Chomwe chingakulire mumtunda wowonjezera wowonjezera nthawi yomweyo

Imodzi mwa ntchito zomwe anthu ambiri ankachita pa ulimi ndiwo kulima kwa mbewu zosiyanasiyana mumphepete mwa zomera. Izi sizingowonjezera banja zokhala ndi masamba atsopano chaka chonse, komanso zimabweretsa zina zowonjezera. Lero, kale lomwe likuwonekera, palinso zochitika zina zomwe zingathandize kuyamba ntchito yowonjezera kutentha, ngakhale oyamba omwe sadziwa zambiri.

Parameters ya wowonjezera kutentha kwazomwe zimalimidwa chaka chonse

Masiku ano, mitundu yambiri ya malo oterewa amasiyanitsa:

  1. Popanda kutentha, zomwe zimafulumizitsa kulima mbewu m'chilimwe. Iwo ali greenhouses ataphimbidwa ndi zojambulazo. Cholinga cha ntchito yawo ndicho kulenga zinthu zabwino kuti zitsitsire masamba ndi zitsamba.
  2. Nyumba zazikulu zomwe mungakolole chaka chonse. Zimamangidwa kuti zigwiritsidwe ntchito kwa zaka zingapo, kotero ziyenera kukhala ndi mphamvu zokwanira ndi mphamvu zokwanira za zipangizo.

Zinthu zofunika kuti ulimi ukhale wogwira ntchito mu wowonjezera kutentha ndi:

  • zipangizo zamtengo wapatali pa nyumbayi. Izi zidzasunga ndalama kwa zaka zingapo ndipo sizidzataya nthaŵi pa kukonzanso zomangamanga;
  • Kukhalapo kwa khomo lachiwiri kuti muteteze ku chimfine. Madontho akuda kwambiri otentha ndi osayenera kwambiri kwa kukula kwa chomera;
  • kuunikira M'nyumbayi, yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito chaka chonse, muyenera kukhala ndi kuwala kwina pamene nthawi yachilengedwe sichikwanira. Gwiritsani ntchito nyali zowonongeka kapena fitolampy;
  • dziko lapansi. Ayenera kukonzekera pasadakhale chifukwa cha zomera zonse zomwe zidzakula. M'pofunika kukumbukira kuti chomera chilichonse chili ndi zofunikira zake, komabe, zosakaniza zonse zingagwiritsidwe ntchito;
  • kukhalapo kwa dongosolo la kuthirira nthawi zonse. Kutentha kwa madzi n'kofunika. Choncho, muyenera kuika tanki kumene madzi amatha kutentha kuti agwiritse ntchito, ndiyeno m'magawo ang'onoang'ono akuyenda pansi;
  • wowonjezera kutentha mpweya wabwino. Pofuna kuti musatenge ndondomeko, mutsegule zitseko ziwiri, ndi bwino kupanga mpweya. Malo awo olondola amakupatsani inu kuchotsa mpweya wotentha, pamene khomo lidzapita mwatsopano. Njira yothetsera vutoli ndi wotsutsa ndi zina;
  • Tikukulimbikitsani kuti mudziwe momwe mungapangire mpweya wokwanira wa wowonjezera kutentha ndi manja anu.

  • Kutenthetsa Kutenthetsera nyengo yozizira. Mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito Kutentha kwa dzuwa komanso mothandizidwa ndi zipangizo zina. Kutentha koyamba kumaphatikizidwa ndi manyowa, omwe, akamatha, amawotcha kutentha ndipo amatha kutenthetsa nthaka mpaka madigiri 20. Zipangizo za kutentha zimasankhidwa payekha. Zowonjezereka ndi izi: zotentha, zitsulo zotentha nkhuni, otentha kapena zowonongeka;
  • Mthunzi ndi wofunika kwambiri monga zikhalidwe zina, chifukwa chomera chilichonse chimakhala ndi nthawi yomwe imafunikira kuwala kochepa.

Mukudziwa? Malo oyambirira a greenhouses ankawonekera ku Roma wakale, komabe, iwo anali mafoni ndipo anali magalimoto omwe iwo anabzala zomera. Iwo anatulutsidwa kunja dzuwa madzulo, ndipo anathamangitsidwa kumalo ofunda usiku.

Ubwino ndi kuipa kokhala

Kugawanika bwino mbewu kudzawathandiza kupanga zofunikira zamasamba. Njira yolima iyi ili ndi ubwino wotsatira:

  1. Kusungirako ndalama ndikufika kumalo ochepa okwera.
  2. Kukhalapo kwa mphepo ndi kuthirira kwachangu kumapangitsa kusintha kwayomwe kwa kutentha ndi kutentha, komanso chinyezi.
  3. Mitundu ina yamakhalidwe abwino imakula bwino mu nthaka yokhazikika.
  4. Kuchepetsa ndalama zowonjezera ndi kutentha mutagwiritsa ntchito manyumba angapo nthawi yomweyo.

Komabe, ngakhale phindu lonseli, pali zovuta zambiri pa njirayi:

  1. Pali ngozi yowononga landings ndi mwayi wa pereosleniya wosafunika
  2. Mpweya wochepa wowonjezera wowonjezera kutentha sungapereke zofunikira zonse kwa zomera zonse.
  3. Zamasamba zingakhudzidwe ndi tizirombo zomwe sizili zofanana kwa iwo.

Ndi mbewu ziti zomwe zingamere palimodzi

Kuti mukhale ndi zokolola zambiri komanso kulima kopanda kutentha, mukufunika kuyendetsa kuchokera ku chilengedwe ndi kutentha kwa chilengedwe. Chomera choyambira chimasankhidwa, ndiyeno "oyandikana nawo" amacheza kwa wina ndi mzake amasankhidwa kwa iwo, zomwe zimapereka zokolola zabwino kuti azikhala mwamtendere. Nthaŵi zambiri mu wowonjezera kutentha, nkhaka, tomato, tsabola, ndi eggplant zimatengedwa kuti ndizofunikira. Ganizirani momwe mungawaikire m'dera lanu, kuti zikhalidwe zonse zikule bwino:

  1. Tomato. Chikhalidwe chimenechi chimakonda kutentha kwa malo osungirako mpweya wabwino, mpweya wokwanira wabwino, ndipo ndi bwino kudya nthawi zonse. Kuthirira kumakhala koyenera nthawi zonse komanso pamzu. Mabwenzi abwino adzakhala: oyambirira kabichi, omwe kumapeto kwa kasupe adzakondweretsa kukolola, ndipo m'tsogolomu sikudzasokoneza kukula kwa tomato. Ndibwino kuti mukhale ndi anyezi kapena mavitamini ozungulira tomato, mavwende ndi mavwende. Kuyambira zitsamba zitsamba tomato sizigwirizana ndi fennel ndi katsabola. Ngati pali mwayi, ndi bwino kudzala m'malo osiyanasiyana, chabwino, ngati palibe njira ina iliyonse, ndiye kuti ndibwino kukhala pansi pambali pa bedi, zikhoza kugawidwa mu mizere yambiri ya tsabola, komanso bwino - khalani ndi chinsalu cha filimu ya pulasitiki, motero mulekanitse tomato.
  2. Tikukudziwitsani kuti mudziwe zofunikira za kukula kwa tomato ndi nkhaka mu wowonjezera kutentha.

  3. Nkhaka. Amakonda mvula, kutentha, kukonkha komanso kudya nthawi zonse. Kuti mukhale mgwirizano wabwino ndi mbewu zina, masambawa ayenera kukulirakulira pa trellis - ndipo nkhaka ndi zabwino, ndipo pali malo ambiri a dill, parsley, basil ndi zina zonunkhira. Zomerazi zimapangitsa anzanu kukhala ndi tsabola, koma amafunika kubzalidwa pafupi ndi malo opumira mpweya. Mazira, komanso kabichi zidzakhala zothandiza m'dera lino. Radishi pamodzi ndi nkhaka idzateteza zomera kuchokera ku timabuluti timeneti ndi nthata za kangaude.
  4. Tsabola ndi eggplants (mbeu zowonongeka) monga kutentha, chinyezi komanso kudya nthawi zonse. Anyezi otentha adzakhala okondana kwambiri ndi zomera zimenezi. Good moyandikana ndi nkhaka ndi tomato. Zosankha zotsata zotsatirazi ndi zotheka: tomato, tsabola, zitsamba, mavwende, nyemba, nandolo; nkhaka, tsabola, eggplant, kabichi, zukini, nyemba.
  5. Zukini akhoza kukula ndi pafupifupi zomera zonse. Chosavuta ndi chakuti amatenga malo ambiri.
  6. Froberries anabzala pafupi ndi amadyera, adyo ndi nkhaka.
  7. Werengani za maonekedwe a kukula kwa strawberries mu wowonjezera kutentha.

Ndikofunikira! Kusagwirizana sikungokhala mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ndiwo zamasamba, komanso mitundu yambiri ya chikhalidwe. Choncho, m'pofunikira kudziŵa zofunikira za kulima kwawo ndi kuyanjana asanabzala.

ChikhalidweMabwenzi abwinoAnzanu oipa
NkhakaMpunga, gopokh, selderey, salat, kapysta, kykyryza, Bapattsy, tsabola, biringanyaShalfay, ukpopp,

timbewu, timakonda, primidory

KusinkhasinkhaChapu, basil, mtedza, luk pa nthenga, mapulitsi pamphepete, mapiri, shale, kapu yoyambirira, sipinachi, salat, nyembaMbatata, fennel, katsabola, nkhaka
PepperBasilik, mopkov, wokondedwa, dushitsa, mayoran, luk, bakhattsy, koriyandp, kostovnik, nastyrtsiyaFunkhel, kolrabi, façol
BaklazhanyGopokh, façol, plank, basilicus, ectragon, nthula, anyezi
Apbyz ndi mavwendeKykypyza, gopokh, speed, brightness, nyimboOgyres
GopokhMusk, kykpyrzy, ogyrtsy, baklazhany, salat, radic, sipinachi, chakudya, kartofelLuck
ZipikisanoChochititsa chidwi, kykypyza, timbewu tonunkhira, mawonekedwe, mwamsangaKupentala
CapaChojambula, choyikapo nyali, chotchuka, mashita, ng'ona, chimanga, timbewu timene timayambira timadzi timeneti, timadzi timene timayambira, timakhala ndi luk, dushita, zojambulajambula, zojambulajambula.Krybnika
KupentalaChochititsa chidwi, kapyusta, kykyryza, ndondomeko, luk, bakhattsy, liwiro, koriandp, kulembetsa, lenPrimidory, ogiprtsy
CalabiCvekla, lyk, ogyrtsy, ukkopp, timbewu, shalfeyZochitika, Zowonongeka
KykypyzaGopokh, vwende, dzungu, fazol, miyoyo yopatulika, lupine
FaçolKykyryza, capy, colorfilm, luminaire, dzungu, karoti, mummy, mtengo, chaber, kapangidwe, madzi otentha, bakhattsyFanhel, waponyedwa
KOLORA CAPYSTAChophimba, radis, luk, Kuwala, façade, ogulitsa, crock, phala, timbewu, keke, nastyrtsiya, showerKusinkhasinkha

Zofunika Zokhudzana ndi Chikhalidwe

Kwa zomera zomwe zidzakulira mu wowonjezera kutentha, pali zofunika izi:

  1. Ayenera kukhala a banja limodzi. Muzochitika zina, kuyambika kwa chilengedwe chonse ndi matenda owonongeka ndi kotheka.
  2. Ayenera kukhala ndi makhalidwe osiyanasiyana. Izi zidzakuthandizani kuti mupindule kwambiri ndi nthaka ndikupewa kumeta shading.
  3. Mitengo yoyandikana nayo iyenera kuchepetsa, kusafalitsa matenda ndi kuteteza tizirombo.
  4. Kukongola kumayenera kukhala kovomerezeka.

Kusamalira malamulo otentha

Zomera zomwe zimakula mu wowonjezera kutentha zimafuna chisamaliro chapadera. Chaka chilichonse m'pofunikira kukonzanso malo osanjikiza a dothi kapena m'dzinja kukumba mamita 1 lalikulu. M lalikulu chidebe cha humus kapena manyowa, ndipo onjezerani mandimu (400 g) kuti muchepetse acidity m'nthaka. M'chaka, nthaka imamasulidwa kachiwiri ndi kuthiridwa ndi njira yothetsera potassium permanganate pansi pa filimuyo, yomwe imachotsedwa musanabzala mbewu.

Feteleza

Mu nthawi zosiyana za kukula ndi chitukuko, zomera zimafuna kudyetsa zina.

  1. Nkhaka. Mutabzala, patapita masiku 15, zomera zimasowa feteleza omwe ali ndi nayitrogeni. Ntchito yogwira lashes imafuna potaziyamu, ndipo isanafike fructification mbewuyo idzafunika phosphorous. Nkhani yogwiritsira ntchito imagwiritsidwa ntchito pansi pazu ndi mineral feteleza pa pepala kapena pansi. Pa nthawi yopereka nyengo imapangidwa kasanu ndi kamodzi: mutabzala, maluwa, pachiyambi ndi panthawi ya fruiting.
  2. Werengani zambiri ndi malangizo pa kudyetsa nkhaka, tsabola ndi tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha.

  3. Tomato. Panthawi yonseyi, zomerazi zimafunika kudyetsedwa 3-4 nthawi: Phulusa, phulusa imagwiritsidwa ntchito (phosphorous, calcium), ovary mapangidwe (pambuyo pa masiku 20), nthawi yakucha ndi fruiting. Mukhozanso kuthira manyowa ndi yankho la manyowa a nkhuku (1:20), pogwiritsira ntchito ayodini monga feteleza kudzakuthandizeninso kuti muwononge nthaka (3 ml pa 10 malita a madzi).
  4. Nsiti, yomwe ili ndi 65% ya mapuloteni, ingagwiritsidwe ntchito ngati chovala pamwamba pa nkhaka ndi tomato. Sikuti amangochita zachilengedwe zokhazokha feteleza, koma amakhalanso wabwino kwambiri.
  5. Pezani momwe muyeso mukufunika kugwiritsa ntchito yisiti kudyetsa tsabola, nkhaka ndi phwetekere.

  6. Pepper. Chikhalidwe chikufuna feteleza, popanda iwo sipadzakhalanso kuchuluka kapena khalidwe, chinthu chachikulu sichidzaposa. Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza mobwerezabwereza kuposa masiku 15. Kudyetsa koyamba kumachitika patapita masiku 15 mutabzala mbande m'nthaka panthawi yopanga masamba. Kuyambira organic - yankho la nkhuku manyowa, mchere zowonjezera - superphosphate, ammonium nitrate ndi potaziyamu. Chakudya chachiwiri chiyenera kukhala ndi nayitrogeni. Manyowawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito mu fomu yosungunuka kunthaka. Chithandizo choyenera cha foliar ndi njira ya urea, yomwe imayendetsedwa ndi mbewu mofulumira ndikulimbikitsa kukula kwa zipatso.
  7. Biringanya. Mitundu yosakanizidwa imayenera nthawi zambiri feteleza, popanda iwo, zokolola ndi mtundu wa ndiwo zamasamba sizikupezeka. Kudyetsa koyamba kumachitika masiku 15 mutabzala mbande pogwiritsa ntchito njira yothetsera mullein, zinyalala kapena feteleza. M'tsogolomu, feteleza zimagwiritsidwa ntchito panthawi ya kukula kwa chipatso. Zomwe zimagwirizanitsa ndi phosphorous ndi potaziyamu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Ndikofunikira! Zonse zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamwamba pa nthaka zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamtunda wakale.

Kuthirira ndi chinyezi

Zomera zimagwirizana mosiyana ndi kayendedwe ka madzi m'mlengalenga.

  1. Nkhaka. Musanapangidwe chipatso, chinyezi chiyenera kukhala chosachepera 80%, ndipo nthawi yakucha ya nkhaka iyenera kusungidwa pa 90%. Izi zimapindula ndi ulimi wothirira mobwerezabwereza popanda madzi osadziwika. Madzi ayenera kukhala pafupifupi 20 ... +25 ° С, ndipo maulendo ambiri pa njirayi ndi 1 masiku atatu aliwonse asanayambe fruiting, panthawi yomwe amapanga ovary kupita kukolola, tsiku ndi tsiku pamakhala mlingo wa malita 6 pa 1 mita imodzi. M square. Kuthirira kumachitika bwino mwa kukonkha kudyetsa ziwalo zonse za chomera ndi chinyezi.
  2. Tomato. Izi chikhalidwe sichimakonda chinyezi mpweya, kotero kuthirira ayenera kuchitika okha pazu ndi norm: pamaso maluwa - 4 malita pa lalikulu lalikulu lalikulu, pa maluwa - 12 malita. Chinyezi cha kukula kwa tomato chiyenera kukhala mkati mwa 50%, ndipo nthaka - 90%. Kuthirira kumayenera kuchitidwa ndi kutentha kwa madzi pafupifupi +22 ° C.
  3. Pepper. Pa chomera ichi, nkofunikira kulimbana ndi chinyezi cha 60% ndipo nthaka siposa 70%. Kuthirira bwino kumachitika bwino m'mawa ndi madzi ofunda panthawi yamasiku asanu. Pakati pa maluwa, zomera sizingakhoze kuthiriridwa, chifukwa sipadzakhalanso mazira. Pamene amapanga, njira yowonongeka imachitika 2 pa mlungu. Pa nthawi ya kukula ndi fruiting, muyenera kumwa pang'ono kuti muthe kuyambitsa zowonjezera zatsopano - kuthirira mofanana ngati pakupanga zipatso.
  4. Biringanya. Chomera, monga tsabola, chimakonda chinyezi, koma osati kutentha kwa mpweya (osapitirira 70%), kotero kutsirira kumachitidwa kamodzi pa sabata isanafike fruiting, ndipo pakakhala zipatso nthawi ziwiri pa sabata. Madzi ayenera kutentha (mpaka +23 ° C). Njirayi ikuchitika pokha pazu.

Maseŵera a kuwala

Tsiku lowala limathandiza kwambiri pakukula kwa zomera:

  1. Nkhaka. Chikhalidwe chimatanthauza zomera za tsiku lalifupi (maola 10-12). Panthawi imeneyi, mitundu yambiri imapanga fructification ndikufulumizitsa chitukuko, pakadutsa masana mpaka 16 koloko, fruiting siimakula, ndipo, chifukwa chake, zokolola zimachepa. Kuwala kwachilengedwe kwa maola 12 ndikofunikira kwambiri mpaka masiku 25 kuchokera pakuwonekera.
  2. Tomato chovuta kwambiri ku mawonekedwe a kuwala. Kutalika kwa tsiku kwa chitukuko chabwino ayenera kukhala osachepera maola 14. Mphamvu yochepa yowala imatsogolera kubzala, kuthamanga maluwa, ndi kupanga mazira. Tomato amakonda kugunda dzuwa, osati kuwala.
  3. Pepper. Kwa chikhalidwe ichi, kuwala kwa maola 12 kumakwanira; ndi nthawi yayitali, kuyambira kumapitirira.
  4. Biringanya. Maola ochepa masana - osapitirira maola 12. Pokhala ndi nthawi yaitali yowunikira, chikhalidwe sichitha kubala zipatso.

Ndikofunikira! Kuwonjezera tsiku lowala mu wowonjezera kutentha, mungagwiritse ntchito magetsi pogwiritsa ntchito halogen, mercury kapena nyali za sodium, nthawi zonse poganizira.

Kuwaza ndi kuwononga tizilombo

Malo otentha omwe ali ndi chinyezi chokwanira ndi abwino osati kokha pa kukula kwa masamba, komanso kukondedwa ndi tizirombo zosiyanasiyana. Kuwongolera kwa mavuto kumapangitsa kuswa kwa kutentha, chinyezi chokwanira, kusowa kwaunikira ndi zakudya m'nthaka.

M'madera akuluakulu tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Mwachitsanzo, nyama zowononga mite phytoseiulus imapha akangaude. Wokwera enkarziya amathandiza kuchotsa whitefly. Kukonda okwera kapena wamba ladybugs mwamsanga kuthana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba. Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ovomerezeka, monga "Fitoverm" pofuna kuthana ndi nkhuku, nkhuku ndi nsabwe za m'masamba. Golide wa golide amathandiza kuchotsa whitefly ndi nsabwe za m'masamba.

Ndikofunika kupeza njira zomwe zilipo zogwiritsira ntchito thrips, nsabwe za m'masamba, akangaude, whiteflies, slugs.

Pofuna kuti asawononge zomera komanso nthawi yomweyo kuchotsa whitefly, mungagwiritse ntchito Velcro - msampha wapadera, womwe umakhala wosasunthika umene umapangitsa gulugufe. Kuchokera ku nyerere ndi nsabwe za m'masamba mungagwiritse ntchito makapulisi a nyambo.

VIDEO: MMENE MUNGAGWIRITSE NTCHITO M'CHIKHULUPIRIRO CHA GREENHOUSE

Mukudziwa? Nyerere ya m'munda imapulumutsa wowonjezera kutentha kwa akangaude, whitefly ndi slugs. Komanso, kuyambitsa kwawo kumapangitsa kuti nthaka ikhale yosasunthika, yodzaza ndi mpweya, umene umathandiza kwambiri zomera zowonjezera kutentha.

Akangaude amamwalira kuchokera ku tar-sulfa sopo, yomwe imachotsedwa ndi kusungunuka m'madzi. Kenaka, njirayi imathandizidwa ndi zomera zomwe zakhudzidwa.

Kugwiritsira ntchito zobiriwira m'minda yam'munda zimapangitsa kuti thupi lanu likhale lothandiza, chifukwa chakudya chanu chaka chonse chidzakhala masamba ndi zamasamba zatsopano, zomwe ndi zofunika kwambiri kwa thupi.

Mukhoza kuteteza zomera zanu ku tizirombo pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosavuta: soda, viniga, choko, sopo.

Mukhoza kuyamba kumanga ndi pulasitiki yaing'ono, chinthu chofunika kwambiri ndicho kulima zomera bwino mu malo osungirako, zomwe ziyenera kuwonetsa kukolola bwino, kuyang'anitsitsa mkhalidwe wa onse okhala mu wowonjezera kutentha ndi kutenga nthawi. Mukapeza zothandiza, mungagwiritse ntchito mtsogolo.

Ndemanga

Ngati uli pansi, ndiye kuti mukhoza karoti pamodzi ndi zinthu zina zazing'ono monga anyezi, nthenga ndi parsley. Ngati katsabola ndi parsley pa tebulo kapena mu trays, ndiye kaloti iyenera kukhala yosiyana. Kolifulawa mu wowonjezera kutentha ndi kotheka kapena m'dzinja mu unheated (kuchepa pang'ono), koma kawirikawiri ndi yopanda phindu, imabwera kuchokera kumunda nthawi ino, kapena masika. N'zotheka kukula msanga, koma zinyama zina ndipo sindikudziwa kuti ndi zopindulitsa kuposa nkhaka zimadalira msika wamakono komanso mpikisano ndi zochokera kunja.

Nkhaka, phwetekere, tsabola ndi biringanya zingakhale palimodzi, koma kuthirira madzi okha valavu, ndipo nthawi yomweyo uyenera kulingalira ndi kuti mulingo woyenera kwambiri wa microclimate wa mbewu iliyonse sungagwire ntchito.

Ma karoti oyambirira mu filimu yotsika mtengo ya filimu ikhoza kukhala yosangalatsa, komabe, muyenera kuyang'ana mpikisano pamsika, mofulumira kwambiri akupanga kukula kwa miyezi 2.5 (phwetekere ikufulumira), ndipo mtengo wa kaloti ndi wotsika kuposa china chirichonse pa nkhaka, phwetekere.

Mkwati
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Manyowa, tsabola ndi tomato mumodzi wowonjezera kutentha akhoza kubzalidwa ndikuganizira kuwala ndi mtunda pakati pa zomera. Nkhaka si abwino kwa kampani iyi, mwachitsanzo, zokolola zidzakhala, koma zochepa.
Lydia
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