Momwe mungasankhire mbeu kabichi: 12 zothandiza kwambiri

Pofesa mbewu za kabichi pofuna kukula mbande, tikuyembekeza kuti zokolola zam'tsogolo zidzakhala zochuluka komanso zapamwamba, koma zosiyana zikhoza kuchitika. Vuto nthawi zambiri silili la mbewu, koma posagwirizana ndi zofunikira zomwe zimasankhidwa malinga ndi kukula kwa zinthu komanso zosiyana siyana. Choncho, lero tiwone momwe tingasankhire mbeu za kabichi kuti tipeze zotsatira zake.

Zosiyanasiyana kapena zosakanizidwa

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndiyo kusankha mtundu wa zomera, mbewu yomwe ingagulidwe pa sitolo yapadera. Mbewu za zomera zoterozo zikhoza kukolola zokha, ndipo ubwino wa fruiting udzakhalabe wofanana chaka ndi chaka monga poyambirira kubzala mbewu.

Mukudziwa? Kutchulidwa koyamba kwa kabichi ndi ntchito ya filosofi wachigiriki Evdem. - "Kuchiza pa Herbs", kumene kunanenedwa kuti panthawiyi kuchokera 4 mpaka 3,000 BC. er Agiriki amakula mitundu itatu ya kabichi.

Wosakanizidwa amapezeka poyenda mitundu ingapo kuti apeze kukoma kwake, kukula kwakukulu, kuwonjezeka kukana tizirombo ndi matenda. Ndizosathandiza kubzala mbewu kuchokera ku zomera zotere kunyumba, popeza sangathe kubereka - ziyenera kugulitsidwa m'masitolo pachaka. Ndikoyenera kuzindikira kuti mitundu yonse ndi yosakanizidwa ali ndi ubwino ndi zovuta zawo, kotero ndikofunikira kuyandikira kusankha mosamala.

Ubwino wa zosiyanasiyana ndi:

  • kudzichepetsa kukulitsa chikhalidwe;
  • kukana kusintha kwa kutentha;
  • Mtengo wotsika komanso kuthekera kwa mbeu zokolola zokhazikika pachaka.

Malonda ndi:

  • matenda aakulu;
  • osauka ku matenda a fungal ndi mavairasi;
  • zovuta;
  • makamaka cabbages sichiyenera kusungidwa nthawi yaitali;

Ubwino wa hybrids ndi:

  • mkulu ndi zotsika zokolola;
  • Kuthamanga kwakukulu kwa matenda ndi tizirombo;
  • kukula kwakukulu kwa mutu;
  • bwino;
  • nthawi yosungiramo popanda kusintha maonekedwe ndi kukoma.

Mavuto a hybrids ndi awa:

  • Kufuna nthaka ndi nyengo;
  • kufunika kovala nthawi zonse (kwa zipatso zabwino);
  • mtengo wamtengo wapatali, woperekedwa kuti muyenera kugula mbewu chaka chilichonse.

Mukasankha nyemba, muyenera kutsogoleredwa ndi makhalidwe a ogulitsa. Mwachitsanzo, mitundu ya cabbages ndi yabwino kwambiri kwa salting, ndipo hybrids ndi abwino kwa nthawi yaitali yosungirako.

Tikukulangizani kuti muwerenge zomwe sauerkraut zili zothandiza komanso zovulaza, momwe mungasamire kabichi mwamsanga kunyumba, ndi momwe mungapangire pickles ku kabichi m'nyengo yozizira.

Chiyanjano cha m'madera

Mitundu iliyonse ndi yosakanizidwa imapangidwira kudera linalake (kapena zigawo zingapo). Phukusi la mbeu lili ndi zambiri zokhudza gawo limene angabzalidwe. Ngati mumanyalanyaza uphungu uwu, nkoyenera kuti kabichi siidzakula ndi makhalidwe omwe adawonetsedwa. Malinga ndi dera, mitundu yosiyana kapena kabichi imakera mosiyana, imakhala yosiyana nthawi, ndipo khalidwe la mitu ndi losiyana, kotero kuti zitheke kuti zitheke ku chithunzi ndi kufotokozera pa phukusi, phunzirani mosamalitsa kugwirizana kwa mbeu zomwe zimagulidwa.

Mwinamwake mudzakhala ndi chidwi chowerenga momwe mungamere mbande kabichi, ndipo ngati nkutheka kukula kabichi popanda kusankha.

Mtundu wa dothi

Komanso kufunika kosankha mbewu za mgwirizano wa m'deralo, m'pofunika kulingalira mtundu wa nthaka yomwe ikulimbikitsidwa kubzala mbeu yomwe idapatsidwa. Zonse zokhudza izi zikusonyezedwa pamapangidwe. Izi ndi zofunika kwambiri, chifukwa zimakhudza kwambiri kukula kwa msinkhu, kukula kwake ndi kukula kwa mitu, kukoma kwake ndi nthawi yosungirako.

Ndikofunikira! M'pofunikanso kuganizira acidity ya nthaka, popeza kabichi sakonda kwambiri acidic nthaka. Izi sizowopsya ndipo zimafuna kuti anthu athe kuthandizidwa mwa njira yoyenera komanso yanthaŵi yake yothandizira gawolo.

Kulima kumalo otseguka komanso otseka kumalimbikitsidwanso kusankha mbeu yoyenera. Oyambira oyambirira oyambirira amakhala oyenera kulima zowonjezera kutentha, ndi kutsegula - kumapeto ndi kucha.

Misa ndi mawonekedwe a mutu

Mitu ya cabbages imasiyana ndi kukula, mawonekedwe ndi kulemera, komwe kumadalira mwachindunji kabichi zosiyanasiyana. Kawirikawiri, kabichi yakucha yoyamba imakhala yolemera kwambiri moti imakhala yolemera makilogalamu 2.5 okha. Mipira ya kabichi si yosiyana kwambiri ndi kukula kwake, ngakhale kulemera kwake kumasiyanasiyana ndipo kungakhale pafupifupi makilogalamu 4, pamene masamba ali pafupi kwambiri.

Ambiri akuyang'ana mayankho a mafunso awa: momwe mungasamalire kabichi mutabzala mutseguka pansi, kaya ndi kofunika kuchotsa masamba a kabichi, kodi malamulo ndi zifukwa zotani mukama kuthirira kabichi, komanso momwe mungaperekere kabichi.
Chovuta kwambiri ndi kabichi yakuthwa mochedwa, yomwe imakhala ndi masamba ochulukirapo, kotero imatha kulemera kuchokera 2 (mitu yaing'ono ya kabichi) kufika makilogalamu 15.

Amasiyanitsa mapepala apansi, ozungulira, ozungulira, ozungulira komanso oval. Maonekedwe a mitu samakhudza mtundu wa mankhwala kapena nthawi yosungirako;

Malamulo a kucha

Mitundu ya kabichi pa kukhwima imagawanika:

  • kukula msinkhu
  • pakatikati;
  • kucha
Dzidziwitse nokha ndi luso lamakono la kabichi: Beijing, broccoli, kolifulawa, kohlrabi, pak-choi, kale, romanesco, red kabichi, savoy.

Makapu oyambirira ophika amakula pokhapokha kuti azidya mofulumira, ndiko kuti ayenera kudyedwa mwamsanga mutatha kukolola. Ma cabbages amenewa ndi abwino kwa vitamini saladi - masamba ndi ofewa, ofewa, kabbages otayirira, ochepa thupi. Nthawi yakucha ya kabichi yakucha kucha pafupifupi masiku 60 mpaka 80 kutuluka kwa mphukira yoyamba.

N'zosatheka kusunga kabichi: imatuluka mwamsanga chifukwa cha chikhalidwe cha kabichi, ndipo imayambanso kugwedezeka, yomwe imangowonjezereka pang'onopang'ono. Pakuti processing, cabbages nawonso si abwino, ndipo ngati atapatsidwa kutentha mankhwala - kabichi adzakhala chabe phala. Zina mwa mitundu yotchuka yamitundu yoyamba imatuluka "Hekta lagolide", "Zora", "Rosava", "Yaroslavna", "Nakhodka"; ndi pakati pa hybrids - "Aladdin F1", "Westri F1", "Delphi F1", "Kutumiza F1", "Farao F1", "Express F1".

Zakakatikati za nyengo zamkati zimaganiziridwa pakati pa mitundu yoyambirira ndi yochedwa. Tikawayerekeza ndi oyambirirawo, ndiye kuti m'pofunika kutulutsa zokolola zapamwamba, mutu wa kabichi. Nthawi ya kukula ndi kucha pambuyo pa mphukira yoyamba ili pafupi masiku 85-120.

Ubwino wa pakati pa nyengo kabichi ndizotheka kupitiriza kukonza ndi nthawi yayitali yosungirako poyerekezera ndi kucha koyambirira.

Zina mwa mitundu yotchuka ya mid-season imatuluka "Mphatso", "Ulemerero 1305", "Capital", "Belarusian 455", "Brunswick". Nthano zambiri zimaphatikizapo "Rindu F1", "Megaton F1", "Menzu F1", "Hannibal F1", "Hermes F1". Kabichi yam'mbuyo ndi yopindulitsa kwambiri. Amadziwika ndi mitu yochulukitsa ya mitu, masamba obiriwira. Mitu ya kabichi ingagwiritsidwe ntchito pokonza ndikudya mwatsopano.

Ndikofunikira! Mbali ya mochedwa-yakucha kabichi ndi yochepa yopangitsa kuti zinthu zowonongeka - nitrates, kotero zikhoza kudyedwa popanda kukhudzidwa ndi thanzi.

Kabichi yakutali imakhala ndi nthawi yotalika kwambiri - pafupifupi masiku 150. Kawirikawiri nthawi iyi imagwera kumapeto kwa autumn. Kabichi imeneyi imasungidwa bwino komanso kwa nthawi yaitali. Pansi pa zosungiramo zoyenera, nthawiyi ikhoza kukhala miyezi 9.

Zina mwa mitundu yotchuka kwambiri yochedwa kutuluka imatuluka "Kamenka", "Turquoise Plus", "Khalif", "Msuzi wa Shuga", "White White"; Mafinyumu ndi Aros F1, Atria F1, Bartolo F1, Extra F1, Lennox F1.

Perekani mitundu

Kukonzekera - chinthu chofunika kwambiri pakusankha mbewu za kabichi. Otsatsa akhala akuyesetsa kuti abweretse mitundu yabwino kwambiri, choncho pafupifupi onse ali ndi mitengo yapamwamba, yomwe pamene kugula wosakanizidwa kumawonjezereka kwambiri. Zoonadi, zokolola zofunidwa zimapezeka pokhapokha ngati zamasamba zimasamalidwa bwino komanso zoyenera. Chofunika kwambiri ndicho kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza ndi kuvala, zomwe ndi zofunika kwambiri kwa hybrids.

Ambiri zokolola za kabichi kuchokera ku 100 lalikulu mamita. mamita:

  • kwa kukula msinkhu - 400 makilogalamu (zokolola zambiri za hybrids - "Dumas F1", "Tobia F1"; zosiyanasiyana "June");
  • pakati pa nyengo - 600 kg (mitundu yobala kwambiri - "Ulemerero 1305", "Dobrovodskaya", "Mphatso", "Merchant"; hybrids - "Atria F1", "Midor F1", "Megaton F1");
    Mukudziwa? Kabichi ndi mbewu zopanda kuzizira, zomwe zimathandiza kuti zikule ngakhale kudutsa Arctic Circle.
  • chifukwa cha kukula msinkhu - 900 kg (zokolola zochulukirapo za hybrids - "Aggressor F1", "Amager F1", "Valentine F1", "Kolobok F1"; mwa mitundu - "Mara", "White White").

Ndikofunikira! Posankha mbewu, samverani pamatumbawo: ziyenera kukhala ndi zokhudzana ndi zokolola, chifukwa chake mudzasankha mbewu yofunikira.

Kusakanizidwa kolimba

Malingana ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana, iwo amatha kusungunuka mosavuta kutentha kwambiri. Tiyenera kuzindikira kuti mitundu imakhala yosagwirizana ndi kuzizira monga momwe zingathere, mosiyana ndi hybrids, chotero, ganizirani izi pamene musankha mbewu.

Kukaniza kwa chisanu kumakula kudutsa pa siteji ya chitukuko cha zomera. Mabala a kabichi ndi omwe amamvetsetsa kwambiri frosts ndipo amafa pa -3 ° C.

Choncho, ngati mwapeza mbewu, pazomwe zimasonyezedwa kuti chomeracho chikhoza kulimbana ndi chisanu mpaka -7 ° C, izi zikutanthauza kuti makapu okhwima kale, okhwima amatha kusuntha kugwa kutentha.

Ndiyenela kudziŵa kuti nsomba zakumapeto zimatha kupirira kutentha kwa -10 ° C, ndipo kumkwera pakati pa -5 ° C. Mitengo yozizira kwambiri ya kabichi imaphatikizapo "Wintering 1474", "Geneva", "Aros". Zing'onoting'ono sizimagonjetsedwa ndi kutentha.

Kusokoneza

Kawirikawiri cabbages amathyola chisanafike msinkhu, zomwe zimachepetsa nthawi yosungirako, monga bowa ndi mavairasi mwamsanga zimakhala m'malo amvula. Pofuna kupewa zoterezi, mitundu yosiyanasiyana yomwe imatsutsana ndi kuphulika yapangidwa.

Tiyenera kuzindikira kuti mazira oyambirira akakhwima amakhala ovuta kwambiri, ngati mochedwa pang'ono ndi nthawi yokolola.

Zaka zapakati pa nyengo sizingasokonezeke: pakati pa mitundu yotsutsa kwambiri kusiyanitsa "Elenovskuyu", "Capital". Zosakaniza zosakanizidwa - "Satellite F1", "Hinova F1", "Parel F1".

Kukoma kwa nyengo, ngati muwona nthawi yokolola yotchulidwa, amaonedwa kuti ndi osagonjetsedwa kwambiri. Malo abwino kwambiri ndi mitundu "Mphatso", "Rusinovka", hybrids "Bingo F1", "Galaxy F1", "Tranz F1".

Transportability

Transportability ndizofunika kwambiri posankha mbewu, makamaka ngati zikukonzekera kukula kabichi zogulitsidwa, kapena kanyumba kamene kali ndi munda ndilokwanira, chifukwa kabichi iyenera kutengedwa mutatha kukolola. Njira yabwino kwambiri yotengeramo imakhala ndi nsomba zakumapeto; zabwino - kucha kucha; zoipa zoyambirira kucha.

Mitundu yomwe ili ndi mawonetsedwe abwino kwambiri a makhalidwe omwe ali pansi pano ndi "Stone Head", "Mphatso", "Yaroslavna", "Tyurix", "Kharkiv Winter", "White White", "Belorusskaya 455", "Biryuzu". Mafuta omwe ali ndi transportability abwino akuphatikizapo "Atria F1", "Latima F1", "Dawn F1", "Kutumiza F1", "Kazachok F1".

Nthawi yosungirako

Salafi moyo wa kabichi imadalira ngati mitundu ndi hybrids ili ndi khalidwe la kusunga bwino. Mitu yokhala ndi nthawi yaitali yosungirako imakhala yowonongeka, ili ndi mitsempha yambiri, yandiweyani komanso yambiri. Mitengo yachakudya nthawi zambiri imakhala ndi makhalidwe oterewa. Komanso, masamu a moyo amadalira nyengo zomwe zikukula, nyengo yokolola komanso nthawi yomwe mbeu idzasungidwe. Kabichi yoyambirira yakucha sikusungidwa kwa mwezi umodzi, kotero mtsogoleri sangathe kusiyanitsa.

Zaka zapakati pa nyengo zingathe kukhala osapitirira miyezi inayi: "Mutu wa shuga", "Mphatso", "Nadezhda", "Belorusskaya 455" ukhoza kutumizidwa ku mitundu ndi khalidwe lopambana la kusunga; kwa hybrids - "Krautman F1", "Tobia F1", "Hermes F1".

Nsapato zakumapeto zimasungidwa nthawi yaitali - mpaka miyezi 9. Mitundu yotsatirayi ingakhale ndi iwo: Moscow Late 15, Wintering 1474, Amager 611, Geneva, Amager, Krümon, ndi Turkiz. Zing'onoting'ono zomwe zili ndi mapulaneti apamwamba: "Kutchuka F1", "Atria F1", "Aros F1", "Extra F1", "Lennox F1".

Matenda ndi Kutsutsana ndi Tizilombo

Monga mukudziwira, kabichi nthawi zambiri imawoneka ndi matenda ndi tizilombo toononga zomwe zimayambitsa kuvunda, kudumpha, kuumba kwa mitu.

Mmodzi mwa matenda ofala kwambiri ndi awa:

  • zowola;
  • mucous bacteriosis;
  • matenda;
  • Alternaria;
  • botiti;
  • chonchi;
  • rhizoctoniosis;
Zidzakhala bwino kuti muwerenge momwe mungachitire ndi kupewa matenda a kabichi.
Ndikofunikira! Mukasankha nyemba, tcherani khutu pazomwe mukutsutsana ndi zosiyana kapena zowakanizidwa ku matenda omwe ali pamwambawa ndi tizirombo.

Waukulu tizirombo ta kabichi ndi awa:

  • kabichi ntchentche;
  • kabichi aphid;
  • kabichi supu;
  • Medvedka;

Chifukwa cha kusankhidwa ndi kuswana kwa mitundu yatsopano ndi hybrids, zatsopano, zosagonjetsedwa ndi matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa tizilombo tinalengedwa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mbewuyo ikhale yabwino komanso nthawi yosungirako.

Zina mwazokhazikika ndi "Kolobok F1", "Kazachok F1", "Tobia F1", "Ulemerero 1305", "Atria F1", "Krautman F1", "Megaton F1". Mitundu yotsutsa imaphatikizapo "Wogwira ntchito", "Snow White", "Dobrovodskaya", "Mphatso".

Dipatimenti yapamwamba

Zikalata zomwe zimatsimikizira ubwino wa mbewu ziyenera kukhala mu sitolo kumene zimagulitsidwa. Mitundu iliyonse kapena wosakanizidwa ali ndi kalata yake yapamwamba, yomwe imatsimikizira kuti mbewuyi yapangidwa mwadzidzidzi ndi kusunga mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya chilengedwe ndi zomera zosiyanasiyana, ndipo yayesedwa ndikukumana ndi zizindikiro zonse zazinthu zosiyanasiyana.

Gulani katundu wokhazikika - ichi ndi chitsimikizo kuti simudzagulitsidwa mitundu yatsopano kapena yatsopano kapena yowonongeka. Choncho, kusankha mbeu ya kabichi n'kofunika monga momwe mungathere ngati mukukonzekera mbeu yaikulu, yamtengo wapatali yomwe idzasungidwa kwa nthawi yaitali.

Pofuna kuonetsetsa kuti ndondomeko yosankha mbewu imakhala yofulumira komanso yothandiza, samalani pazomwe mungasankhe, zomwe zikufotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane m'nkhaniyi.