Momwe mungapezere madzi pa malo abwino: khalidwe la madzi, zida

Pomwe kulibe madzi m'mudzi wakumatawuni, eni eni nthawi zambiri amapita kukabowola zitsime kapena kukumba zitsime. Ndikofunika kuti madziwo akhale abwino. Ndichifukwa chake, ngakhale musanayambe ntchito, ndibwino kuti muphunzire mwatsatanetsatane za zochitika pansi pa madzi, mitundu yawo ndi njira zosaka, komanso njira zodziwira ubwino wa madzi akumwa - tidzakambirana zonsezi m'nkhaniyi.

Mitundu ya pansi pa nthaka ndi zogona

Madzi a pansi pa nthaka amaonedwa kuti amapezeka pamtunda wa pansi pa madzi atatu: madzi, gaseous, kapena olimba. Iwo ali a mitundu yosiyanasiyana:

  1. Verkhovodka - pamwamba pa madzi, omwe ali pamtunda wa 2-5 m. Osayenera kumwa, akhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zamakono komanso ulimi wothirira. Zigawozi zimapangidwa chifukwa cha kutentha kwa madzi ndi madzi, ndipo makamaka amadalira nyengo. Chigawo chapamwamba chimachepa nthawi yamvula.
  2. Ground - kumachitika mozama pakati pa 5 mpaka 40 mamita pakati pa miyala ya sedimentary, motero, pang'onopang'ono, amadalira nyengo ndi nyengo. Ndiwo magwero abwino kwambiri komanso ogwiritsidwa ntchito mobwerezabwereza pa tsamba lanu. Musamapanikize.
  3. Artesian - zimayikidwa pozama mamita 100 mpaka 1000 m'magawo opanda madzi, osakhala ndi dothi losakaniza, ndipo ali olemera mchere. Khalani ndi mutu. Mabheseni a Artesian ndi gwero lamtengo wapatali la mchere.
  4. Interfacial - ligone pakati pa zigawo ziwiri zapitazo, zoyera kuposa madzi apansi. Khalani ndi nkhawa, yoyenera kumwa.
Choncho, malo abwino kwambiri, okwera kwambiri komanso osakwanira omwe amamwa mowa madzi ali pansi. Ngakhale kuti zimapezeka pakati pa miyala yam'madzi, zimadalira pazifukwa zina monga nyengo (kutentha, kutentha, kuthamanga kwa mpweya, etc.) ndi zochitika zaumunthu (nthaka yosungiramo madzi, zomangamanga, migodi ya migodi, etc.).

Ndikofunikira! Sitikulimbikitsidwa kukonza zitsime zazitsulo za madzi akumwa pafupi ndi malo osungirako katundu, malo osungirako ziweto, malo osungira zonyansa, kuphatikizapo radioactive, komanso manda omwe ali pafupi. Madzi otsika pafupi ndi malo omwe atchulidwawa ali oipitsidwa ndipo sayenera kumwa.

Sakani njira

Pali njira zopitilira khumi ndi ziwiri zofufuza malo osungiramo madzi m'nyanja. Mfundo zazikuluzi ndi izi:

  1. Ndi chithandizo cha chinyezi chomwe chimakhudza zinthu. Mungagwiritse ntchito gelisi gel, njerwa yosweka kapena mchere. Poyeretsa kuyesera, mankhwala osankhidwa ayenera kuyimitsidwa mu uvuni kuti athetse chinyezi. Kenako amachikulunga mu nsalu yovekedwa ndi kuyeza molondola. Ndiye matumba omwe ali ndi mankhwalawa amaikidwa m'madzi akuya mamita 1 m'madzi omwe amadziwika. Pambuyo pa tsiku, matumbawa amakumbidwa ndi kuyeza. Chikwama cholemera kwambiri chimachokera ku chinyezi, malo otetezedwa kwambiri ndi malowa.Silika gel
  2. Ndi chithandizo cha barometer. Mothandizidwa ndi chipangizochi, kupanikizidwa kumayang'aniridwa pafupi ndi malo alionse oyandikana nawo, ndiyeno mwachindunji pamalo omwe akufunidwa pobowola. Lembani zotsatirazi motere: 1 mm Hg ndiyezo wa mamita 10-12 mmunsi, kuthamanga, 0,1 mm kukhala 1-1.2m. Ngati barometer ya madzi inkaonetsa 752 mm ndi 751.6 mm, timatha kusiyana ndikutanthauzira kutali ndi malo osungira madzi: 752-751.6 = 0.4. Izi zikutanthauza kuti pamadzi osachepera 4 mamita.
  3. Mothandizidwa ndi mitsuko ya galasi. Kuyambira madzulo anthu omwe angathe kukhala m'madzi akuyenera kuyika mabanki omwewo ndi dzenje pansi. Mmawa wotsatira, mabanki akuyang'ana kuti thanki yomwe ili ndi condensate yambiri imasonyeza malo odalirika kwambiri.
  4. Mothandizidwa ndi kuyang'ana magetsi. Mwala wolimba ndi madzi okhala ndi madzi amatsutsana ndi magetsi osiyanasiyana - ndi otsika mumadzimadzi. Komabe, ziyenera kukumbukira kuti cholakwika chachikulu ndi chotheka mu phunziro ngati pali bedi lapafupi pafupi kapena mulibe ndalama zochepa zowonjezera.
  5. Mothandizidwa ndi nzeru zamatsenga. Njirayi imachokera pazomwe mafunde akugwedezeka, kudutsa m'madzi a m'nyanja, kusonyeza maulendo apamwamba.
  6. Kuwona mapangidwe a utsi. M'nyengo ya chilimwe, mukhoza kuyang'ana nthaka: utsi pamwamba pa malo okhala ndi madzi. Wowonongeka ndi wotsika ndi pamwamba pa nthaka, pafupi ndi madzi osanjikiza.
Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito njira zachikhalidwe kuti mudziwe malo amchere, mwachitsanzo, kuyang'ana nyama ndi zomera kapena kugwiritsa ntchito mafelemu. Njira imodzi yolondola, koma yotsika mtengo ikubowola bwino bwino.

Pezani chomwe chili chabwino kuti madzi a dacha akhale: chitsime kapena chitsime.

Kufukula zofufuzira

Kusiyanitsa pakati pa ntchito yopanga ndi kufufuza. Chotsatirachi chikuchitika pogwiritsa ntchito malo osungirako madzi pansi pa nthaka kuti athe kukhazikitsa chitsimikizo chokhazikika. Kuwongolera bwino bwino kufufuza bwino ndi ndalama zochuluka kusiyana ndi kuponyera miyala nthawi zonse, popeza kuti pang'onopang'ono ndi pang'onopang'ono.

Kufukula zofufuzira kumaloledwa kukwaniritsa zolinga izi:

  • kupeza ndi kuphunzira aquifer;
  • Pezani nyemba zowonongeka kuti muone momwe madzi akuyendera ndi kuzama kozama, komanso kuti pangakhale ngozi yowonongeka, kuthamangitsidwa, kusamuka kapena kusungunuka kwa chitsime;
  • onetsetsani kutalika kwa malo osungira madzi.

Njira zosaka za anthu

Pafupi ndi madzi pamtunda wa dziko lapansi akhoza kusonyeza khalidwe la nyama zina kapena kukula kwa zomera. Palinso njira yopangira zithunzithunzi. Kuchita kwake mwakhama ndi kutsimikizirika sikunatsimikizidwe sayansi, chifukwa imaphatikizidwa mu gulu la mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kafukufuku wa madzi pansi pa nthaka.

Ndikofunikira! Chifukwa cha mtengo wapatali wa kufufuza opaleshoni, ndi bwino kuchitapo kanthu ngati chitsime chikukonzekera mabanja ambiri. Mtengo wa ntchito umapangidwa ndi kuchulukitsa mtengo pa 1m kuya kwake. Mtengo wotsiriza udzadaliranso ndi zovuta za ntchitoyo, kutalika kwa dzenje, kugwiritsa ntchito mapaipi ena.

Tiyenera kumvetsetsa kuti njira zomwe zili pansipa sizingathetsere zotsatira za 100%, ndipo ndi bwino kuzigwiritsa ntchito monga othandizira.

Nyama

Zizindikiro "zapanyumba" za chinyontho pansi pano ndi agalu, akavalo, mbalame. Komanso, mbewa zisala ndi tizilombo zimasonyeza kupezeka kapena kupezeka kwa madzi.

  1. Agalu m'nyengo yozizira akuyesera kukumba mabowo m'malo okhala ndi chinyezi m'nthaka.
  2. Mahatchi amasankhiranso malo otentha kwambiri komanso ozizira kwambiri kuti apumule pabwalo.
  3. Nkhuku sizingatengedwe m'malo ndi chinyezi chakuya, koma, mosiyana, zimadzipezera malo ovuta komanso abwino kwambiri.
  4. Atsekwe chifukwa choyika mazira adzayang'ana malo omwe ali ndi mlingo wokwanira wa chinyezi, motero, kuyandikira kwa wosanjikiza wa madzi.
  5. Madzulo, midgesitanti imadzikundikira pa nthaka ndi chinyezi.
  6. Nkhumba sizikumba mabowo m'malo omwe ali ndi chinyezi.
  7. Nyerere zofiira sizipanganso zitsamba pansi ndi mvula yambiri.
Galu akumba dzenje

Zomera

Zimadziwika kuti pali zomera zokonda zinyontho ndi zomwe zimakula m'malo ouma.

Mukudziwa? Mu 2014, akatswiri ofufuza za sayansi ya nthaka adaikapo madzi akuluakulu pazovala zapansi pa 400-600 km ndi zina. Mavoti onse opezeka m'mabwinja amaposa voliyumu ya World Ocean katatu!

Mndandanda wa zomera zosonyeza zachilengedwe zosazama pansi: msondodzi, zakutchire currant, kavalo sorelo, meadowsweet, meadowsweed, silverweed, hemlock, coltsfoot, sedge, horsetail, nettle, bango, birch, msondodzi. M'malo okhala ndi dothi labwino mu nthaka amakula bwino ndipo mitengo ina ya zipatso imamwalira: maapulo, yamatcheri, plums.

Zowonongeka mafelemu

Poyesa njira iyi yakale ndi yotchuka, muyenera kuchita zotsatirazi:

  1. Konzani zidutswa ziwiri za aluminium waya ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 40. Kwa masentimita 10 kuyambira pachiyambi, waya ayenera kugulidwa pamtunda wa 90 ° ndikuyika nthambi zozemba pansi pa akulu, msondodzi, viburnum kapena hazel kuti athe kusintha momasuka.
  2. Yerengani mbali ya dziko pa chiwembu.
  3. Tengani nthambizo ndi waya motere: zitsulo ziyenera kupanikizidwa ku thupi, manja akukweza pamtumbo, mapeto a waya amatsogoleredwa m'njira zosiyanasiyana.
  4. Kenaka muyenera kuyenda pa tsamba kuchokera kumpoto mpaka kummwera ndi kumadzulo kupita kummawa. Kumalo okhala ndi madzi otsika pansi, malekezero a waya adzawoloka - m'malo awa ndi bwino kukumba chitsime kapena kubowola chitsime.
Nyengo zabwino kwambiri zopezera madzi mwa njirayi ndi chilimwe ndi kumayambiriro kwa autumn. Maola oyenera: nthawi pakati pa 5: 00-6: 00, kuyambira 16:00 mpaka 17:00, kuyambira 20:00 mpaka 21:00, ndi kuyambira 24:00 mpaka 1:00. Njirayo imafuna nyengo yamtendere, komanso chidziwitso china, chifukwa ngakhale chikhalidwe cha maganizo-chimene chimasonyezedwa ndi manja kunjenjemera chingakhudze zotsatira za phunzirolo.

Komanso, kudutsa chimango sikukuwonetsa madzi: mu 4-5%, chipangizocho chimayang'ana ku miyala yadongo.

Mudzakhala ndi chidwi chowerenga momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito madzi a nyumba yachinsinsi kuchokera ku chitsime, chowotcha madzi nthawi yomweyo ndikusankha malo opopera dacha.

Zida zoganizira

Poyambirira, tawonetsa kale kuti n'zotheka kuzindikira chochitika cha chotengera madzi mothandizidwa ndi barometer. Kuphatikiza pa chipangizo ichi, pali ena omwe amagwira ntchito pazinthu zosiyanasiyana:

  1. "Pula". Chipangizochi chikhoza kupangidwa kuchokera ku voltmeter ndi electrodes ndi zolakwika ndi zoyenera.
  2. "Gidroscope". Ndilo chipangizo chapamwamba chomwe chimakwera pa makina, nthawi zambiri katundu.

Momwe mungadziwire mtundu wa madzi

Nkofunika osati kungotunga madzi pa malo anu, koma kuti mupeze madzi abwino kwambiri komanso othandizira kumwa mowa ndi zosowa za tsiku ndi tsiku. Choncho, maonekedwe a madzi ayenera kuyang'aniridwa ndi magawo otsatirawa:

  • katundu wa organoleptic;
  • mankhwala ndi zowononga zizindikiro;
  • chiwopsezo cha mliri.
Ngati muli ndi kanyumba ndipo mumakonda kumanga, phunzirani kupanga maluwa okongola, grill, miyala, mathithi, kasupe, gabions, gazebo ndi miyala.

Organoleptic kapena physico-organoleptic amatchedwa zinthu zamadzi zomwe munthu amatha kumverera mothandizidwa ndi mphamvu zoyambirira. Izi zikuphatikizapo kununkhira, mtundu ndi kukoma. Malinga ndi malamulo, madzi ayenera kukhala ndi fungo lopweteketsa limene munthu amatha kumverera ndi "fungo" mosamala.

Mukudziwa? Pa moyo, munthu mmodzi amamwa madzi okwana matani 35.

Komanso madzi oledzera sayenera kukhala ndi kukoma kapena kulawa. Chizindikiro china chofunika ndikuthamanga. Kuwopsa kwa mankhwalawa ndi 1.5 mg / l, koma akhoza kuyesedwa pansi pa ma laboratory pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya Snellen ndikugwiritsa ntchito kaolin scale.

Komanso, ndikofunika kuti muphunzire zigawo zoopsa za madzi. Amasonyeza kupezeka kapena kupezeka kwa zigawo zamagulu zosiyana siyana m'madzi: zachilengedwe kapena chifukwa cha mafakitale, kuipitsa kwaulimi. Izi zimaphatikizanso ma reagents pofuna kuyeretsa zakumwa zamadzimadzi m'makampani. Kuchita kafukufuku wophunzira mankhwalawo ndi kotheka kokha m'ma laboratori.

Phunzirani momwe mungapangire njira yodula, komanso konkire.

Pomaliza, ndikofunikira kufufuza madzi kuti chitetezo cha mabakiteriya chitetezeke. Kuti tichite izi, timaphunzira chiwerengero cha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, komanso nambala ya mabakiteriya kuchokera ku gulu la Escherichia coli. Onetsetsani kuti kupezeka kwa madzi pa webusaitiyi kungagwiritse ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimakhala zovuta komanso zodalirika. Madzi amadzi amadziwika pogwiritsira ntchito zipangizo zamakono, njira zovomerezeka, komanso kupyolera pofukula. Komabe, pankhaniyi ndi bwino kulankhulana ndi akatswiri kuti asapitirize kubwereza kawiri kawiri kuti adziwe bwino.

Ngati mukufuna kukhazikitsa mpanda ku nyumba ya dziko, chiwembu kapena dacha, onetsetsani kuti muwerenge momwe mungasankhire ndi kumanga fencing yamatabwa, chitsulo kapena mpanda wamatabwa, mpanda kuchokera ku galasi yachingwe, mpanda kuchokera ku gabions ndi mpanda.

Ndikofunika kuyesa kuyesa ma laboratory a madzi opangidwa kuti atsimikizire za khalidwe lapamwamba ndi chitetezo.

Video: fufuzani madzi pamalo abwino