Matenda a Metapneumovirus a mbalame: ndi chiyani komanso momwe angamenyane

Matenda a zinyama, makamaka mbalame, amagawanika kukhala opatsirana, opatsirana komanso osapatsirana. Matendawa ndi owopsa kwambiri ndipo amayamba ndi mavairasi ndi mabakiteriya omwe amalowa m'thupi. Chinthu chimodzi chotere ndi metapneumovirus.

Kodi metapneumovirus ndi mbalame ziti?

Avian metapneumovirus (MISP) ndi amene amachititsa kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, komanso chifukwa cha kutupa kwa mutu (SHS). Yoyamba inalembedwa mu 1970 mu South Africa, koma mpaka lero sizinalembedwe mwalamulo m'mayiko ena. Poyamba ankakhulupirira kuti matendawa anali mabakiteriya m'chilengedwe, koma kenako, pogwiritsa ntchito mazira a mbalame ndi zidutswa za minofu kuchokera ku trachea, TRT inazindikiritsa kuti ndi HIV. Poyambirira, iwo adagawidwa ngati gulu la pneumovirus, koma atapezeka kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tizilombo tofanana ndi iyo, idalumikizidwira ku metapneumovirus.

Kodi matendawa amapezeka bwanji?

Kutenga ndi kachilombo kameneka kumachitika mmwamba (kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzake kupyolera mu mpweya kapena kusungidwa). Njira yaikulu yopatsirana ndiyo kulumikizana mwachindunji ndi mbalame zathanzi ndi zathanzi (kupyolera poyesa, matenda amayamba kudya, nthenga za mbalame zina). Madzi ndi chakudya chingathenso kukhala ngati zonyamulira kwanthawi yayitali (vuto la kunja limakhala losakhazikika, motero silikhala kunja kwa thupi kwa nthawi yaitali).

Werengani komanso zomwe mungapeze kuchokera nkhunda.

Pali kuthekera kwa kufotokoza kumeneku kuchokera kwa mayi kupita kwa ana. Matenda a Methapneumovirus amapezeka pa nkhuku zatsopano zomwe zimasonyeza kuti akhoza kutenga mazira. Ngakhale anthu angathe kuthandizira kuti kachilombo ka HIV kachilomboko kasamalire powasuntha pa nsapato ndi zovala.

Momwe mbalame yamaluwa imayambira

Poyamba, kachilomboka kankawoneka mu turkeys. Koma lero mndandanda wa mitundu yambiri ya mbalame yomwe imayamba kudwala matendawa ikuwonjezeka kwambiri ndipo ikuphatikizapo:

  • turkeys;
  • nkhuku;
  • abakha;
  • pheasants;
  • nthiwatiwa;
  • mbalame ya guinea.
Pakati pa mbalame zakutchire, pakhala pali matendawa m'magulu, nkhuku ndi mpheta.

Pezani zomwe nkhuku ndi nkhuku zikudwala.

Pathogenesis

Kamodzi mu thupi, kachilomboka kamayamba kuwonjezeka kwambiri pa maselo a epithelial of tractory tract, zomwe zimachititsa kuti ntchito yake iwononge cilia ndi epithelium. Momwemonso, nembanemba, osakhala ndi cilia, silingathe kupirira matenda opatsirana, omwe amalowa mkati mwa thupi, kuchepetsa kulimbana kovuta kale kwa thupi motsutsana ndi metapneumovirus.

Ndikofunikira! Mlingo wa chitukuko cha matendawa ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mbalame komanso pansi pa zosiyana za malo okhala amakhala osiyana.

Zizindikiro za kuchipatala

Zizindikiro zamakono za metapneumovirus zimatulutsa, kukhwima, kutuluka kwa mimba, ndi kutupa kwa mutu ndi conjunctivitis. Popeza kachilomboka kamakhala ndi matenda opuma, zizindikiro zidzakhala zofanana ndizo. Patapita nthawi, zotsatira za kachilomboka pa thupi la mbalame zimafalikira ku machitidwe omwe amachititsa kuti abereke.

Mbalameyi imatha kuthawa, kapena mazira ake amachepa kwambiri - chipolopolo chikufalikira. Zotsatira za kachilombo kachitidwe ka mitsempha zimatha kuzindikirika poyang'ana zizindikiro monga torticollis ndi opisthotonus (kugwedezeka kumbuyo ndi kumbuyo kutsogolo ndi kumutu kutsogolo kumbuyo).

Zofufuza ndi mayeso a labotori

Zomwe zimachokera pa deta yachipatala, sikutheka kuti mudziwe bwinobwino.

ELISA njira

Kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda (ELISA) tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, tiyenela kutenga zakuthupi (magazi) kawiri: pa zizindikiro zoyamba za matendawa ndi pambuyo pa milungu itatu pambuyo pake. Ngati zizindikiro za kuchipatala zimakhala zochepa pa nthawi ya kuchepa kwa mbalame, ndiye kuti ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito mfundozo pofufuza pambuyo pa kuphedwa.

Ndikofunikira! Zotsatira zodalirika, ndikulimbikitsidwa kugwiritsa ntchito njira zingapo zogwiritsira ntchito panthawi imodzi.

Kuphatikizapo ntchito ya ELISA ndi PCR

Kufufuza kawiri kamodzi ndi njira ziwiri, pa zizindikiro zoyamba za matenda, zitsanzo za (smears) zimatengedwa kuchoka ku macimo ndi machenjezo a PCR. Pankhani ya zizindikiro zoopsa za matendawa, sampuli siziyendetsedwa. Ndikofunika kusankha anthu ndi zizindikiro zozizwitsa. Kwa ELISA kusanthula, magazi amasonkhanitsidwa kuchokera kwa anthu omwe ali m'gulu lomweli. Izi zimapangitsa kuti muthe kudziwa ngati mbalameyi inayamba kugwirizana ndi kachilomboka.

Kusintha kwa pathological

Matapneumovirus kawirikawiri imayambitsa kawirikawiri kusintha kwa matenda. Nthawi zina, mutu wa khosi ndi khosi, eyelid edema ndi conjunctivitis amatha kupezeka. Phunziro la uchimo ndi ndondomeko yamatumbo, kutupa, kuyang'ana pa ciliary epithelium komanso kupezeka kwa exudate kumaonedwa.

Kutanthauzira kwa zotsatira za labotori

Pofuna kulandira chithandizo choyenera, pamafunika deta komanso matenda. Phunziro loyambirira likufuna kudziwa ma antibodies opangidwa ndi thupi kuti athane ndi HIV. Chithandizo chachiwiri cha matendawa chikukonzedwa kuti chizindikiritse kuti matendawa ndi osiyana siyana.

Mukudziwa? Nkhuku ndi zinyama zimatha kukumbukira zosiyana za anthu oposa 100 (nkhuku zina ndi anthu).
Vutoli liri limodzi, losasinthika, lopotoka (-) RNA. Electron microscopy amasonyeza kuti MPVP ili ndi mphuno yamphongo ndipo kawirikawiri imakhala yozungulira pamzerewu.

Njira yoletsa ndi katemera

Kugwiritsa ntchito katemera wotsutsana ndi kachilomboka kukulimbikitsidwa. Zowonongeka sizimagwiritsidwa ntchito chifukwa chakuti zimasonyeza kuti nyama zinyama zimagwira ntchito bwino, ndipo zimachulukitsa msinkhu wa mbalame, zomwe zimakhudza zokolola zake ndi chitukuko. Ubwino wa katemera wamoyo ndikuti amapanga chitetezo chakumidzi pamutu wapamwamba wopuma.

Mukudziwa? Kuchotsa nkhuku ya nkhuku kunapezeka mwadzidzidzi. Mkazi wina wa ku France, dzina lake Louis Pasteur, anaiwala chikhalidwe cha kolera m'kanyumba. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tinayambira nkhuku, koma sizinamwalire koma zimangokhala ndi zochepa chabe. Wasayansi atachiza chikhalidwe chatsopano, adatetezedwa ndi kachilomboka.

Kuonetsetsa chitetezo choyenera

Pofuna kuteteza nkhuku za mbalamezi, katemera wa panthaƔi yake ayenera kukhazikitsidwa, komanso miyezo yotsatira iyenera kusungidwa: kubzala kachulukidwe, ukhondo wa malo komanso kuyang'anira zakudya. Ndikoyenera kukumbukira kuti metapneumovirus imatha kuthetseratu nthawi yoyamba ya matenda, choncho, pangoyamba kukayikira, nkofunikira kuti muyambe kufufuza zonse zomwe mukufunikira kuti mudziwe kuti mukudwala matendawa.