Kabichi "Dzhetodor": makhalidwe, kulima magetsi

Pa mbeu zonse zomwe zilipo, ndiwo zamasamba zomwe zimakhala ndizofunikira kwambiri m'thupi la anthu. Amadyedwa yaiwisi, amaonjezera kuti adye chakudya, ndipo amadulidwa mu saladi. Zomera zimagawanika kukhala tuber ndi mizu, mavwende, mbewu, phwetekere. Mitundu ya kabichi, yomwe ili ya banja la kabichi, imasiyanitsidwa kukhala magulu osiyana.

Mitengoyi ndi masamba obiriwira, omwe amayamikira kwambiri zakudya zawo komanso zakudya zawo. Malo apadera m'banja lino ndi kabichi yoyera. Kupyolera mwa kuyesera kwa obereketsa mitundu yambiri ya mitunduyo inalengedwa. Zoyamba kucha kucha woyera kabichi "Dzhetodor f1" amasangalala kwambiri. Nkhaniyi idzafotokoza mfundo za kukula mbande kabichi "Dzhetodor", zofunikira zopezeka pamalo osatha, malamulo othandizira kusamalira mbande komanso zosiyana siyana.

Kufotokozera Kabichi

Mbalame yoyera kabichi ndi yowimira mtundu wake. Imeneyi ndi mutu waukulu kwambiri, womwe umakhala ndi masamba osungunuka kwambiri. Mutu umapangidwa pa tsinde la kutalika kwa masentimita (mpaka 10 cm).

Ndikofunikira! "Jetodor" kukhala ndi zofunikira zina za feteleza ndi nitrogen ndi fetashi feteleza. Tsatirani ndondomeko ya zakudya ndikuonetsetsa kuti muwonjezere ammonium nitrate ku mchere.

Mutu

Kulemera kwa "Getodor" ndi 1 makilogalamu. Mu gawo lotsiriza la masamba opatsa akhoza kulemera kuchokera pa 0.8 mpaka 1.6 makilogalamu. Masambawa ndi ofewa, wandiweyani, atsekedwa, ndi mitsempha yoonda kwambiri. Mtundu wa masambawo umasiyana ndi zoyera ndi masamba obiriwira pamasamba aang'ono mpaka kubiriwira wobiriwira ndi kuvala kofiira pa masamba okhwima okhwima.

Cholinga

Zomera zomwe zimakula kuti anthu azidya. Zimagwiritsidwa ntchito muzofiira komanso pomaliza (fermentation, quenching, otentha).

Kukana kwa chilengedwe ndi matenda

Mtundu uwu suwopa matenda aliwonse, kawirikawiri umakhudza oimira kabichi. Zimagonjetsedwa ndi fusarium, thrips, kuvunda, powdery mildew, necrosis ndi bacteriosis. Amapirira chilala cha nthawi yochepa (mpaka sabata imodzi), madzi ambiri amatha, ndipo chifukwa cha masamba osungunuka, adzapulumuka ndi matalala.

Mwatsoka, matenda a kabichi akhoza kuwononga zambiri zokolola. Ganizirani za mankhwala ndi kupewa matenda a kabichi.

Lili ndi lezhkost yapadera: mutatha kusasitsa mungayembekezere kukolola pansi mpaka masabata atatu. Kukaniza kugwedezeka pa kusintha kwadzidzidzi kutentha.

Pereka

Wammwambamwamba pakati pa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kabichi. Kuchokera pa hekita imodzi ya nthaka ikhoza kusonkhanitsidwa kuchokera mitu makumi asanu ndi limodzi mpaka makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu zisanu zikwi za "Dzhetodor".

Onani mitundu yabwino ya woyera kabichi kwa kulima, makamaka ndi zosiyanasiyana "Mphatso" ndi kuphunzira phindu katundu woyera kabichi.

Precocity

Ichi ndi chosakanikirana choyamba cha mtundu uliwonse wa kabichi. Ikubzala kwathunthu pa tsiku la 45-50 mutatha kutuluka.

Kukula mbande

Nthaka yokomera mbande imalimbikitsidwa kukonzekera mu October-November. Mbewu yokonzekera kufesa iyenera kuchitika kumayambiriro kwa March kuti mubzale m'nthaka mwa nambala khumi. Timafesa mbewu za kabichi kwa mbande

Kupeza ndi kukonzekera mbewu

Musapulumutse pakufesa zinthu, chifukwa zimapangitsa kuti mutha kukolola. Sankhani nyemba zodzaza miyezi isanu ndi itatu yapitayo. Onetsetsani kuti zolembazo ndizokwanira, zoyera, popanda zizindikiro zowonongeka. Ngati n'kotheka, tengani mbewu kwa alimi ovomerezeka.

Kuti mupeze zokolola zochuluka, chinthu chofunikira kwambiri ndikutsatira njira zazikulu zosankha mbewu za kabichi.

Kawirikawiri, mbewu za kabichi zogulidwa ku sitolo kapena mwachilungamo zakhala zikukonzekera kale. Izi zikuwonetsedwa pazomwe zikugulitsidwa. Nthanga zotere siziyenera kukhala stratified kudzuka ziphuphu. Mbeu za kabichi "Dzhetodor" Ngati mbeu siikonzedweratu, ikani pa gauze, yekani kabati mu chubu ndikuchepetseni maminiti khumi ndi asanu muchitsime cha madzi otentha (50 ° C). Pambuyo pa nthawiyi, chotsani chachifupi ndikuchiponyera kwa mphindi ziwiri mu thanki la madzi ozizira.

Tsegulani tsambali, sungani zinthu zakutentha kwa tsiku, ndikuziyika mu furiji tsiku lina. Chotsani nyemba zosungunuka kuchokera ku gauze ndikuwume kunja.

Ndikofunikira! Musanayambe kugwira ntchito ndi mbewu, werengani zolemba pa phukusi. Ambiri amapanga mbewu asanayambe kuikapo kuti ateteze ku matenda a fungal ndi mabakiteriya. Ndi nyemba zosakanizidwa, ntchito yokha ndi magolovesi.

Nthaka ndi mphamvu ya mbande

Dothi la kabichi mbande liyenera kukhala lachonde ndi lotayirira. Mutha kugula kusakaniza kwa nthaka mu sitolo yapadera, kapena mukhoza kuphika nokha. Kutayika kwa nthaka kumapatsa peat, kotero chiwerengerocho chiyenera kukhala motere: malita 10 a nthaka osakaniza muyenera kutenga makilogalamu 7 a peat, 2 kg ya sod land ndi 1 kg ya mchenga wa mtsinje. Pa kilogalamu iliyonse ya nthaka osakaniza, onjezerani 1 tsp. feteleza wamchere ndi kusakaniza bwinobwino lonse ndi 2 tbsp. l phulusa. Phulusa lidzakhala bwino kupewa miyendo yakuda pa mbande.

Mphamvu za kufesa ziyenera kukhala zazikulu, zopanda kanthu (ndi mbali zosaposa 10 cm) ndipo muli ndi mabowo pansi kuti muthe madzi. Tengani sitima pansi pa sitima momwe madzi ndi nthaka particles zidzatuluka.

Mukudziwa? Pali matembenuzidwe awiri a chiyambi cha mawu akuti "kabichi". Malingana ndi chi Greek, dzina ili linachokera ku mawu akuti "Kaputum", otembenuzidwa kuchokera ku Chigriki kutanthauza "mutu." Ma Celtic amasonyezanso dzina lakuti "kabichi" ndi mtundu wodabwitsa wa ndiwo zamasamba, ngakhale kuti amatanthauza kuti mawu a Celtic akuti "cap", omwe ali ndi tanthawuzo lofananalo, ndilo maziko a dzina.

Pali zothandizira zazitsamba za mbande, koma pakhomo amagwiritsa ntchito pulasitiki wokhazikika kapena chidebe cha matabwa. Onetsetsani kuti mutha kuika makapu kuti pokhapokha mbande ikukula, mungathe kuimitsa.

Kusintha nthawi ndi kumera

"Dzhetodor" - kalasi yoyamba yakucha. Kuti mupeze mbande pa nthawi, mbewu imabzala kumapeto kwa March. Thirani dothi losakaniza mu chidebe choyenera ndi wosanjikiza wa masentimita asanu ndi asanu ndi asanu ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri ndikukhala mopepuka. Dulani mu nthaka grooves centimeter depth ndi mzere mzere wa masentimita 4 ndipo mubzalani mmenemo mbewu iliyonse centimita.

Dulani pulawu ndi pulasitiki, tsitsani madzi ambiri otentha pa nthaka. Mbewu pakamera imasowa madzi ambiri.

Mukudziwa? Kutchuka kwa kabichi ku Russia kunapangitsa kuti masambawa akhale chinthu chofunika kwambiri cha chikhalidwe cha anthu ndipo anakhazika maziko a miyambo yosangalatsa. Choncho, isanako kukolola kabichi kunayambika pa September 27, tsiku lotsatira mwambo wa Kukwezedwa kwa Mtanda. Kukolola ndi zikondwerero zofanana zinatenga milungu iŵiri ndipo amatchedwa skitters. Kenaka dzina lakuti "skit" linasamukira ku moyo wa ophunzira ndipo linapeza phindu la masewero omwe anapanga.

Kusamalira mbewu

Dulani chidebecho ndi filimu yakuda kwambiri ndikuyiyika mu thireyi pawindo lotentha lawindo. Ngati nyengo ili mitambo, sungani nyali ziwiri kapena zitatu za fulorosenti pamwamba pa kuthekera kwowonjezera tsiku lowala mpaka maola khumi ndi awiri. Sungani kutentha mkati + 18-21 ° C. Tsiku ndi tsiku chotsani filimuyi kuchokera ku germinator kwa mphindi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zitatu kuti dothi likhale lopuma komanso lidzaza ndi oxygen. Ndibwino, mbande zidzatha tsiku lachinayi kapena lachisanu. Panthawi ya kumera, kuthirira mbande sikofunikira, pokhapokha ngati nthaka yosanjikizidwa idzakhala yovuta kumera.

Mphukira ikangomera, yang'anani kunja, mutenge mpweya wa masentimita 2.22 payekha. Musanapatulire, sungani nthaka ndi botolo lazitsulo ndikudikirira mphindi zisanu ndi ziwiri kapena khumi. Nthaka yosakanizika idzakhala yowonjezereka, ndipo mudzatulutsa kunja popanda chiopsezo chowononga mizu ya mbande yopindulitsa. Pambuyo kupatulira pang'ono pang'onopang'ono dothi ndikuwaza ndi madzi.

Ndikofunikira! Pakati pa khumi mpaka khumi ndi awiri musanafike kukolola, khalani chete kuthirira mabedi kuti musamapezeke kabichi ndi dottyy mildew.

Kuthirira kumathera pamene dothi lauma. Iyenera kukhala nthawi zonse yonyowa, koma osati mvula. Sungani kutentha mkati mwa 20 ° C pokhapokha mutamera. Zomera zimakula tsiku la khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri, ndipo usiku pa madigiri khumi. Kutentha kotere kumathandiza kuthandizira kuuma ndikuwathandiza kukwera pansi. Masabata awiri mutabzala, chitani. Phulani mbande mu miphika yapadera ya peat. Pitirizani kuwamwa ngati momwemo, ndipo patatha masiku khumi mutenga, yambani kuvala koyamba. Pangani madzi okwanira amodzi, tengani magalamu anayi a superphosphate, magalamu awiri a saltpeter ndi magalamu awiri a fetereza. Kuchuluka kwa chakudya kumakwana mphukira makumi asanu ndi limodzi.

Olima munda amalangizidwa kuti aphunzire kusankha kabichi ndi chifukwa chake akufunikira.

Gwiritsani ntchito kachiwiri kudyetsa masiku khumi ndi asanu mutatha, ndikubwereza kuchuluka kwa madzi ndi feteleza. Chachitatu, kuvala kotsiriza kudzafunika kuti ukhalepo masiku atatu musanayambe kuyika pamalo otseguka. Mapulogalamuwa ndi osiyana kwambiri: onjezerani magalamu 6 a superphosphate ndi potaziyamu feteleza kwa madzi okwanira 1 litre ndikuwonjezera atatu magalamu a nitrate.

Mbeu zovuta

Kupweteka kumathandizira kumera kukhala mizu asanadzalemo pansi ndikudziwika ndi kutentha kwa chilengedwe kusintha. Yambani kutseka masiku khumi ndi awiri musanayambe kuika. Yambani ndi kusambira kwa mpweya - kwa masiku atatu oyambirira, mutsegule zenera m'chipinda cholowera kumene muli ndi mbande. Masiku anayi otsatira, tengani mbande ku khonde kapena loggia kwa maola awiri kapena atatu kuti muzolowere kuwala kwa dzuwa. Kuyambira pa tsiku lachisanu ndi chitatu, kuchepetsa kuthirira ndi theka ndi kubweretsa mbande ku malo osungirako kapena khonde kotero kuti imakula kumeneko. Musanayambe kutulutsa makapu, perekani mbewuzo mobwerezabwereza.

Kubzala mbande pamalo osatha

Chizindikiro chotsimikizirika kuti mbande zili wokonzeka kuikanso ndi kupezeka kwa masamba anai kapena asanu enieni pamtengo wake.

Werengani za kukula kosiyana kabichi: woyera, savoy, pak-choi, wofiira kabichi ndi kale.

Nthawi yabwino

Popeza "Dzhetodor" amatanthauza mitundu yoyamba kucha kabichi, iyenera kubzalidwa pansi pakatikati kapena kumapeto kwa April. Panthawiyi, mbewu zimatha kufika mwezi umodzi, zimayambitsa mizu yokwanira nthaka yotseguka, ndipo nthaka idzatentha kufikira 15-16 ° С.

Kusankha malo pa tsamba

Chinthu chachikulu ndi chakuti malo omwe amagawira kabichi ayenera kuyatsa bwino, otetezedwa ku zojambulazo ndi kukhala ndi nthaka yopanda chonde. Ngati simunapange nthaka kugwa, ndiye sabata musanadzalemo, kumasula ndi kumveka pansi pa kabichi kabedi, zomwe zimapereka pa mita iliyonse ya lalikulu. makilogalamu anayi a kompositi ndi 250 magalamu a phulusa.

Ndikofunikira! Mtundu wakuda wa masamba a kabichi umasonyeza kusowa kwa nayitrogeni. Polipira, onjezerani 5 g wa urea (urea) kwa madzi okwanira 10 aliwonse pa chakudya chotsatira.

Dothi loyenera liyenera kusinthidwa, kuwonjezera kuwonjezera 100 g ya choko ufa pa mita imodzi. M. Njira yabwino - kubzala "Dzhetodor" pamabedi, chaka chatha chinakula nyemba, anyezi kapena nyemba. Cruciferous zomera zoipa oyambirira izi zosiyanasiyana, choncho, ngati mpiru, watercress, katsitsumzukwa kabichi, horseradish kapena radish anakulira pa mabedi, muyenera kupeza malo ena mbande.

Kulowera

Kuti zomera zisasokonezane, tulutsani masamba akulu ndikupanga makapu okonzeka, mabedi ayenera kuthyoledwa m'magalasi ndi mbali ya masentimita 40 ndi m'makona awo kuti apeze mabowo 7-10 masentimita.

Momwe mungasamalire

Kabichi amakonda madzi ofunda ndi nyengo ya dzuwa. Perekani mbande ndi madzi okwanira, kutetezedwa ku mphepo ndi dzuwa.

Tikukulangizani kuti muganizire zonse zokhudza chisamaliro mutabzala mutseguka pansi.

Kuthirira

Yambani kuthirira mochuluka mbande kuchokera nthawi yomwe iwo abzalidwa poyera. Thirani madzi okwanira 1 litre m'madzi onse ndipo dikirani mpaka mutengeke musanayambe kukumba mbeu. Ichi ndi chikhalidwe chokonda kwambiri chinyezi, choncho mvula yamvula, madzi kamodzi masiku onse anai, ndi nthawi yotentha kamodzi pa masiku awiri, ndipo ndithu m'mawa. Pakatha masabata atatu, kuchepetsani kamwedwe ka madzi okwanira kamodzi pa masiku anai a nyengo yotentha komanso kamodzi pa sabata. Kawirikawiri, chomera chimodzi chimatenga madzi okwanira atatu pa ulimi wothirira, ndi malita asanu ndi atatu pa mbeu kumapeto kwa nyengo yokula.

Mukudziwa? Kwa nthawi yoyamba, mfundo za kukula kabichi zinayikidwa mu malemba ake a Mark Cato, wolemba ndale wakale wachiroma komanso wolemba. Milandu inalembedwa m'zaka za m'ma 2000 Khristu asanafike. Wouziridwa ndi chitsanzo cha munthu wamkulu, m'zaka za zana la 1 BC Pliny ndi Columella nawonso analemba za kabichi. - Akatswiri akale achiroma.

Kutulutsa udzu ndi nthaka kumasula

Njuchi yamsongo nthawi yomweyo. Dothi lomasuka lidzakhala losavuta kupatsa namsongole, ndipo simudzawononga mizu ya kabichi. Kutsekemera pambuyo kuthirira kulikonse, mwamsanga pamene chinyontho chimalowa m'nthaka. Malo osasuntha a dziko lapansi amachepetsa kutuluka kwa madzi. Chitani kanjirayo ndi mano ndi mano omwe nthawi zambiri mumatulutsa, mutulutse nthaka pansi pa zomera ndi kutaya mpaka mozama kuposa masentimita khumi ndi asanu.

Kupaka pamwamba

Dyetsani, munapatsa mbande musanabzala pansi, kokwanira pafupifupi sabata ndi theka. Gulu loyamba lodyetsa "Dzhetodor" limatha masabata awiri mutabzala. Pofuna kukonzekera feteleza, perekani 500 g wa mullein mu lita 10 za madzi ofunda.

Mu teknoloji yaulimi kubzala makabati akuluakulu ndi owopsa opanda zokutira sangathe kuchita. Werengani zomwe mungadyetse kabichi kuti mupange mutu wa kabichi ndi zomwe mukugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala opatsa.

Pansi pa aliyense chomera ayenera kupita pafupifupi 0,5 malita a kudya. Yonjezerani mullein masiku khumi ndi asanu (khumi ndi atatu).

Mineral fetereza imakonzedwa kuchokera 30 g wa superphosphate, 50 g wa ammonium sulphate ndi 250 g wa phulusa. The chifukwa osakaniza ayenera kuchepetsedwa mu 10 malita a madzi ofunda. Kuthirira ndi mchere feteleza ikuchitika patatha sabata iliyonse yopereka chakudya. Mineral fetereza ulimi wothirira

Hilling

Pamene masamba asanu ndi anayi kapena khumi amaoneka pa tsinde la kabichi, tsinde lake limayamba kugwedezeka ndi mphepo chifukwa cha dera lalikulu la kukana. Izi zimakhudza kuyika kwa kabichi mitu. Pofuna kuti phesi likhale losasunthika, yikani ndi sing'anga lakupsa. Dulani nthaka pafupi ndi tsinde la Mphukira yoyamba pa thunthu.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati nsongazo zikutsekemera dothi lonselo, simungathe kudula zomera. Nthaka yokutidwa ndi masamba amasunga chinyezi bwino komanso okwanira looseness kuti agwire tsinde.

Njirayi imalimbikitsa kupanga mizu yowonjezera pa thunthu komanso kukula kwa mbewu. Kabichi wa spud ndi nthaka yonyowa, choncho mapiri aziyenera kuchitika tsiku lachiwiri mutatha mvula kapena madzi okwanira.

Mphamvu ndi zofooka

Mitundu iliyonse ya kabichi imakhala ndi ubwino pazinthu zina. "Dzhetodor" ndi wopambana kwambiri, popeza ali ndi ubwino wambiri kusiyana ndi kuipa kwake.

Mukudziwa? Palibe amene akudziwa motsimikiza dziko ndi malo omwe anachokera kwa masamba awa. Akatswiri ofufuza zinthu zakale masiku ano amapeza njira zokolola kabichi zomwe zimapezeka m'midzi yakale yachigiriki komanso m'madera omwe kale anali a ku Iberia (masiku ano a Spain). Midzi iyi imachokera cha m'ma 2500 BC. er

Maluso

  • Nthawi yakucha. Izi ndi mitundu yoyamba kucha, zomwe mosiyana ndi mitundu ina ya kabichi, imakula masiku 45-50.
  • Kunyada. Mu gawo lotsiriza la nyengo yokula, mitu ya kabichi ingathe kuyembekezera kukolola m'munda kwa masabata atatu popanda kutaya katundu wawo.
  • Kukhazika mtima pansi. Zomera za zosiyanasiyanazi sizitha kugwidwa ndi bowa ndi mabakiteriya. Zimatsutsana ndi fusarium ndi kuvunda. Kutentha kotsika "Getodor" kumalowanso.
  • Kufika kwa mlingo. Pa hekta imodzi mukhoza kupita mpaka mitu makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu zisanu za kabichi.
  • Kucha nthawi imodzi. Zipatso zonse zomwe zimabzalidwa zimayambira pafupi nthawi yomweyo. Izi zimapangitsa kuti mbewu zapamwamba zisonkhanitsidwe.

Kuipa

  • Sakani. "Dzhetodor" imasiyanitsidwa ndi mphamvu yowongoka mkati, yomwe imathandiza kwambiri kuchapa ndi kuuma, koma imakhala chifukwa cha kukhwima kwakukulu kwa mapepala. Mitundu imeneyi ndi yabwino kuzimitsa ndi salting. Sikoyenera kuti tigwiritse ntchito mu saladi ndi msuzi.
  • Zosakaniza feteleza. Popanda kuvala zovala zamtunduwu, izi zimayambitsa zitsamba, ndipo masamba amakhala ofiira.
"Dzhetodor" ndi wapadera oyambirira yakucha wosakaniza woyera kabichi. Zimagonjetsedwa ndi matenda ambiri omwe amapezeka ku kabichi, ndipo amalekerera nyengo yovuta. Kuti mupeze zokolola zochuluka, muyenera kukonzekera mbande za zosiyanasiyana.

Mukudziwa? Kukongoletsa katundu wa kabichi kumayamikiridwa ku Japan. Dziko lodabwitsa lakummawali lakhala likukula bwino makamaka mitundu yokongola ya kabichi, yomwe tsopano ikugwiritsidwa ntchito m'munda kupanga mabedi ndi rabatok. Masamba a kukongoletsera ndiwo zamasamba akakhwima mawonekedwe okongola a rosettes, opangidwa ndi utoto woyera komanso wofiirira. A wapadera mbali yokongola kabichi ndi kuti kwambiri "limamasula" pa kutentha m'munsimu +10°Ndi.

Yambani kufesa mbewu pakati pa mwezi wa March, musamalire mosamala ndipo muonetsetse nthawi yobzala. Popeza kabichiyi ndi yodzichepetsa, mungathe kukula masamba ndi masamba okongola, ndikupangitsa kuti ntchitoyi ikhale yochepa.