Kodi kubzala ndi kukula nkhaka "Kuwombera"

Zakudya za partenocarpic za nkhaka zili ndi phindu lapadera pa mitundu yambiri yomwe timagwiritsa ntchito-sichifunika kutero.

Inde, wamaluwa samadutsa ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Pakati pa mitengoyi ya nkhaka imayimilira pa msika wathu, mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya "Shosh F1" inkawonekera, yomwe inalengedwa ndi obereketsa ku Russia.

Tiyeni tione mwatsatanetsatane zikhalidwe za izi zosiyanasiyana ndi ulimi wake waulimi.

Malingaliro osiyanasiyana

Makasamba osiyanasiyana "Kuwombera F1" ndi wosakanizidwa wa m'badwo woyamba. Analangizidwa kuti kulima m'madera akumidzi a Russia, koma ndi abwino kwambiri kumadera ena.

Izi ndi zoyamba kucha (zosapitirira 40 masiku) zomwe sizingafunikire kukhala mungu, makamaka ndi mtundu wa mtundu wa maluwa, ndipo ndi yabwino kuti ikule mulimonsemo (kutsegula pansi, kutentha, kutentha, khonde). Makhalidwe oterewa amachititsa kuti azikhala ochepa chifukwa cha nyengo komanso kuundana ndi tizilombo. Nkhumba iliyonse imatha kukonza nkhaka 1-3, imakhala yobala zipatso zambiri.

Parthenocarpic imaphatikizaponso hybrids ya nkhaka "Ecole", "Crispina", "Amur", "Cedric", "April", "Hector", "Emerald Earrings", "Berendey", "German".

Zimagonjetsedwa ndi matenda akuluakulu a nkhaka: zojambula, powdery mildew, zolinga za masamba tsamba ndi chikasu cham'thupi.

Zopweteka za mtundu wa nkhakayi ndizokha, popeza ndi wosakanizidwa, mbewu zake sizoyenera kufesa, ndikusowa zopanda pake.

Phunzirani momwe mungakulire nkhaka mu mbiya, mu matumba, mu ndowa, mu hydroponics, pawindo, pa khonde, mu mabotolo apulasitiki.

Zipatso makhalidwe ndi zokolola

Kuchokera pakukwera kwa mbande mpaka kucha kwa Zelentsa yoyamba kumatenga masiku 40. Kulima ndi teknoloji yabwino ya ulimi ndi 12-18 makilogalamu pa mita imodzi. m

Zelentsy ndi yoperewera, kuyambira pa 6 mpaka 12 cm m'litali ndi mamita 2-3.5 cm, kupitirira 85 g. Zipatso zolimba, zobiriwira za mtundu wobiriwira zimaphimbidwa ndi nkhope yonse ya khungu ndi ma tubercles omwe amatha kukula.

Iwo ali ndi khungu lofiira, mkati mwake ali ndi thupi lobiriwira lobiriwira bwino popanda voids ndi mbewu zambiri zing'onozing'ono. Nkhaka za zosiyanasiyanazi sizilawa zowawa ndipo zimakhala zabwino kwa mtundu uliwonse wa zokolola (pickling, salting, saladi), zimadyedwa bwino mu saladi za chilimwe. Khalani ndi lezhkost yabwino.

Mukudziwa? Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito nkhaka zatsopano za matenda a gout, impso ndi chiwindi. Zakudya zamakono zoterezi zimathandiza anthu omwe akudwala matenda a shuga ndi kunenepa kwambiri. Ndilo diuretic yabwino ndi decongestant. Mchere ndi kuzifutsa nkhaka sizinagwiritsidwe ntchito ndipo zimatsutsana.

Kusankhidwa kwa mbande

Tsogolo labwino limadalira kusankha nkhaka mbande. Ndi anthu ochepa okha omwe ali ndi mwayi wogula izo muzipinda zapadera kapena malo obiriwira, nthawi zambiri amapita ku msika.

Ndibwino ngati mukudziwa kale munthu wovomerezeka amene amakula ndikugulitsa mbande za nkhaka, koma sangakhale ndi mtundu womwe ukusowa. Koma nthawi zambiri kugula kumachokera kwa ogulitsa osadziwika, kotero maonekedwe a mbande amakhala ofunika.

Pachifukwa ichi, chidwi chiyenera kulipidwa pa mfundo izi:

  • Nthawi yabwino ya mmera imatengedwa ngati mbeu ya masiku 30 ndi kutalika kwa 25-30 masentimita, pokhala ndi masamba 5-6, kutalika kwa masango osachepera 5 cm, makulidwe ake ayenera kukhala pafupifupi 6-10 mm. Koma mbande za nthawi zakale, masiku 15-20 kwa mapepala 2-3 kapena masiku khumi ndi awiri pa pepala, idzakhalanso mizu bwino;
  • Mbande ziyenera kukhala ndi phesi lamphamvu komanso masamba obiriwira;
  • ayenera kugula zomera ndi mizu yamphamvu ndi clod earthy. Chisankho chabwino kwambiri chiyenera kukhala kugula mbande mu miphika yapadera;
  • Palibe chifukwa chogula mbande zowonjezereka, chifukwa zidzakhazikika mizu;
  • Kutalika kwambiri, zomera zowonongeka ndi tsinde lofooka ziyenera kupeŵa;
  • kukana kugula mbande ndi pachimake choyera, mdima wakuda ndi masamba opotoka - chomera chotero chikhoza kuvulaza.
Funsani wogulitsa za mtundu wa nkhaka zomwe mukugula, "Shosh" ndi njira zake zaulimi. Ngati ayankha molimba mtima, ndiye kuti, ndi amene akugulitsa.

Nthaka ndi feteleza

Mbewu imeneyi imabereka zipatso zabwino, zowonongeka, zachonde zomwe zimakhala bwino bwino komanso zimakhala ndi chuma chambiri. Okhudzidwa ndi osalowerera kapena dothi lochepa lamchere ndi acidity mpaka 6.2. Popeza mizu ya chikhalidwe ichi ili pamtunda (mpaka 30 masentimita mozama), payenera kulipidwa kubzala kwa nthaka yosanjikiza.

Dothi lokhazikitsidwa liyenera kukhala laimu, kutulutsa laimu pamtunda wa 50-150 g pa 1 sq. Km. m Mchere wosakanizidwa ukhoza kupangidwa ndi phulusa (1 makilogalamu pa 1 sq. m).

Dzidziwitse nokha ndi algorithm kuti mudzidziwe yekha nthaka acidity.
Pamwamba pa mitsinje yamchere ndi yolemera, osati dothi loyenera mukhoza kuthandizidwa ndi nthaka yomwe idagulidwa. Kukonzekera dothi kubzala nkhaka ayenera kukhala masabata 3-4 asanayambe kubzala.

Kukonzekera kumeneku kumadalira mtundu wa nthaka:

  • Nthaka yolemetsa ya dothi iyenera kumasulidwa pakupanga mchenga, manyowa ndi kompositi, humus;
  • Dothi la mchenga limapangitsanso kuti pakhale mchere wouma komanso peat, kompositi, komanso fupa kapena ufa wa dongo, sapropel;
  • Dothi losakanikirana ndi nthaka limakhala bwino ndi kompositi, manyowa a mahatchi, ufa wa dolomite, utuchi wovunda;
  • Dothi la podzolic limafuna kugwiritsa ntchito manyowa (kavalo, kalulu, mbuzi) ndi peat, humus ndi kompositi.

Mukudziwa? Udzu wa asidi ukhoza kutsimikiziridwa ndi zomera zomwe zilipo. Choncho, mahatchi, buluu, maluwa amakula panthaka ndi acidity. Mbewu, bearberry, zakutchire rosemary, lingonberry ngati sing'anga asidi nthaka. Zakale zamphongo ndi zopena zimakonda dothi la subacid. Clover, chamomile, nettle, yarrow amasangalala pa nthaka yopanda ndale. Chowawa, vetch, nsomba sedge ndi nyemba amakonda nthaka yochepa ya alkaline.
Nkhaka kwambiri mwamphamvu kusankha nthaka zakudya zowonjezera potaziyamu ndi nayitrogeni. Yabwino oyambirira kwa nkhaka ndi nyemba, anyezi ndi adyo, amadyera, oyambirira kabichi.

Koma pambuyo kabichi wa sing'anga ndi mochedwa mitundu, mavwende ndi gourds, kaloti ndi turnips, tomato, tsabola ndi eggplant, ndi bwino kuti musabzale nkhaka. Nkhaka zingabzalidwe pamalo amodzi pokhapokha patatha zaka ziwiri kapena zitatu kuti muteteze matenda.

Mavuto akukula

Nkhaka ndi chomera chakumphepete, ndipo yabwino kutentha ulamuliro wa kumera kwa mbewu zake ili pakati + 25 ... +30 ° C, ngakhale mphukira zikhoza kuonekera +15 ° C. Pansi kutentha kulibe ntchito kuyembekezera.

Makasamba osiyana "Akuwombera F1" mu mbiya

Kutentha kwakukulu kwa chitukuko chokhazikika ndi fruiting ndiyambiri ya + 24 ° + 28 ° C, koma pa kutentha kwa 3 ... + 4 ° C ndi pansipa, chikhalidwechi chimamwalira. Usiku kutentha pansipa +15 ... +18 ° C, zokolola za nkhaka zimachepa. Chikhalidwe ichi sichimalekerera kusintha kwakukulu mu kutentha kwa mpweya.

Nkhaka ngati chinyezi nyengo. Popeza ali ndi zochepa zochepa pamtunda ndi zowonjezera zobiriwira, zimakhala bwino pamene nthaka imakhala ndi 80-85% ndipo pamakhala mpweya wambiri wa 90%. Pamene dothi limakhala lochepera 60 peresenti likuyamba, ndipo chinyezi choposa 95% chimathandiza kuti chitukuko chitheke, zomera zimatuluka.

Koma ponena za kuunikira, chikhalidwechi sichimafunikanso, chikhoza kukula mthunzi. Amakonda tsiku lalifupi lochepa pa maola 10-12. Pamene tsiku limakwera maola 16, zokolola za mbeu zimagwa. Kuwala kochepa kumapangitsa kuti mbewuyo ifooke, iwonongeke komanso imakhala ndi zotsatira zoipa pa fruiting.

Makasamba osiyanasiyana "Akuwombera F1" mu wowonjezera kutentha

Kukula kuchokera ku mbewu kwa mbande kunyumba

Nkhaka mmera n'zotheka kukula kunyumba. Pankhani iyi, mudzakhala ndi chidaliro mu zosiyanasiyana za mbande ndipo mudzadziwa ndondomeko yake.

Kukonzekera Mbewu

Bzalani mbewu za mbande ziyenera kukhala masiku 20-30 kusanachitike. Kawirikawiri mbewu yoteroyo imafesedwa kuyambira pakati pa mwezi wa April mpaka kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May. Ananyamula mbewu za nkhaka mitundu "Kuthamanga" kuchokera ku odziwika bwino opanga, mwinamwake, ayamba kale kukonzedwa.

Koma ngati mutagula mbewu, muyenera kuchitidwa kwa mphindi 20 peresenti imodzi ya potaziyamu permanganate, kenako mutsuke bwino.

Phunzirani momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito nkhaka mbewu, momwe mungamere msinkhu kumera.
Kuonjezera kuzizira kwa kutsogolo kwa mbande, tikulimbikitsidwa kuumitsa mbeu. Kuti achite izi, amangiriridwa mu nsalu yonyowa ndipo amaikidwa m'firiji masiku awiri kutentha kwa -2 ... 0 ° C.

Muyenera kuonetsetsa kuti mbeu sizinasokonezeke. Ngati mukufuna, mukhoza kuwatsitsimula kuti awone, koma izi sizili zofunikira, chifukwa mbande za nkhaka zikuwonekera mwamsanga.

Zokhudzana ndi malo

Ndi bwino kukula nkhaka mbande pazenera zowonjezera kapena kutentha kwa loggias komwe kumayang'ana kum'mwera. Ichi ndi chomera cha thermophilic. Mu chipinda chomwe mbande zidzakula, kutentha kumakhala kosachepera +20 ° C, ndipo kuti mbeu imere iwo ayenera kutentha kutentha (pafupifupi 25 ° C).

Chifukwa chakuti nkhaka, ngati dzungu lonse, silingalekerere kuziyika, nkhaka iliyonse iyenera kukula mu chidebe chosiyana. Monga zotengerazo, mungagwiritse ntchito makapu apulasitiki, mapeyala a peat ndi mapiritsi, makaseti, trays, mabotolo odulidwa ndi zina zotero. Chinthu chachikulu ndi chakuti kutalika kwake ndi kuya kwake kuyenera kukhala osachepera 7-10 masentimita ndipo payenera kukhala dzenje la ngalande.

Kusakaniza kwa dothi kungagulidwe, koma mungathe kukonzekera nokha, mwachitsanzo, mwa kusakaniza muyeso 1: 1: 1: 1 nthaka, mchenga, peat ndi vermiculite kapena utuchi. Zimalimbikitsanso kuti nthaka isatenthedwe m'ng'anjo, kuthirira madzi otentha kapena potassium permanganate.

Mukudziwa? Monga mbewu, nkhaka zakhala zikulimidwa kwa zaka zikwi zisanu ndi chimodzi. Zomera zotchukazi zimachokera ku India. Iye tsopano akupezeka kuthengo kumapazi a Himalaya. Zipatso za nkhaka zakutchire ndi zazing'ono ndipo nthawi zambiri zimakhala zowawa, osati zoyenera kudya.

Njira yobzala mbewu

Mbewu iliyonse imabzalidwa mu chidebe chosiyana. Musanadzalemo, nthaka iyenera kuthiriridwa ndi kuchepetsedwa pang'ono, dzenje pang'onopang'ono 2 cm pakati pa mbale iliyonse kwa mbande ndikuyika mbewu imodzi kapena ziwiri mmenemo. Fukuta ndi dziko lapansi ndi moisten kuchokera kumwamba ndi sprayer.

Mphamvu ziyenera kuikidwa pamwamba pa filimuyi ndikutumiza pamalo otentha musanayambe kumera. Kawirikawiri amaikidwa pafupi ndi batiri. Tsiku lililonse, muyenera kuyendetsa chinyontho cha gawo lapansi, musalole kuti liume ndi kutuluka pang'ono kwa mphindi zingapo.

Phunzirani momwe mungabzala nkhaka za mbande.

Kusamalira mmera

Mwamsanga pamene mphukira ikuwoneka, zitsulo zomwe zimakhala nazo zimatumizidwa kumalo owala ndi kutentha kwa osachepera 18 ... +20 ° С. Ngati mbeu zoposa imodzi zakula mu thanki, ndiye kuti mphukira imodzi yamphamvu imatsalira, ndipo yachiwiri imadulidwa.

Ngati kulibe kuwala, zomera ziyenera kuunikiridwa, ndipo ngati dzuwa likutentha, liyenera kutetezedwa ku zotentha. Kuunikira, mungagwiritse ntchito nyali zamoto kapena kuwala kwa LED.

Nkhaka mbande pansi pa nyali

Kuthirira mbande kuyenera kuchitidwa ngati kuyanika kwa kumtunda kwa nthaka ndi madzi ofunda. Ngati mpweya uli m'chipinda chouma kwambiri, uyenera kuyamwa ndi sprayer. Ngati ndi kotheka, tsanulirani pansi pa nthaka yomwe ikukula.

Mbande ya nkhaka pa kulima nyumba ayenera kudyetsedwa osachepera kawiri:

  • Chomeracho chimadyetsedwa poyamba pomwe timapepala timayamba bwino. Kuchita izi, 1 g wa ammonium nitrate (urea), 3 g wa superphosphate ndi 2 g wa potaziyamu sulphate amadziimiritsidwa mu lita imodzi ya madzi ofunda ndi madzi mbande. Kudyetsa koyamba kungathekanso ndi zitosi za mbalame, kuzifalitsa m'madzi pa chiŵerengero cha 1:20;
  • kachiwiri kavalidwe posakhalitsa kutsika. Mu lita imodzi ya madzi kuchepetsa 2-3 g wa potaziyamu sulphate, 4 g wa superphosphate.
Mlungu umodzi musanadzalemo, mbande ya nkhaka iyenera kuyamba kuuma, kubweretsa ku khonde. Choyamba, muyenera kupirira mwachidule, ndikuwonjezerani nthawi. Musanayambe kutseguka, mbande ziyenera kukhala usiku wonse pa khonde.

Ndikofunikira! Pamene mukukula mbande ndi kuuma, ozizira ozizira, kusintha kwadzidzidzi kutentha ndi kutsika kutentha pansipa + 5 ... + 7 ° С ayenera kupewa. Zinthu zoterezi zingathe kufooketsa kapena ngakhale kupha imfa ya mbatata mbande, kuchepetsa kuyesetsa kwanu kuti mukhale ndi zero.

Kuwaza mbande pansi

Mbewu za nkhaka za "Kuswa" zosiyanasiyana zimabzalidwa lotseguka pansi, pamene kuopsezedwa kwa chisanu kudutsa ndipo kutentha kwa nthaka kwatentha pamwamba +12 ° С. Izi zimachitika kumapeto kwa May kapena kumayambiriro kwa June. Zaka zingapo m'mbuyomo (May 10-15), nkhaka ingabzalidwe ndi kugwiritsa ntchito malo osungirako mafilimu. Mu wowonjezera kutentha, mbande zibzalidwa pa April 15-20.

Kutsika kumapangidwa pa mabedi okonzedwa kale. Pazithunzi 1. M malo ogwiritsidwa ntchito mderalo anabzala 3-4 chitsamba chamtali nkhaka. Poyamba, mabowo amakoka, feteleza pang'ono amaikidwa mwa iwo (manyowa ovunda, humus, phulusa), ndipo amamwe madzi.

Phunzirani momwe mungakulire nkhaka mu greenhouses.
Kenaka muyenera kuchotsa mosamala mbandezo ndi dothi la earthy ndi kubzala mu dzenje. Pamene chodzala sichikhoza kukhala bondo lakufa. Ndiye, mosamala madzi okha omwe anabzala zomera ndi madzi ofunda ndi kuwaza iwo pamwamba ndi youma lapansi kapena mumble.

Agrotechnics ikukula mbewu zowonekera

Oyambirira mitundu ya nkhaka mwakula msinkhu ndi mbewu. Mitengo yotereyi imachepa kwambiri ndi matenda.

Zochitika kunja

Pofuna kubzala nkhaka muyenera kusankha malo amtendere omwe sangathe kuwombedwa ndi mphepo. Kuteteza kumphepo ya mphepo kungabzalidwe pozungulira chimanga kapena mpendadzuwa. Mitundu iyi imafesedwa kumapeto kwa mwezi wa April mu mizere iwiri kapena itatu yokhala ndi masentimita 25. Iwo amakula mofulumira ndikupanga mpanda wachilengedwe.

Nthaka yobzala nkhaka iyenera kukonzekera pasadakhale, mungathe ngakhale kugwa. Kum'mwera zigawo ndi bwino kudzala nkhaka mu mthunzi, komanso kwa kumpoto kwa chilimwe ndibwino kusankha chiwembu.

Kulima m'munda wamaluwa kumagwiritsira ntchito njira zotsatirazi:

  • mu mbiya zopangidwa ndi matabwa, zitsulo, pulasitiki kapena zopangidwa kuchokera ku matayala a galimoto ndi pansi perforated;
  • mu phukusi (ndizotheka zinyalala) kapena matumba omwe amaimira mabedi ozungulira. Kuthirira kumaphatikizapo pakadali pano mothandizidwa ndi mapaipi apulasitiki, omwe aikidwa m'manda;
  • mu chipinda chapadera kapena chihema, chomwe chimapanganso chitetezo ku nyengo;
  • pamtambo wa msondodzi kapena mbalame yamatcheri, yomwe imayikidwa pansi, kenako imayanjana chifukwa cha kusinthasintha kwake.

Makasamba osiyanasiyana "Akuwombera F1" mu wowonjezera kutentha

Mitengo yambiri yamtengo wapatali ingabzalidwe kumapeto kwa March mu wowonjezera kutentha kuti upeze zokolola kale. Pachifukwa ichi, wowonjezera kutentha akukonzekera m'dzinja. Nthaka yowonjezera imachotsedwa (pafupifupi masentimita 5), ​​popeza tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timakhalabe pamtunda. Chitani ntchito yowononga tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi mkuwa sulphate. Amapanga organic ndi mineral feteleza, laimu, kenako kukumba nthaka.

Njira yobzala mbewu pansi

Pamalo otseguka, mbewu zimabzalidwa ndi nkhaka kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, pamene nthaka ikufunda mokwanira. Mbewu zimayambira kumera ndikupachikidwa. Zimafesedwa pamene dothi lopanda pamwamba limawombera pamwamba + 15 ° C.

Ndikofunika kudziwa nthawi komanso momwe mungabzalitsire nkhaka panja.
Mabedi a m'munda ali okonzekera pasadakhale. Pachifukwachi, amaika mzere wokwanira masentimita makumi asanu ndi awiri (70 cm). Kenaka fetereza ya feteleza imagwiritsidwa ntchito - manyowa, okonzeka kompositi, peat wapadera, kuyang'ana kuchuluka kwa makilogalamu 4-5 pa 1 mita imodzi. mita

Pambuyo poonjezera ku nthaka zovuta feteleza mu granules malingana ndi mfundo zoyenera. Kenaka yambani bedi ndi mchenga. Pakatikati pa mabedi mupanga mpweya wozama pafupifupi masentimita atatu.

Kenaka tsambulani njira yotsatirayi: mu chidebe cha malita 10 ndi madzi +50 ° C kutaya makapisozi awiri a Energen stimulator. Pambuyo pa kuthirira izi, ikani nyemba pamtunda wotalika wa masentimita 40 mpaka 50. Idyani nyemba, zonyansa.

Kuthirira mutabzala sikoyenera, ndipo mukhoza kuwaza pansi tsabola wakuda pamwamba. Izi zimachitidwa kuti ziwopsyeze nyerere, slugs ndi mbewa kuchokera ku mbewu. Ndiye ndi zofunika kuyika chophimba pamwamba pa bedi, makamaka m'magawo awiri.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti nthaka nkhaka ndi bwino kulawa kuposa greenhouses.

Kuthirira

Mutabzala mbewu, muyenera kusamalidwa kuti nthaka siuma. Kwa humidification, ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito madzi ndi kutentha kwambiri kuposa +20 ° C. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuyang'anitsitsa kutsirira pamene ovary ikuwonekera, kotero kuti sizimatha kuchoka. Kuti tichite izi, kuthirira kumayenera kuchitidwa pamzu, kuti asaigwetse pansi.

Pamene kutentha kumadutsa kwambiri kuposa +25 ° C, nkhaka zimatsitsirizidwa, zomwe ndi zofunika kuchita tsiku ndi tsiku. Ngati kutentha kuli pansipa, kufunika kukonkha kumachotsedwa. Mu kutentha kwakukulu, sikuyeneranso kuchita zimenezi, zingayambitse kutentha ndi chikasu cha masamba.

Phunzirani zambiri za kuthirira nkhaka mu greenhouses ndi malo otseguka.
Nthawi yabwino yosunga nkhaka m'mawa kapena madzulo.

Nkhaka, makamaka madzi ndi utsi akhoza. Musamamwe madzi kuchokera mu chidebe kapena payipi, chifukwa izi zikhoza kufotokoza mizu, chifukwa chomwe zipatso ndi khalidwe la zipatso zingachepetse.

Ngati, pambuyo pa zonse, izi zakhala zikuchitika, ndiye chitsamba chiyenera kumangoyamba kutsuka ndi kutsanulira dothi lachonde m'zitsime. Pa nthawi ya kucha zipatso, madzi okwanira ambiri amachitika m'mawa ndi madzulo. Izi zidzakuthandizani kukolola mofulumira.

Nthaka imamasula ndi kupalira

Musanayambe fruiting nkhaka, nkofunika kumasula nthawi zonse nthaka ndi namsongole. Kutsegulidwa kotsiriza kumachitika pamene masamba 4-5 enieni awoneka. Pa nthawi yomweyi, kumasulidwa kumaphatikizapo ndi kukwera pang'ono. Sizingakhale zodabwitsa kuwonjezera humus ku mizu panthawiyi.

Masking

Pa nkhaka iwo amabaya - kuchotsa mphukira zosafunika (ana opeza), omwe amadzikakamiza okha, chifukwa cha zomwe zokolola za zomera zimachepa.

Akatswiri amalangiza kuti abweretse mosamala kwambiri ovary owonjezera mu masamba a 3-4 masamba oyambirira, komanso mphukira zowonongeka mu masamba a 5-6 oyambirira. Apa chinthu chachikulu ndicho kusiyanitsa tsinde loyamba ndi ovary kuchokera kwa ana opeza.

Kuchotsa masitepe kumachitika motere: ndi dzanja limodzi mosamala mosamala tsamba limodzi, ndipo lina lichotseratu mosamala pafupi ndi tsinde.

Ndikofunikira! Ntchito yodyetsa ikuchitika pamene ana opeza akufikira masentimita 4-6. Ngati ali ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 20, ndiye kuti gawo la mbewulo latayika kale, chifukwa ana opeza adakatenga zinthu zofunika kuti apangidwe ndi kukula kwa chipatsocho.

Belt girter

Garter wa nkhaka pamalo otseguka akuchitidwa pa zifukwa zotsatirazi:

  • Mitundu yambiri yokhala ndi shrub imakhala yowonjezera, ndipo pali ovary yambiri, yomwe imapanga kupanga chiwerengero cha zipatso zambiri;
  • Izi zimateteza matenda opatsirana ndi matenda opatsirana;
  • nthaka yochepa pa chiwembu;
  • Palibe chifukwa chokhalira pansi pakukolola.
Samalani malamulo a garter nkhaka mu wowonjezera kutentha.
Nkhaka zowononga zimatha kupangidwa ndi njira zosiyanasiyana, taganizirani izi:

  • yopanda malire. Njira yowoneka bwino komanso yabwino. Pachifukwa ichi, zipilala ziwiri za matabwa ndi zitsulo zimayendetsedwa pansi kumbali ziwiri kuchokera kumtsinje wa nkhaka. Pakati pawo amakoka waya kapena chingwe. Mtunda pakati pa mizere ya mavuto - 25-30 masentimita. Kwa chithandizo chotero ndi kumangiriza ndi kukula kwa kukwera kwa nkhaka;
  • chowonekera garter. Zitsulo ziwiri zimayikidwa, ndipo ndodo imatambasula pakati pawo, yomwe nsaluyo imapanga pafupifupi masentimita awiri ndi masentimita asanu ndi awiri (masentimita awiri ndi atatu). Mbali ya m'munsi ya mikwingwirima yotereyi inamangidwa kumunsi kwa tsinde. Pamene ikukula, chikhalidwe ichi chimawomba kuzungulira chithandizo ndikukwera mmwamba. Chiwerengero cha zothandizira ziyenera kukhala zofanana ndi chiwerengero cha tchire cha garters. Mukhoza kuyika timitengo ngati piramidi pafupi ndi chitsamba chilichonse, ndipo pakati pa iwo amatambasula chingwe chomwe angamange nsalu;
  • maukonde oti amangirire. M'masitolo ogulitsa agulitsa nsomba kuti akwere mbewu. Galasi yotereyi imatambasulidwa pakati pa zothandizira, ndipo nkhaka zimalowetsedwa mu maselo ake.
Njira yomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi njira yachikhalidwe yopingasa.

Momwe mungamangirire nkhaka: kanema

Kupaka pamwamba

Kuti mupeze mbewu zabwino za nkhaka, tikulimbikitsidwa kudyetsa mlungu uliwonse ndi organic kapena mchere feteleza. Choyamba chovala kavalidwe chimapangidwa masiku 21 pambuyo pa kutuluka kwa mphukira, ndiyeno kubwereza masiku asanu ndi awiri (7-8).

Pezani chifukwa chake nkhaka masamba akutembenukira oyera, kutembenukira chikasu ndi youma, kufota, kaya muzitenge izo, bwanji midgese ikuwonekera pa iwo.
Mitundu yotsatira ikulimbikitsidwa kuti muveke:

  • pa chidebe cha lita khumi amatenga makapu 2 a kukonzekera kwa "Energen 2" (kukula stimulator), kuyambitsa ndi kudya pafupifupi malita atatu pa 1 sq. m. m;
  • 10 malita a madzi atenge supuni imodzi ya feteleza "Effecton". Kugwiritsa ntchito - pafupifupi 4 malita pa 1 lalikulu. m;
  • 10 malita a madzi atenge supuni imodzi ya nitrophoska ndi supuni 2 za madzi organic feteleza "Agricola Vegeta". Kugwiritsa ntchito - pafupifupi 4.5-5 malita pa 1 lalikulu. m;
  • kwa ndowa khumi lita chidebe chosakaniza 2.5-3 supuni ya madzi organic feteleza "Agricola Aqua", zomwe ndi zabwino kuoneka chikasu masamba. Kugwiritsa ntchito - pafupifupi 3-4 malita pa 1 lalikulu. m

Tizilombo, matenda ndi kupewa

Mukamakula nkhaka mungathe kukumana ndi tizirombo zambiri zomwe zingathe kuwononga kapena kuchepetsa kwambiri zokolola za nkhaka. Talingalirani zomwe zimafala kwambiri:

  • kangaude. Pamene zikuwoneka, masambawa ali ndi zing'onozing'ono zoyera, ndipo kabulonda kakang'ono kamapezeka. Kukula kwa nkhupakupa ndi pafupifupi 0,5 mm, ndipo ndi kovuta kuzifufuza ndi maso. Kukonzekera kwa "Aktofit", "Fitoverm" ndi ena omwe adzathetseretu matendawa;
  • vwende aphid. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, monga nkhupakupa, kumunsi kwa chikhalidwechi, zimayambitsa masamba, mazira ndi maluwa. Chomera chimayamba kuuma, masamba azipiringa. Nthaŵi zambiri overwinter pa zotsalira za zomera. Potsutsana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba, pali zinthu zambiri zamagetsi ndi zachilengedwe, mwachitsanzo - mankhwala opangidwa ndi "Verticillin";
  • whitefly. Ndi kachilombo kakang'ono koyera komwe kuli tizilombo to mbeu iyi. Kuti muchotse, muyenera kuchotsa udzu nthawi zonse, kutsuka ndi kusamba masamba ndi madzi, ndipo mutha kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa "Bowerin."

Komanso, nkhaka ikhoza kugonjetsedwa ndi matenda awa:

  • imvi zowola - matendawa ndi fungal. Awonetsedwa ngati mawonekedwe a mdima pa tsinde ndi lamba lachikasu pa chipatso. Malo okhudzidwa amalimbikitsa kuti ufa ndi kupaka pang'ono ndi phulusa, asiye kuthirira. Kutentha kwambiri kungayambitse ndi kukulitsa matendawa. Euparine kapena Bayleton mankhwala amathandiza kuthetsa vutoli;
  • powdery mildew. Awonetsedwa ngati ma whitish or reddish specks pa masamba ndi tsinde la mbewu. Malo omwe amakhudzidwa ndi matendawa akulimbikitsidwa kuti azisakanizidwa ndi phulusa la nkhuni kapena kuchotsedwa. Mukhoza kutsuka nkhaka ndi yankho la mullein, komanso colloidal sulfure;
  • zovunda zoyera. Mycelium amakhudza kwambiri nkhaka ndi mucus woyera, ndipo zimayamba kuvunda. Pankhaniyi, muyenera kuchotsa kachilomboka kapena kuwaza ndi mandimu. Chinyezi chochulukitsa chingathandize kuoneka kwa matendawa;
  • mizu zowola. Pa nthawi yoyamba ya fruiting, mawanga amdima amaonekera pafupi ndi mizu. Tsinde limayamba kuvunda, ndipo mizu imayamba kufa. Kutentha kwakukulu ndi mvula yambiri kungapangitse kuti matendawa afalikire. Ndikofunika kuuma malo okhudzidwa ndi kuwaza phulusa kapena laimu. Kuthirira nthaka yokha yozungulira chitsamba. Pofuna kuthana ndi zowola, ndi zofunika kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda;
  • zojambulajambula. Amawonetsedwa ngati mawonekedwe a kuwala kapena mdima wandiweyani pa masambawo, kuwapweteka. Zingakhudze ndi zipatso. Gwerani kupyolera mu mbewu kapena chotsalira chomera. Mitengo yodwala imachotsedwa bwino;
  • malo a azitona. Imafotokozedwa ngati zisindikizo zakuda zomwe zimamasula madzi. Zimatheka chifukwa cha kuthirira madzi ozizira, mvula ndi mvula yambiri. Ndi vuto ili, muyenera kusiya kuthirira nkhaka masiku asanu ndikuchiritsa Oksih kapena kugwiritsa ntchito Bordeaux madzi.

Pezani zizindikiro ndi zomwe mungachite ndi perinospora, fusarium pa nkhaka.
Pofuna kuteteza nkhaka ku tizirombo ndi matenda, tikulimbikitsana kutsatira zotsatirazi:

  • Sakanizani mbeu asanayambe kubzala pansi;
  • kutsatira malamulo a kusintha kwa mbewu ndi mbewu zina kuti matenda a fungal ndi tizilombo towononga zomwe zingakhudze nkhaka zimasiyidwa panthaka ndi zotsalira zamasamba;
  • onetsetsani dothi la pamwamba;
  • yesetsani kusunga mulingo woyenera wa chinyezi;
  • peŵani kusintha kosayembekezereka kutentha;
  • kumwa madzi olimbitsa thupi;
  • namsongole wamsongole;
  • Gwiritsani ntchito kavalidwe kawiri kawiri kuti mukhale olimba.
Ngati mutatsatira malamulo omwe ali pamwambawa, ndiye kuti palibe matenda a nkhaka.

Dziwitseni ndi njira zotchuka zoteteza nkhaka kuchokera ku tizirombo ndi matenda.

Kukolola ndi Kusungirako

Nkhuka zokolola zimayamba kuyambira July mpaka theka lachimwemwe cha August. Zipatso zimakololedwa zikamapsa. Sikoyenera kulola nkhaka zowonjezereka, amataya mauthenga ndi kukoma. Pokolola, m'pofunika kuchotsa zipatso zowonongeka ndi zowonongeka, kuti asatenge ndi kuteteza masamba ena kuti akule. Ndi bwino kusonkhanitsa nkhaka m'mawa kapena madzulo, ndiye kuti ndiwowopsa kwambiri. Izi ziyenera kuchitidwa mosamala kuti asaswe chikwapu.

Kusonkhanitsa nkhaka "Kuwombera"

Pambuyo kukolola, nkhaka ayenera kutuluka. Kanani zipatso zowonjezereka, zodwala ndi zopunduka, ndi nthawi yowoneka bwino.

Pa alumali la firiji kuti asunge masamba pa phukusi lotseguka la polyethylene angathe kukhala masiku khumi. Pamwamba pake mukhoza kuika chimbudzi chakuda, chidzawapulumutsa kuti asawume.

M'chipinda chapansi pa nyumba kapena pansi, mungagwiritse ntchito trays kapena mabokosi omwe pansi pake ali ndi mafilimu 40 microns. Zimathandiza kusunga chinyezi ndikuletsa masamba kuti asawume. Musasunge nkhaka mu phukusi losindikizidwa. Njirayi idzasunga chinyezi, koma nkhaka "idzagonjetsa" ndi kutaya kukoma kwawo.

Kuti nkhaka zikhale ndi nthawi yaitali, ziyenera kukhala ndi mphamvu ya kutentha + 5 ... +8 ° C, ndi chinyezi - pamtunda wa 90%. Izi zimathandiza kupulumutsa nkhaka kwa milungu itatu. Makonde ambiri osungirako akhoza kusungidwa (kuziphika, zofukiza kapena kuzifutsa).

Mavuto ndi malingaliro

Ngakhale nkhaka za Shosh zimagonjetsedwa ndi chilengedwe, mavuto awa akhoza kuchitika:

  1. Kusintha kwa zipatso. Nkhaka amatenga mawonekedwe oipa chifukwa chosowa zinthu zopindulitsa, makamaka potaziyamu. Pochotsa vutoli muyenera kudyetsa ndi phulusa. Ngati ntchentche zimayandikira pafupi ndi tsinde ndipo zimachokera kumbali ina, ndiye kuti, ndizowonjezera kutaya nayitrogeni, ndipo feteleza ndi feteleza omwe ali ndi nayitrogeni amafunika. Mukhoza kumanga feteleza - mullein, manyowa a nkhuku. Kusintha kwadzidzidzi kumasintha kungayambitse pakati pa mwanayo. Kuti muchite izi, nkofunika kuyika chikhalidwe ichi ndi chophimba chapadera kuchokera ku chimfine chozizira. Ngati iwo ali ndi mawonekedwe ophimba, izi zikutanthawuza kuthira mosalekeza ndi yunifolomu. Mwachitsanzo, kuthirira mwamphamvu pambuyo pa chilala. Kuthirira kumayenera kuchitika nthawi zonse komanso molondola.
  2. Masamba achikasu. Ngati masambawo atembenuka chikasu ndi kuuma msanga, ichi ndi chizindikiro cha kusowa kwa nayitrogeni. Ndikofunika kupanga zakudya za nayitrogeni feteleza (nitrophoska).
  3. Kukhalabe kwa ovary. Ovary mwina sangakhalepo pa zifukwa zotere: kutenthetsa, nayitrogeni wambiri, mbewu za chaka chatha.
  4. Nkhaka kufota. Chifukwa chake chikhoza kuwononga mizu. Izi zimachokera ku chinyezi chochuluka kapena kupweteka kwa makoswe, komanso chifukwa cha kugonjetsedwa kwa mizu yovunda.
Pezani chifukwa chake nkhaka imakhala yowawa.

Partenokarpichesky wosakanizidwa zosiyanasiyana nkhaka "Kuwombera F1" ndibwino kuti mukhale otseguka pansi kapena wowonjezera kutentha, mu zitsamba kapena matumba. Ndizochita zabwino zaulimi, zimapereka zokolola zabwino, zomwe zimalandira kuti sizidalira nyengo. Zipatso zake zimadziwika ndi kukoma kwapamwamba, kukula pang'ono, osati kowawa komanso kosavuta kuteteza. Mbande zikhoza kukula pakhomo, ndipo mwamsanga mukhoza kubzala pansi. Kawirikawiri mbewu yamakono ya nkhaka ndi kukana matenda ambiri zimapangitsa kulima nkhakayi kukhala ntchito yopindulitsa.

Video: Kulima kwa "Shosh F1" mu mbiya