Kodi kubzala ndi kukula nkhaka "Murom"

Mwina zosiyanasiyana nkhaka "Murom" amadziwika kwa aliyense munda ndi masamba wamkulu, chifukwa ali mmodzi wakale mbadwa Russian mitundu yowerengeka kuswana. Iyo inalembedwa mumzinda wa Murom (Vladimir dera), kumene adalandira dzina. Zomerazi zafalikira ku Russia kuyambira zaka za m'ma 1300! Fotokozerani kuti kutchuka kwa zomera zaka mazana ambiri kungakhale kukoma kwake kosavuta, kosavuta komanso kosavuta - kudya nkhaka izi bwino kuposa zipatso za mitundu ina. M'nkhaniyi, tikuphunzira momwe tingakulitsire zosiyanasiyana zosiyanasiyana pa tsamba lanu.

Malingaliro osiyanasiyana

Mitundu imeneyi ndi yachangu, njuchi-pollinating, mitundu yaing'ono-fruited. Akuwombera kukula mpaka 100-160 masentimita, mwambiri yokutidwa ndi lalikulu, mdima wobiriwira masamba. Tchire ndizomwe zimakhala zochepa kwambiri, sizikhala ndi malo ambiri pa tsamba. Pa mphukira yaikulu imakhala ndi maluwa amphongo, kumbali - yazimayi. Mmerawo ukhoza kukhala wamkulu ponseponse pansi ndi mu greenhouses. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi yabwino kwambiri kumera kumpoto ndi nyengo yovuta: m'madera osiyanasiyana a Siberia, m'madera ozungulira ndi ku Far East. Ubwino wa nkhaka za "Murom":

  • Kubzala koyambirira - Zipatso zimatha kukolola patatha masabata asanu pambuyo pa kumera, masiku khumi oyambirira kuposa mitundu ina;
  • kukoma kwakukulu kwa zipatso;
  • mitundu yoziziritsa yozizira, ndizotheka kukula m'madera ozizira kwambiri;
  • kugonjetsedwa ndi powdery mildew, bacteriosis;
  • osadzichepetsa pa chisamaliro.

Nkhuka zowonongeka ndi njuchi zingakhale ndi mitundu monga: "Spring", "Paratunka F1" ndi "Finger".

Koma muyeneranso kudziwa za kuipa kwa izi zosiyanasiyana:

  • zipatso zochepa;
  • zochepa zokolola;
  • amalekerera kwambiri chilala, zipatso zimakhala zochepa pa dothi losauka.
Komabe, mphindi yotsiriza silingatchedwe kuti ndi yopusa, chifukwa izi zidzakhala zowona kwa mbewu iliyonse.
Ndikofunikira! "Makomera "a Murom" mwamsanga kwambiri amatembenukira chikasu, kutuluka ndi kutaya mauthenga awo osasonkhanitsidwa pa nthawi, choncho ndikofunika kukolola nthawi ndi nthawi.

Zipatso makhalidwe ndi zokolola

Nkhuka "Murom" zimakula mpaka masentimita 6-8, m'mimba mwake - mpaka 4-5 masentimita, ndiko kuti, makamaka m'malo ochepa poyerekeza ndi mitundu yambiri yambiri. Komabe, chidziwitso chawo chimapindula mokwanira ndi maonekedwe ndi kukoma: chipatso ndi zonunkhira, yowutsa mudyo, ndi kutchulidwa kosangalatsa kukoma. Zipatso zili zoyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito mwatsopano, zabwino kwambiri zimawonetsa kukoma pamene salting. Nkhaka ndi zojambula mu mthunzi wobiriwira, pa nthiti zomwe zimaphatikizidwa ndi zoonda, zosalala, peel zimadzazidwa ndi mdima wakuda, pubescent. Pamwamba pa nkhakayi ili ndi tizitsulo tating'ono, zosaoneka bwino. Maonekedwe a chipatso ndi oblong. Kulemera kwa chipatsocho ndi 50-70 g, zokolola kuchokera pa 1 lalikulu. m - mpaka 3 kg. Mukhoza kusonkhanitsa zipatso pambuyo pa masiku 35-40 mutakula, zomwe ziri masabata awiri m'mbuyomo kusiyana ndi mitundu yambiri. Fruiting ikupitirira mpaka zaka khumi zapitazo za August, pambuyo pake tchire zimakhala zovuta kwambiri ku matenda opatsirana. Zipatso zimayamba kuphulika, kotero ndikofunikira kuti muzigwira nthawi zonse.

Kusankhidwa kwa mbande

Pazifukwa zosiyanasiyana, sizingatheke kukomera mbande za nkhaka zokha, ndipo makamaka kuchokera ku mbande zimatha kupeza zokolola zabwino. Zikatero, nkofunika kudziwa momwe mungasankhire mbande zogula (zofunikira zamasamba a masiku 30):

  • tsinde lalikulu la chomera likhale la 6-10 mm mwake;
  • pa zomera ayenera kukhala masamba okwana 5-6;
  • Mzuwu uyenera kukhazikitsidwa, nthaka yowongoka imadzika;
  • kutalika kwa bondo lakumapeto kulibe masentimita asanu.
Simuyenera kugula mbande zokhala ndi zofooka zowonongeka ndi masamba owala - maonekedwe awa amasonyeza kuphwanya kwakukulu kwa chikhalidwe chokula. Mukhozanso kugula mbande zazing'ono - ali ndi zaka 20 kapena 10. Pankhani iyi, mbande idzakhala ndi 2-3 mpaka 1 tsamba loona, motero. Kuwonjezera apo kuti pa msinkhu wa mbande zoyambirira zimayamba bwino.
Ndikofunikira! Malamulo akuluakulu posankha mbande: mukamabzala mu wowonjezera kutentha, sankhani mbande "wamkulu" mbande, zomera zowonongeka ndizoyenera kubzala poyera.

Nthaka ndi feteleza

Kulima nkhaka ndizoyenera kulowerera (pH 7), kukhumba, nthaka yachonde, makamaka loam kapena mchenga. Nthaka iyenera kukhala yopuma mokwanira. Simungathe kulima mbeuyi m'madera otsika ndi madzi omwe mumakhala ndi mpweya wozizira kwambiri mu dothi lolemera kwambiri. Komanso malo osasunthika, osauka, acidic kapena alkaline si abwino. Ponena za kusinthasintha kwa mbeu: ndi bwino kudzala nkhaka pambuyo poyera kabichi ndi kolifulawa, tomato ndi beets, mbatata, nandolo ndi anyezi. Koma pambuyo dzungu mbewu (zukini, vwende, dzungu, mavwende) ayenera kupewa kubzala nkhaka. Kumbukirani kuti kukula kwa nkhaka kwa zaka zoposa 3-4 pamalo amodzi sikofunika.

The mulingo woyenera kwambiri zochokera nthaka kwa chikhalidwe:

  • Nthaka 20%;
  • 50% peat;
  • 30% ya humus.
Mukhozanso kuwonjezera utuchi. Musanabzala, nthaka iyenera kukumba mpaka masentimita 25, kutetezedwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi 7% yothetsera vitriol ya buluu. Kuti lipindule nthaka, zimathandiza kugwiritsa ntchito fetereza zotere (zochokera pa 1 sq. M):
  • 3 kg ya superphosphate;
  • 2 kg ya sulfate ya potaziyamu;
  • 400 g wa ammonium nitrate.

Onjezani superphosphate, potaziyamu sulfate ndi ammonium nitrate kunthaka.

Mavuto akukula

Tinagwirizanitsa nthaka, koma ndi kofunikira kutipatsanso zofunikira zina za chikhalidwe. Popeza madera otentha amakhala kunyumba kwa nkhaka, zikhalidwe ziyenera kukhala pafupi kwambiri. Chofunika chachikulu ndi kutentha ndi chinyezi.

  1. Kuunikira Chikhalidwe ichi chimakonda kuwala kochuluka, chifukwa chimafunika kukhala wamkulu m'madera otentha komanso otentha. Amakula bwino ndipo amabala zipatso panthawi yochepa maola (mpaka maola 10-12). Chifukwa chosowa kuwala, mazira amathawa, mphukira yamwamuna imakula kwambiri, zomera zimafooka ndipo zimakhala zovuta ku matenda. Mulimonsemo sangathe zagushchat nkhaka kubzala!
  2. Kutentha kwamtundu. Kutentha kwabwino kwambiri kumakhala ndi nkhaka + 25 ... +28 ° С masana ndi 16 ... +18 ° usiku. Pa nthawi yomweyi, chikhalidwe sichimakonda madontho amodzidzidzidzi ndi chisanu (ngakhale kuchepa kwaching'ono ku 0 ° C kungawononge mbewu).
  3. Kusamba madzi. Sungani nthaka muyenera kukhala 2-3 pa sabata, muyenera kumwa madzulo, madzulo. Kwa ulimi wothirira, gwiritsani ntchito (!) Madzi ofunda.
  4. Kudyetsa. Feteleza ayenera kukhala kawirikawiri. Choyamba, chifukwa cha malo osadziwika a mizu, nkhaka sizingatenge zinthu zokwanira kuchokera m'nthaka. Chachiwiri, chomeracho chachepa kwambiri mu nthawi yochepa ya fruiting. Mukakulira mu wowonjezera kutentha, kuvala pamwamba kungathe kuchitika nthawi zambiri.
Mukudziwa? Zipatso za zipatso za nkhaka zimapangidwira kuti zisawononge chinyezi, kotero kuti nyengo yotentha m'mawa mumatha kuona madontho a madzi pamtunda uliwonse.

Kukula kuchokera ku mbewu kwa mbande kunyumba

Kukula mbatata mbande ndi ntchito yovuta komanso yovuta, koma ndiyothandiza. Ndipotu pamene mukukula nkhaka pogwiritsa ntchito mbande, zokolola zingapezeke ngakhale kale!

Kukonzekera Mbewu

Musanadzalemo, m'pofunika kusankha mosamala chodzala zakuthupi ndi kusiya khalidwe lapansi. Pochita izi, konzekerani njira ya mchere wa 3% ndi kumiza mbeu mmenemo - mbewu zopanda kanthu zikuyandama, ndipo zakuthupi zapamwamba zimakhala pansi. Iyenso ikufunika kugwiritsidwa ntchito mopitirira. Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito mbewu za zaka ziwiri, pamene amapereka zipatso zambiri.

Phunzirani momwe mungagwirire mbewu za nkhaka musanadzalemo.

Pambuyo poletsedwa, iwo amatetezedwa motetezedwa m'thupi la 1% la potassium permanganate kwa mphindi 30. Pambuyo pake, nyembazo ziyenera kutsukidwa, zitakulungidwa mu nsalu yonyowa pokhala ndipo zatsala masiku 2-3 kutentha kwa 20 ... +25 ° C kuti zimere. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuti musaphonye nthawi yomwe mizu idzaonekera 3-4mm yaitali - ino ndi nthawi yabwino kwambiri yobzala mbewu za mbande.

Zokhudzana ndi malo

Pokula mbande, mungathe kusankha peat kapena mapepala apulasitiki ndi mabowo, mapiritsi a peat, makaseti apadera. Nkhaka sizimayankha bwino kumatenga, choncho sizodandaula kuti ikhale ndi chiwerengero chokwanira. Ndikofunika kuti mwamsanga muzikonzekera zitsulo.

Sankhani mphamvu yoyenera ya mbande.

Mbendera imatha kugulitsidwa ku sitolo (yapadera kwa mbande) kapena dziphike pa zigawo zotsatirazi:

  1. Sakanizani peat, mchenga, nthaka ya sod ndi vermiculite mofanana.
  2. Sakanizani magawo 4 a peat ndi sod land, 1 gawo la utuchi ndi manyowa.
  3. Sakanizani magawo 6 a manyowa, magawo atatu a peat ndi gawo limodzi la mchenga.
Chitsulo cha kokonati chikhoza kuwonjezedwa kunthaka kuti mukhale ndi moyo wambiri. Mukamagula nthaka yosakaniza, palibe chofunika kuti muzitha kuyamwa komanso manyowa. Ngati mwakonzeratu dothi lanulo, liyenera kuti likhale ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda kuchokera ku mphutsi ndi spores mukakawotcha mu uvuni (20 mphindi 180 ° C). Chizindikiro cha kokonati

Kwa feteleza zinthu zoterezi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa makilogalamu 10 a chisakanizo:

  • 6 g wa urea;
  • 10 g wa superphosphate;
  • 6 g wa sulfate ya potaziyamu;
  • 2 g wa magnesium sulphate.
Kukonzekera kwa nthaka kumatha. Musanabzala mbewu, nthaka iyenera kusungidwa kwa masiku 14 pansi pa filimuyo kuti ipange tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.
Mukudziwa? Ikani "kubadwa" kwa nkhaka ndi phazi la mapiri a Himalaya. Likomkomere zakutchire zikukula kulikonse. Komabe, masamba otchire sali ofanana ndi ndiwo zamasamba: ali ndi kukula kwakukulu ndi kulawa kowawa.

Njira yobzala mbewu

Mbande obzalidwa pa mbande kumayambiriro kwa May. Koma iyi ndi nthawi yeniyeni. Kuti mumvetse bwino nthawi, muwone tsiku limene chisanu chimachitika m'deralo, kuchotsani masiku 25-35 kuchokera ku chiwerengero ichi - iyi ndi nthawi yoyenera kubzala mbewu ndikuyamba kukula. Pakuti kubzala mbewu kumafunika kuchita zochepa zosavuta:

  1. Sankhani zitsulo, konzani dothi. Lembani zitsulo ndi chisakanizo kuti masentimita 1-1.5 apitirire kumapeto, pangani mabowo 2 cm zakuya.
  2. Samalani bwino m'mitsinje ya 1-2 mbeu, yesetsani kuvulaza mizu mochepa. Phimbani zitsime ndi gawo lapansi.
  3. Sungani nthaka ndi botolo la kutsitsi.
  4. Zida ziyenera kujambulidwa ndi filimu kapena galasi, kuikidwa pa pakhomo ndi kuika pawindo kapena malo enaake.
Kutentha kwakukulu kwa maonekedwe a mbande ndi 25% +28 ° С. Komanso nthaka iyenera kuthiridwa 2-3 nthawi pa sabata.

Kusamalira mmera

Mutabzala mbande zikatuluke masiku 3-4 (pansi pa chikhalidwe cha kutentha). Mbewu zimasowa kuwala kwabwino, kosatha (maola 13-15), kotero, ngati kulibe, ndikofunikira kukonzekera kuunika kwina. Kuti mbewu imere, kutentha kwa +25 ° C kumafunikanso, mutatha kutuluka kumatha kutsika mpaka +20 ° C masana ndi 16 ... Chuma cha usiku usiku.

Pezani masiku angapo a nkhaka.

Pamene kutentha kwa kunja kudzafika +15 ° C, mbande zikhoza kutulutsidwa kuti ziwombe ndi kuumitsa. Poyamba maminiti 20 adzakwanira, nthawi ingachepetsedwe pang'onopang'ono. Ndikofunika kuti nthawi zonse muzitha kusinthanitsa ndi zitsambazo kuti mupange mapulani ndi masamba. Kuthirira kumakhala koyenera nthawi zonse. Musalole chilala kapena madzi omwe ali ndi madzi ambiri. Kwa ulimi wothirira, madzi opatulidwa amagwiritsidwa ntchito +22 ° С. Ngati chipinda chili ndi mpweya wochepa, ndizotheka kuwonjezera maluwa kuchokera ku sprayer. Mukhozanso kupanga zovala zingapo: yoyamba pambuyo popanga tsamba limodzi loona, lotsatira - patapita masiku khumi ndi asanu ndi awiri. Mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza zovuta malonda malinga ndi malangizo kapena superphosphate (20 g pa 10 malita a madzi). Ndikofunika kupanga feteleza kokha mu nthaka yonyowa, mwachitsanzo, m'mawa mukhoza kuthirira mbande, ndipo madzulo kuwonjezera feteleza. Ali ndi zaka 28-32, pamene masamba atatu enieni apangidwa pazitsamba, mbande ndi okonzeka kuika pansi.

Kuwaza mbande pansi

Mbewu zimayikidwa pamalo otseguka m'masiku otsiriza a Meyi, koma nthawi zonse muyenera kuganizira za nyengo zomwe zili m'madera mwanu. Pa nthawi yobwera, nthaka iyenera kutentha kufika ku 15 ... +20 ° С. Mbande zimabzalidwa pa tsiku lamadzulo, madzulo (madzulo).

Werengani komanso momwe mungamerekere nkhaka za mbande.

Njira yoperekera ndi iyi:

  1. Dulani mabowo ndi masentimita 20, mtunda wa pakati pa zomera ndi 40 * 40 cm. Manyowa amathiridwa m'madzi, omwe ali ndi nthaka.
  2. Chotsani mbande mosamala m'zitsulo, osamala kuti musawononge mizu.
  3. Mbeuyi imayikidwa m'mitsitsi, yokhala ndi nthaka.
  4. Kenaka, mbande ziyenera kuthiriridwa ndi madzi ofunda, 1.5 malita pa chomera.
  5. Pambuyo kuthirira nthaka imayendetsedwa.
Mukudziwa? Nzika za London zimatcha nkhaka ya Tower Swiss Re nsanja kapena gherkin kuti zifanane ndi zipatso izi mu mawonekedwe.

Kulima kulima

Mbewu za nkhaka za "Murom" zingabzalidwe mwachindunji pansi. Komabe, ngakhale kulima, tchire amafunika kuonetsetsa kuti zinthu zili bwino pa malo osatha a kukula.

Timakula nkhaka pamalo otseguka, mu wowonjezera kutentha, pa khonde, pawindo pa nthawi yozizira, mu ndowa, mu mbiya ndi m'matumba.

Zochitika kunja

Zosiyanasiyanazi ndizoyenera kulima poyera pansi ndi pansi pa mafilimu. Palibe kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa njirazi, koma pa kachiwiri, zokolola zimatha kupezeka ngakhale kale, popeza kale zidzalima mbewu za mbande. Tanena za kusankha malo kumtunda: ziyenera kutenthedwa ndi kuwala ndi dzuŵa, malo opanda mphepo, ndi nthaka yachonde, yopanda chinyezi kumene mvula ndi mpweya wozizira sizikutha. Pamwamba pamtunda, phulusa limayamba. Maonekedwe a nthaka yolima pamtunda ndi ofanana ndi a pamwambapa. Ndifunikanso kutsata malamulo oyendetsa ulimi ndikusankha malo olimidwa mogwirizana nawo.

Njira yobzala mbewu pansi

Mukamabzala mbewu m'njira yopanda mbewu, zokolola zingapezeke kanthawi pang'ono, koma izi sizidzakhudza katundu wa nkhaka. Ndikofunika kusankha nthawi yobzala - nthaka ikhale yotentha mpaka 15 ... +20 ° С, sipadzakhala usiku wa chisanu. Zomerazi zimabzalidwa pansi kumapeto kwa May - kumayambiriro kwa June. Chida cholowera: 50 * 50 cm.

Katswiri wamakono:

  1. M'pofunika kukumba mabowo 15-20 cm, kompositi, kuwaza ndi nthaka ndikutsanulira mochuluka.
  2. Mu zitsime kuti akuya 1.5-2 masentimita mbewu anayikidwa, owazidwa ndi nthaka ndi wothira kachiwiri.
  3. Kenaka, pamapeto a mabedi, zowonjezera zimayikidwa, ndipo filimu imatengedwa pamwamba pawo kuti ipangitse zotsatira za wowonjezera kutentha. Pambuyo pa kumera kwa mbeu ndikuwonekera pamapepala oyambirira, filimuyo ikhoza kuchotsedwa.

Kuthirira

Pakuti ulimi wothirira umagwiritsa ntchito madzi ofunda okha. Mukhoza kuthirira zomera usanafike masana ndi kutentha. Madzulo, mukhoza kuthirira tchire pamasamba, koma simungathe kuthira khosi pamsana, ngati simungayambitse. Nthaka pansi pa chitsamba iyenera kukhala yonyowa pansi masentimita 20. Mu nyengo yamvula, kuthirira kwachepetsedwa, chifukwa chinyezi chimasintha kwambiri panthawi ino, ndipo tchire musadye mwamphamvu kwambiri. Mvula yamvula, kuthirira kwaimitsidwa mpaka dothi ladothi liume.

Ndondomeko za kuthirira pazigawo zosiyanasiyana za kukula kwa chitsamba:

  1. Pamaso maluwa. Kutentha, nyengo yowuma, kuthirira kumakhala tsiku ndi tsiku madzi akuyenda mpaka 1 l pa chitsamba.
  2. Pambuyo popanga mazira, nthawi yokolola. Zomera zimathiriridwa mu masiku 2-3, 2-3 malita a madzi amadalira pa chitsamba chimodzi.
  3. Mpaka kutha kwa nyengo yokolola. Kuthirira kumachepa kufika 1 nthawi pa sabata, zomera zimadalira madzi okwanira 1 litre.

Nthaka imamasula ndi kupalira

Kutsegula ndi njira yodalirika yosamalira nkhaka zomwe zimatsimikizira kuti mpweya ndi mpweya zimayenda bwino. Ngati njirayi ikusamalidwa, chipinda chadothi chikuphwanyidwa, chomera chimachepetsanso kukula, mazira amachoka. Njirayi imakhala ndi madzi okwanira, atatha kuyanika. Kuchuluka kwa kutsegula ndikutalika masentimita 4, kuti mupewe kuwononga mizu. Njira yabwino kwambiri ndi kumasula nthaka mothandizidwa ndi mphanda: imakhala pakati pa mabedi ndi kuchotsedwa popanda kupanga kayendedwe kalikonse. Pamene kumasulidwa kuli koyeneranso kuthetsa udzu namsongole mothandizidwa ndi khasu.

Masking

Masking ayenera kuchitidwa kuti awonjezere fruiting ndi mawonekedwe oyenera a chitsamba. Pysynok imachotsedwa ikafika kutalika kwa masentimita 3-6, nthawi zambiri imakhala yokwanira kuchotsa mphukira kuchokera masamba 5-6 oyambirira. Ndikofunika kwambiri kukonza nsonga panthawi yake, chifukwa chomeracho chimayesetsa kupanga gawo lobiriwira m'malo mopanga chipatsocho.

Pezani chifukwa chake pickling nkhaka ndi garter.

Belt girter

Mphukira ya "Murom" ndi yochepa, nthambi za zomera zimafookera, kotero zimatha kukulira m'njira yosavuta komanso yotchuka kwambiri - imafalitsa kunja, ndiko kuti, popanda kugwiritsa ntchito zothandizira ndi zitsulo. Ndi malo okwanira, zimayambira zidzawonekera bwino ndikuyamba.

Kupaka pamwamba

Zosiyanasiyanazi zimayankha bwino poyambitsa mineral ndi organic feteleza. Malamulo ena ogwiritsira ntchito feedings:

  • feteleza amachitikira masana;
  • Zinthu zimangogwiritsidwa ntchito ku nthaka yonyowa;
  • pambuyo feteleza, masamba amathirira kuthirira kutentha.
Ndikofunikira! Ngati muli ndi nthaka yothira, simuyenera kuigonjetsa ndi zina zowonjezera.!

Chiwerengero cha kuvala chimadalira kukula kwa nthaka m'deralo. Pafupipafupi, ndikwanira kuchita zovala zingapo: masabata awiri mutabzala, kumayambiriro kwa maluwa komanso nthawi yokolola zipatso.

  1. Mukamadyetsa koyamba, mungagwiritse ntchito mankhwala okhudzana ndi nkhuku (1:15, mullein pa 1: 6), nthawi zambiri udzu watsopano mu chiwerengero cha 1: 5). Komanso mchere wothira mafuta (10 malita a madzi 15 g wa urea, 60 g wa superphosphate).
  2. Kwachiwiri kudya, mchere wamchere umakhala woyenera (mwachitsanzo, kuchepetsa 1 phulusa la phulusa mu 10 malita a madzi). Komanso zotsatira zabwino zimapereka chakudya cha foliar (35 g wa superphosphate amachepetsedwa mu malita 10 a madzi).
  3. Pakati pachitatu kudya, phulusa likhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito muyeso kapena mchere wina (50 g wa urea wochepetsedwa mu 10 malita a madzi).

Tizilombo, matenda ndi kupewa

Izi zosiyanasiyana ali mkulu kukana bacteriosis ndi powdery mildew - mmodzi wamba matenda m'munda mbewu. Komabe, kumapeto kwa fruiting (zaka khumi zachiwiri za August) zomera zimayamba kuwonjezeka kwambiri ndi matenda opatsirana. Chifukwa chake ndi kuchepa kwa kutentha kwa usiku mu August, ndondomekoyi ikuwonjezeredwa pogwiritsa ntchito madzi ozizira kwa ulimi wothirira.

Werengani momwe mungagwirire ndi matenda ndi tizirombo ta nkhaka.

Momwemo, mungayesetse kusunga zomera ndikuwonjezera fruiting panthawi yomwe mumagwiritsa ntchito fungicides ("Topaz", "Hom"). Komanso, poyamba usiku ozizira, tchire amafunika kutetezedwa ndi chophimba. Mbali zonse zokhudzidwa za zomera zimachotsedwa ndi kutenthedwa.

Matenda ena a nkhaka omwe amapezeka pansi pa zovuta:

  1. Perinosporosis. Masambawa ali ndi mawanga achikasu, owuma chifukwa cha fungal kuwonongeka. Ngati matenda apezeka, chotsani mbali zonse zomwe zakhudzidwa ndi mbeu, musamamwe madzi, muzitsata zitsamba zonse ndi kugwiritsa ntchito zinthu usiku.
  2. Sclerotinia (kuvunda koyera). Mbewu ndi zipatso zimaphimbidwa ndi zoyera pachimake, zowola. Kutentha kotsika kumawonjezera njira ya matenda. Ngati matenda amapezeka, chotsani mbali zomwe zakhudzidwa, pangani magawo ndi makala.
  3. Cladosporiosis (bulauni malo). Zilonda zamtunduwu zimachokera ku kutentha ndi kutentha kwambiri. Pamene chochitika chomwechi chikupezeka, m'pofunika kusiya kuyamwa, kuphimba tchire ndi filimu, kukonza tchire ndi Bordeaux madzi kapena Oxy.
  4. Mizu yovunda. Zimayambira chifukwa cha kusowa kapena kupitirira kwa chinyezi pamene kuthirira madzi ozizira. Zomera zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri sizingakhale zomveka. Ngati chomeracho chikukhudzidwa pa gawo loyambirira, mutha kuchotsa nthambi zomwe zakhudzidwa ndikupanga mabala ndi phulusa. Pofuna kupewa katatu pamwezi, muyenera kupopera mankhwala "Previkur".

Kukolola ndi kusungirako

Mukakusonkhanitsa nkhaka za "Murmansk", muyenera kukumbukira lamulo lofunika - nthawi zonse komanso nthawi zambiri. Ndikofunika kufufuza kupezeka kwa zipatso tsiku ndi tsiku, chifukwa nkhaka za zosiyanasiyanazi zimapsa mofulumira, ndipo kenako posachedwa, kutembenukira chikasu, zimawoneka maonekedwe ndi zoyenerera kudya.

Malamulo a kusonkhanitsa masamba obiriwira:

  1. Kuchotsa chipatso chiyenera kukhala kuti tsinde likhalebe pamtengo. Choyenera, chipatso chiyenera kudulidwa ndi mpeni.
  2. Nthawi yam'mawa kapena nthawi yamadzulo ndi yoyenera kusonkhana.
  3. Mulimonsemo palibe sangakhoze kukoka, kupotoza, kutembenuka kapena kusintha mliriwo.
  4. Mbewu zokolola ziyenera kukhala pamalo ozizira, ozizira.
  5. Mukasonkhanitsa mumvula, zipatso zidzasungidwa nthawi yayitali.

Nkhaka sungakhoze kusungidwa kwa nthawi yaitali, nthawi zambiri amangololedwa kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito. Koma ngati mukufuna kutambasula nthawi yokoma ndi zipatso, akhoza kuikidwa mu chidebe ndi madzi ozizira ndikuyika pamalo ozizira. Madzi ayenera kusinthidwa tsiku ndi tsiku. Zikatero, zipatso zingathe kubodza kwa milungu ingapo.

Mavuto ndi malingaliro

Ngakhale kuti zosiyana zimasiyanitsidwa ndi kudzichepetsa, zifukwa zotsatirazi zingabwere chifukwa cha kuphwanya kwakukulu kwa zinthu zomwe ali m'ndende:

  1. Kuwidwa mtima kwa chipatso. Amasonyeza kusowa kwa chinyezi. Amakhalanso ndi madontho otentha otentha.
  2. Kusintha kwa mawonekedwe a chipatso, chikhomodzinso. Vutoli limapezeka mukamakula mumphawi, pomwe mukunyalanyaza kuvala. Kawirikawiri si potaziyamu wokwanira.
  3. Zing'onozing'ono za chipatso. Chifukwa chake ndi umphawi wa nthaka komanso kusowa kwa zakudya.
  4. Kupukuta kumayambira, kukula kwa masamba. Mavuto ofanana amadza ndi kusowa kwa nayitrogeni.
Kusintha kwa nkhaka.Zambiri, izi zimakula, osati chifukwa cha zokolola zopindulitsa, koma kuti azisangalala ndi nkhaka zabwino ndi zokoma m'munda wawo mwamsanga. Komanso, nkhaka za "Murom" zimakhala zabwino kwa salting, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mukhoza kusangalala ndi zipatso m'nyengo yozizira. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana si yovuta komanso yopanda nzeru, chifukwa ndi yabwino kukula ngakhale osadziwa wamaluwa.