Gaulteriya: mitundu, kulima, kusamalira ndi kubereka

Gaultería, gaultery, Gothia, goleria - Izi zonse ndizo zomera zomwezo. Amachokera kuzitentha, koma akhala akukondedwa ndi wamaluwa. Ngati mwaganiza kuyambitsa shrub yokongola pa chiwembu chanu, nkhani yathu idzakhala yothandiza kwa inu. Mmenemo, tidzalongosola mmene tingachilimire bwino komanso momwe tingasamalire bwino.

Kufotokozera

Chomera chobiriwira chimenechi chimakhala ku South ndi North America, Malaysia, East Asia, Australia, New Zealand. Mtunduwu umaphatikizapo chivundikiro chaching'ono cha masentimita 10 kufika mu msinkhu, zitsamba zokwana mamita 2.5 ndi ngakhale mamita asanu ndi limodzi. Oimira onse ali ndi elliptical kapena ovoid masamba owopsa. Iwo amafalikira mu mawonekedwe a goblet, atapachikidwa woyera kapena pinki maluwa, omwe amasonkhana mu apical inflorescences kapena singly anakonza. Kuchokera pa maluwa pali zipatso zozungulira - zoyera, buluu, pinki, zofiira.

Mukudziwa? Monga gawo la wolamulira, pali methyl salicylate, ofanana ndi zotsatira zake kwa aspirin. Mwina n'chifukwa chake ku North America kuchokera ku zipatso za tiyi zakummawa (monga momwe zimatchulidwira pamenepo) konzani zokoma ndi zakumwa zakumwa. Amathandiza ndi kumutu, kupweteka, kupweteka.

Mitundu

Mitundu yambiri ya wintergreen (pafupifupi 180):

  • Ambiri ndi omwe alipo m'dera lathu - kunama zabodzandi zipatso zofiira ndi masamba onunkhira. Mitengo yaing'ono yopanda madzi ndi shrub siimakula ndi masentimita 15. Dziko lake ndi North America.
  • Gaulteria Mikel zochepa kuposa zomwe zapitazo. Zimaoneka ngati masentimita 25 m'litali, ndipo m'mimba mwake shrub ikhoza kufika pafupifupi masentimita 65. Masamba ndi obiriwira, obiriwira; Maluwa amasonkhanitsidwa mu burashi; Zipatso - zing'onozing'ono zoyera.
  • Tinyumba tating'ono mpaka masentimita 10 ali ubweya wonyezimira kapena fumu. Maluwa a pinki ndi ovekedwa ndi belu. Zipatso zili ndi buluu (buluu). Ku Russia, chomerachi sichipezeka kawirikawiri chifukwa cha osauka nyengo yozizira.
  • Kwathu malo ochepa ndi Argentina ndi Chile. Ake baka 20-100 masentimita wamtali. Masamba okhala ndi mitsempha yayikulu yooneka bwino ndi m'mphepete mwake. Maluwa oyera amakhala ndi pinki ya pinki. Zipatso za pinki ndizozungulira.
  • Kukwera kwa Chitsamba kupitiliza sichiposa 9 masentimita. Maluwa mwa iye ndi kakang'ono ndi belu woboola. Zipatso ndizochepa, zofiira. Amayamba kuphuka mu July, ndipo zipatso zimapsa mu August. Zima zosagonjetsedwa Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, St. Petersburg ndi yabwino kwa malo ake.
  • Gaulteriya willon ali ndi mphukira yabwino, ndichifukwa chake imapanga timitengo tambirimbiri. Zowongoka zake zimakhala pafupifupi 50 cm wamtali. Mavitaminiwo ndi ofiira, patapita kanthawi amatembenukira wakuda.

Zizindikiro za kukula

Tsopano tiyeni tione momwe tingamere bwino shrub.

Kusankha malo, kuunikira ndi nthaka

Chomera sichimalola mthunzi wandiweyani. Ngati nthaka yayamba bwino, ndi bwino kusankha kuwala, koma nthawi yomweyo imatsekedwa kumalo a mphepo. Choyenera kwambiri ichi ndi chiwembu chokhala ndi mthunzi, mwachitsanzo, pafupi ndi mitengo yambiri yomwe imakhala pafupi ndi mitengo yonse yomwe imakhala ndi mphepo yamkuntho.

Yakulira, monga lamulo, pa peat acid dothi ndi pH yosapitirira 5, okonzedwa bwino ndi omasuka. Ngati mumagwiritsa ntchito nthaka yolemetsa (dothi, loamy, etc.), chotsani pamwamba pa 25-30 masentimita, pansi mutenge miyala ndi mchenga, pamwamba pake ndi peat (magawo atatu), theka losweka la coniferous litter (awiri), mchenga (chimodzi ).

Ndikofunikira! Talingalirani kuti pansi pomwe nyengo yozizira idzala, sipadzakhalanso kansanga komanso kusagwirizana kwakukulu kwa gawolo. Iye salola izi.

Njira yobwera

Ikani haulieriya kumayambiriro kwa masika. M'nthaka yambiri, mbande zimakhala pamtunda wa masentimita 22-26 kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzake, mu nthaka yosalala - pa 38-40. Khosi lazu liyenera kugwedezeka ndi nthaka kapena pang'ono (pafupifupi 1.5 cm). Kutsika kwa maenje - 30-40 masentimita. Kusambira - wosanjikiza wa 12-16 masentimita.

Kuthirira

Imwani madzi ambiri, koma kawirikawiri (kawiri pa mwezi, 6 malita a madzi pa chitsamba adzakwanira). Mukakhala wouma ndi wotentha panja, madzi nthawi zambiri, ndipo masamba ambiri amathiridwa. Chitani zonse zomwe mumasowa madzulo, dzuwa litalowa. Kwa ulimi wothirira, tenga madzi ofewa, makamaka madzi amvula.

Zingakuthandizeni kuti muwerenge momwe mungapangire ulimi wothirira kuchokera ku njira zosapangidwira kapena mabotolo apulasitiki ndi manja anu, komanso phunzirani za ubwino wothirira madzi.

Chisamaliro

Kenaka, tikuphunzira momwe tingasamalire chomera kukula ndi kubereka zipatso.

Kuvala, kukulitsa

M'chakachi zitsamba zimadyetsedwa ndi feteleza. Imodzi mwa njira yabwino kwambiri ndi Kemira Universal (ndalama zimatenga 100 g pamiyala iliyonse). Njira ina ndi nitroammofosk (pakukumba nthaka, 40 g ya granules imatengedwa pa 1 mamita ndipo mogawanika imagawira pamwamba).

Kapena mungatenge feteleza ina iliyonse yokhala ndi nayitrogeni. Pakatikati pa chilimwe tikulimbikitsidwa kusinthitsa feteleza opanda mchere.

Kugwa, zomera zazing'ono zimaphimbidwa ndi tsamba lakuuma, akuluakulu - mulch ndi peat kapena chips (wosanjikiza - 9-10 masentimita).

Kuyeretsa ndi kudula

Pamene kumasula nthaka ndikofunikira kuchotsa namsongole omwe amawononga chitukuko cha zitsamba.

Tikukulimbikitsani kuti muphunzire kuchotsa namsongole m'munda, zomwe herbicides ziwathandiza kuchotsa iwo, chida chotani chosankha kuchotsa namsongole ku mizu ndi udzu wa udzu womwe ungathandize kuthana namsongole.

Kuweta kumayenera kupangidwa ndi manja okha, ndipo nthaka iyeneranso kumasulidwa mosamala kuti asawononge mizu, popeza ili pafupi ndi pamwamba.

Musanayambe kukula kwa masika, mphukira imayenera kudulidwa pang'ono kuti chomera chitha kukhazikika. Ndipo kuchokera ku masamba owuma ayenera kuchotsa ngati pakufunikira, kuwathetsa kwathunthu.

Zima

M'nyengo yovuta kwambiri popanda malo ogona, anthu ochepa akhoza kuundana kapena kufafaniza.

Ndikofunikira! Kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, kotero kuti mzu wazu usatenthe, chinyumbacho chiyenera kuchotsedwa, ndipo mulch umachotsedwa.

Koma pansi pa chisanu, zimatha kuzizira bwino (ngakhale pa 35 ° C pansipa zero). Choncho, m'nyengo yozizira, chitsamba chimadzazidwa ndi chisanu.

Ngati nyengo yozizira siitentha, idzaphimbidwa ndi nthambi za spruce. Achinyamata akudzala ali ndi masamba owuma kapena peat.

Matenda

Gaulteria imatsutsidwa kwambiri ndi matenda ndi tizirombo. Chinthu chachikulu ndichokubzala mu nthaka yowonongeka komanso osaloleza madzi. Ndiye mavuto aakulu sadzauka.

Zidzakupindulitsani kuti mudziwe momwe mungadzichepetsere kuti mukukhala ndi acidity m'nthaka, komanso momwe mungasokonezere nthaka.

Apo ayi, idzafa mofulumira kwambiri kuchokera ku zowola kapena zosiyana ndi nthaka pH. Uku ndiko kufooka kwake kwakukulu.

Njira zoberekera

Zitsamba zingathe kufalikira m'njira zosiyanasiyana:

  • Cuttings. Ziyenera kukhala mu June kukonzekera zidutswa za mphindi 5-6 masentimita ndikuziika mu filimu wowonjezera kutentha (mizu imawoneka patatha masabata 3-5). Kutumikira woyera mu August. Sapling imakumana ndi nyengo yozizira m'munda, komabe, chisanu usanaiwale, musaiwale kuti muzitha kuzungulira dziko lapansi ndi peat ndikuphimba sapling ndi spunbond (chophimba chapadera).
  • Kuyika. Iyi ndiyo njira yosavuta. Dulani pansi pafupi ndi zitsamba zazikulu pang'onopang'ono ndikugwiritsanso ntchito pansi pamtunda. Gawani mphukira kuti ikhale yogawanika ndi mphukira zazing'ono pamwamba kapena mphukira ndi mizu. Iwo amafesedwa miphika kukula, kapena pamunda.
  • Mbewu. Sungani nyembazo kwa miyezi itatu - kuziyika mu mchenga wouma ndi kuziika mu furiji. Bzalani mu bokosi, mudzaze ndi nthaka yothira (kuthira pansi ndi kompositi), popanda kuthamanga m'nthaka. Kutaya ndi kuphimba ndi zojambulazo. Mbewu idzamera pambuyo pa milungu 2.5-3. Pomwe ma masamba anayi enieni awonekere, sankhani mapepala mu miphika. Pambuyo pa zaka 2-3 mutenge ku malo.

Tikukulimbikitsani kuti muwerenge za momwe mungakonzekere kompositi ndi manja anu, komanso momwe mungakonzekere m'thumba.

Monga mukuonera, kusuta si chomera chovuta kwambiri kusamalira. Chinthu chachikulu ndikutsatira malingaliro athu okhudzana ndi kulima, komanso kuti tisamachite manyazi kuti tizitha kukambirana ndi alimi odziwa bwino - ndipo chitsamba chokongola ichi chidzakusangalatsani ndi maonekedwe ake kwa chaka chimodzi.