali zakudya zina zomwe zimadya;
  • Pakati pa chithandizo cha kutentha, mamuna a bowa a mamuna omwe ali ndi poizoni amatha kusintha mtundu.
Mukudziwa? Nkhumba ndizo zamoyo zokha zomwe zingathe kupulumuka mkhalidwe wovuta kwambiri (popanda chilengedwe, poyerekeza kwambiri ndi kutentha kwa dzuwa komanso kuthamanga kwapakati pa mlengalenga).

Malamulo amenewa mosakayikira amathandiza aliyense wosankha mabokosi, koma nzeru imabwera ndi zodziwa. Pofuna kudziŵa sanakupatseni mtengo wa thanzi, mosamala kuwerenga zithunzi za edible ndi inedible syroezhek. Tengani ojambula odziwa bowa ku nkhalango kwa nthawi yoyamba ndi kuwafunsanso nthawi zonse.

Chotsatira, ndikufuna ndikudziwe kuti russula ndi mtundu wa bowa wotchuka kwambiri m'dziko lathu, ndipo ngati mulibe nthawi yosankha bowa wanu, ndiye kuti mu August-September mukhoza kuwapeza pamsika. Ingokumbukirani malamulo ofunika kuyeretsa ndi kusiyanitsa bowa zomwe zimadya kuchokera poizoni kuti mupeze chakudya chokoma, osati chakudya cha chipatala.