Kuphimbidwa kwa mazira a bakha: zomwe zimagwira ntchito, oyamba olakwitsa

Alimi a nkhuku nthawi zambiri amatenga kupeza ana atsopano mothandizidwa ndi makulitsidwe. Izi ndi chifukwa chakuti mitundu yambiri ya bakha yatayika kayendedwe ka amayi awo ndipo samathamanga mazira. Mulimonsemo, kubereka kwa mimba yatsopano kungafunike, zomwe zingatheke pokhapokha ngati zikhale zovuta. Pakabereka ana a nkhanu kunyumba, m'pofunika kudziwa malamulo ena, zomwe zidzakhale zowathandiza kuti azitha kukhala ndi thanzi labwino komanso labwino.

Ndi mazira ati omwe amafunikira makulitsidwe

Ndondomeko ya makulitsidwe imayamba ndi kusankha mitundu ya mazira. Iyi ndi nthawi yovuta kwambiri, popeza kuti ana amtsogolo adzakhale ndi moyo wabwino zimadalira mtundu wa mazira. Ndipo muyenera kumvetsera osati maonekedwe okha, komanso kuti mazirawo akhale oyera, chifukwa zipolopolo zonyansa zimayambitsa kubereka kwa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, zomwe zimatha kubzala theka la ana aang'ono.

Ndikofunikira! Dzira la bakha lomwe limapangidwira kuti likhale chizindikiro liyenera kuoneka ngati labwino - laling'ono ndi lozungulira kapena lozungulira, losalala bwino komanso loyera.

Mfundo zazikulu zomwe muyenera kuziganizira posankha:

  • Kulemera - mazira a bakha ndi aakulu, kulemera kwawo kuyenera kukhala kuchokera 75 mpaka 100 g;
  • mawonekedwe - ayenera kukhala wamba, wina akhoza kunena mwachidule, popanda kusintha kwapadera, osapangidwira, osati kuzungulira kapena kusokonezedwa;
  • chipolopolocho n'choyera, popanda kuwonongeka kwa madzi, kosalala ndi kobiriwira, mtunduwo umakhala wochepa pang'ono. Chinthu chachikulu ndi chakuti sipangakhale zolephereka pamtunda - osati chips, kapena zokopa, kapena kupasula kapena kupunduka, popanda kukula ndi mitsempha.

Malamulo oyang'anira mazira

  1. Mankhwala atsopano okha a dzira akhoza kuikidwa mu chofungatira. Kusungirako kumaloledwa kwa masiku asanu okha (sabata lalikulu), koma palibe. Fomu yosungirako ndi sitayi yopangidwa ndi plywood, kutentha kwake ndi pafupifupi +12 ° C (kusachepera kutentha ndi +8 ° C), ndipo chinyezi chili pakati pa 70%. Ganiziraninso za mpweya wabwino.
  2. Pa nthawi yosungirako, mazira ayenera kutembenuzidwa kuchokera mbali imodzi kupita ku 90 ° kangapo patsiku. Izi zidzateteza kuchoka ku yolk kumbali iliyonse yomwe ingateteze mwanayo kuti asapitirire ku mbali imodzi ya chipolopolo.
  3. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuti musunge mankhwalawa. Choncho, ndi bwino kuyika mazira aang'ono a abakha motero amawoneka ndi mapeto omveka padenga, ndikuwombera pansi. Koma zazikulu zimalimbikitsidwa kuti ziyike kuti zikhale mu malo ofanana.
  4. Mulimonsemo, ndi bwino kuika mazira atsopano mwatchutchutchu. Nkofunika kuti nkhuku iyeretsedwe madzulo, kusamalira zisa kuti mazira asawonongeke ndipo mabakiteriya sangathe kukhazikika pamenepo. Koma m'mawa mukhoza kuyamba kusonkhanitsa. Momwemonso, mutha kulira ma ora aliwonse - pakadali pano, mwatsuka, mwathanzi, ndipo mwangwiro zitsamba zidzagwa mu chofungatira chanu.

Zowonjezeranso dzira

Ovoskopirovanie - otchedwa ndondomeko ya x-kumangirira mazira pansi pa gwero lachidziwitso - zowonjezera. Ovoskopirovaniya amakulolani kuti mutsimikizire kuti zamoyo zimakhala bwino.

Dziwani zomwe ovoscope ndi momwe mungadzipangire nokha, komanso phunzirani mmene mungakonzekere mazira.

Ndondomekoyi imathandizanso kuti muzindikire zolephereka zomwe zimachitika kale - mwachitsanzo, ming'alu yambiri, ziphuphu pansi pa chipolopolo, mawanga owongolera kapena osungunuka.

Kutuluka ndi njira yomwe mungathe kudziŵira kuti malo a yolk ndi mapuloteni ndi otani komanso kuti simukugwirizana ndi ntchito zofunikira zotsutsana nazo.

Mwachitsanzo, pansi pa dzira lopanda magazi liyenera kukwaniritsa zofunikira izi:

  • yolk ayenera kukhala pakati, popanda pang'ono kusintha kuseri;
  • yolk sayenera kukhala yosasunthika ndi kumamatira kumkati kwa chipolopolo;
  • Komanso, yolk sayenera kumangirira mbali imodzi popanda kumangiriza pakati;
  • mapuloteni amawonekeratu momveka bwino ndipo palibe zowonjezera mawanga kapena inclusions;
  • chipinda cham'mlengalenga chiyenera kukhala chaching'ono ndipo chili pambali pa mapeto omveka kapena pafupi kwambiri;
  • pasakhale malo amdima mkati;
  • Kukhalapo kwa zikopa ziwiri sikuvomerezeka.
Ngati dzira likumana ndi zofunikira zonsezi ndipo palibe zowonongeka zakunja kapena zoperewera pa izo, ndiye kuti zimayesedwa bwino komanso zoyenera kuzikakamiza.

Kodi ndikusowa kusamba ndisanagone?

Pa nkhaniyi, alimi ambiri amatha kukangana. Chifukwa cha mkangano ndikuti mazira a bakha okha amakhala odetsedwa, mosiyana ndi mbalame zina.

Phunzirani kusamba ndi kusakaniza mazira asanalowe mu chofungatira komanso momwe mungatetezere mankhwala opangira mankhwala.

Kuwonjezera apo, abakha pawokha pa nthawi yomwe amatha kugwira ntchito nthawi zambiri amakhudza kabati ndi mvula yowonongeka, ndipo izi sizimakhudza ubwino wa anawo.

Choncho, alimi ena amaganiza kuti kutsuka zipolopolo n'kopindulitsa komanso kofunikira kuchotseratu kuipitsa komanso mabakiteriya omwe angathe.

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kupeŵa kutayika kwa achinyamata, sizowonjezeka kuti musambe mazira a bakha musanayambe kukhala mu chofungatira.

Komabe, njirayi sizolondola kwenikweni. Kusamba mazira ndi njira yomwe imaphwanya microflora pamwamba pa chipolopolocho. Pakati pa kusamba, chikopa pamtunda chimaonongeka, chomwe chimakhudza chilakolako cha ana. Ndi bwino poyamba kusankha mankhwala oyeretsa dzira. Kukwaniritsidwa kwa chikhalidwe choterocho kumapereka chitsimikizo chakuti chipolopolocho chili ndi chiwerengero chochepa cha mabakiteriya omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Komabe, ngakhale kunja kwa mazira, iwo amafunikirabe kuphweka, koma kuvomerezedwa ndi disinfection. Kuti muchite izi, ingosiyani dzira lirilonse muzowonjezera potassium permanganate kwa mphindi zingapo.

Zonsezi ziyenera kuchitidwa mosamalitsa ndi mosamala, ngakhale ngakhale pang'ono pang'ono kapena chip chipolopolo chidzakhudza kwambiri mwana womaliza.

Mazira atagona

Njira yokonza mazira a dzira mu chofungatira imayamba ndi kuyika chipangizo mu chipinda chapadera. Ndikoyenera kuti nkhuku zina kapena nyama zisasungidwe mu chipinda chosungiramo makina, chipinda chino chiyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pokhapokha kuti aberekedwe. Chofunika kwambiri cha chipinda chino ndi chinyezi. Ziyenera kukhala chimodzimodzi ndi chisa ndi chisa cha nkhuku.

Pambuyo pake, kukonzeka kwa bakha kukonzekera kumayamba kumizidwa mwachindunji mu chofungatira. Fufuzani mankhwalawa kachiwiri kuti mukhale abwino, yunikira ndi ovoscope, yang'anani millimeter iliyonse ya chipolopolocho.

Zidzakhalanso zothandiza kuti muphunzire kusankha zosakaniza mazira opangira makulitsidwe, komanso kuwona tebulo lopangira mazira a abakha kunyumba ndi momwe zimakhalira kukula kwa ducklings kuchokera ku kabati.

Zochita zina ziyenera kukhala motere:

  1. Zipangizo zotengera makina asanayambe kugulitsa mazira akuwotcherera kufunika kotentha.
  2. Matayala onse asanalowetsedwe mu chofungatira amakhala osambitsidwa ndi kutsukidwa.
  3. Ndikofunika kuyika chidebe ndi madzi mu poto yamoto, zomwe ndizofunikira kuti zikhale zowononga mpweya ndikusunga malo oyenera a chinyezi.
  4. Mazira a mazira amayang'aniridwa mosamala m'katikati mwake, kuikapo pang'onopang'ono - uwu ndiwo malo abwino kwambiri a mazira mazira. Ndipo ngakhale kuti amakhala ndi malo ochulukirapo motere, zikutanthauza kuti abakha ochepa adzatuluka m'kanyumba kamodzi, koma kukanidwa kwa abakha mu malo amenewa ndi apamwamba kwambiri.
  5. Woyamba kuyika zipangizo zamakope akuluakulu, ndipo pambuyo pa maola 4 - pakati ndi yaying'ono.

Mavitidwe odyetserako mabakha: tebulo

Pambuyo poika mazira opangira mazira m'katikati, makina oyambitsa makina amayamba. Mabakha, nthawi iyi ndi yaitali.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati muli ndi makina osakaniza a masiku ano omwe amatha kuteteza chinyezi, kutentha, kuthamanga kwa mpweya ndi kutembenuza mazira, ndiye kuti mumamasulidwa ku mavuto onse omwe amachititsa kuti abambo azitsuka.

Nthawi zonseyi, muyenera kuyang'anira ndondomeko ya makulitsidwe mosamala ndi tsiku ndi tsiku ndikuchita zofunikira:

  1. Panthawi ya kuika mu chofungatira mu zipangizo, kutentha kumayenera kulumikizana ndi kutentha kwa +38 ° C. Ulamuliro wa kutentha ukuyenera kusungidwa masiku asanu ndi awiri oyambirira, pambuyo pake unachepetsedwa kufika +37 ° C. Chinyezi pa nthawi ino chimasunga 70%. Udindo wa mazira tsikulo uyenera kusinthidwa kasachepera kanayi.
  2. Nthaŵi zonse (kuyambira 8 mpaka 25 tsiku la makulitsidwe) kutentha kumakhala pa +37.8 ° C. Sinthani mazira kasanu ndi kamodzi pa tsiku, ndipo chinyezi chachepetsedwa kufika 60%.
  3. Kuchokera tsiku la 15 mpaka la 25, mankhwala opangidwa mu chotsitsika amayamba kuzizira. Izi ndi chifukwa chakuti mazira a bakha ali ndi kutentha kwakukulu, ndipo, kuti asapitirire kwambiri, panthawiyi, kawiri pa tsiku, muyenera kutsegula chitseko chogwiritsira ntchito pulojekitiyi, chitetezereni kwa pafupifupi kotala la ora (pafupifupi 15-20 mphindi).
  4. M'masiku otsiriza a makulitsidwe (kuyambira pa 26 mpaka 28), kutentha kumatsikira pang'ono ku +37.5 ° C, koma chinyezi chawonjezeka kufika 90%. Pa nthawiyi, mazira salinso osatembenuka ndipo sawuluka.
  5. Kuchokera pa 27 mpaka 29, ntchito yobereka anapiye imatha. Nkhumba zisamachotsedwe pazipangizozo mpaka zowuma.
Ndondomeko yonseyi ikuwonetsedwa bwino.

NthawiMasiku, masikuKutentha, ° CChinyezi,%Sinthasintha

kamodzi patsiku

Kuzizira, kamodzi pa tsiku
1kuyambira 1 mpaka 7 tsiku+ 38-38,2 ° C70 %Nthawi 4-
2kuyambira pa 8 mpaka 14 tsiku+37,8 ° C60 %4 mpaka 6-
3kuyambira masiku 15 mpaka 25+37,8 ° C60 %4 mpaka 62 nthawi ya mphindi 15-20
4kuyambira masiku 26 mpaka 28+37.5 ° C90 %--

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kuyendetsa kayendedwe ka makulitsidwe, nthawi zonse muzichita zojambulajambula. Kusintha kwachitika pa tsiku la 8, 13 ndi 25 la nthawi yosakaniza. Zikhalidwe zomwe palibe chitukuko chikuwonetsedwa kapena zolakwika zonse ndi zolakwika zikuwoneka ziyenera kuchotsedwa ku zipangizo.

Kukula kwa msinkhu wa mluza panthawi yopuma

Pa nthawi ya makulitsidwe, ubwana wa bakha umadutsa pakati pa magawo anayi mu kukula kwake. Pokumbukira izi, ndondomeko za boma mkati mwazitsulo zimasintha.

  1. Gawo loyamba. Zimayamba kuyambira tsiku loyamba laika mazira mu makina ndikukhala kwa sabata. Panthawi imeneyi, kamwana kameneka kamakhala ndi nthawi yokwanira 2 cm m'litali. Ali ndi kugunda kwa mtima, anaika ziwalo zonse zamkati. Mphunoyi panthawiyi imayamba kufunikira mpweya wochuluka, ndipo mpweya umene uli mu yolk umakhala wosakwanira. Kugwiritsa ntchito mpweya kumayamba kupyolera pores. Panthawiyi, ndizofunikira kwambiri kutentha mazira kufika pa +38 ° C ndikusunga mowa mpaka 70%.
  2. Gawo lachiwiri Kulira kwa sabata yotsatira - kuchokera pa 8 mpaka 14 tsiku la makulitsidwe. Tsopano kutentha kumafunika kuchepetsedwa pang'ono (mpaka +37.8 ° C), koma mpweya wabwino uyenera kuwonjezeka. Kuti muchite izi, mukhoza kutsegula mazenera ena opangira mpweya. Pa nthawi ino pali mafupa a bakha wamtsogolo. Pamapeto pa gawo lachiwiri, kuyambira tsiku la 15, mukhoza kuyamba kulizira mazira. Izi ndizofunikira kuti mbalame zikhale ndi madzi, chifukwa mazira awo ali ndi mafuta ambiri ndi madzi pang'ono, koma chifukwa ali ndi kutentha kwakukulu. Kutentha mkati mwa mazira okha kumatha kufika +42 ° C, ndipo kutentha kumeneku kumadzaza ndi mfundo yakuti mazirawo adzatha. Pofuna kupewa izi, mazira a mazira ayenera kutenthedwa. Kuti muchite izi, ingotsegula chitseko cha chofungatira kwa mphindi 20. Panthawiyi, sizingakhale zodabwitsa kuti mupange mabulosi pang'ono kuchokera ku mfuti ya spray ndi madzi ofunda, oyera ndi osakanizidwa, omwe kutentha kwake kuli pafupi +27 ° C.
  3. Gawo lachitatu imayamba kuyambira tsiku la 18 la kukula kwa mluza. Panthawiyi, adali pafupi kutha mapangidwe ake. Chinyezi tsopano chikuyenera kuchepetsedwa kufika 60%. Kutentha kwa mazira kumafika + 40 ... +42 ° C, choncho mumayenera kupitirizabe kuzizira ndi kuwawaza kawiri patsiku.
  4. Gawo lachinayi Nthawi yosakaniza imayamba kuyambira tsiku la 26. Pali kuchotsa ducklings mwachindunji. Popeza zipolopolo za mazira a bakha ndi ovuta ndipo nkhanu zimapeza kuti zimakhala zovuta kubzala, zimatha kuchepetsedwa pang'ono. Kuchita izi, ndikwanira kuonjezera chinyezi mkati mwa makina osungira madzi, kotero panthawi imeneyi chinyezi chawonjezeka kufika 90%.
Nthawi yotsekemera imathera ndi kuthwa kwa anapiye mazira.

Mukudziwa? Dzira lokhala ndi bere lachitsulo lingadziŵike bwino kwambiri: Ngati mutenga dzira ngatilo m'manja mwanu, lizizizira nthawi yomweyo, chifukwa mazira opanda mwana wosabadwa sangathe kutentha.

Kodi ndi nthawi yanji yomwe nyongolotsi zimawonekera

Kuchokera tsiku loyamba mu chofungatira mpaka kubadwa kwa anapiye ku kuwala kumadutsa masiku 26 mpaka 28. Kawirikawiri, ndondomeko yoyamba kusamba imayamba pa tsiku la 26 ndipo ikhoza kutha nthawi pang'ono kuposa tsiku. Anthu ena omaliza amatha kungovulaza kokha kumayambiriro kwa tsiku la 29, koma osati patapita nthawi.

Masiku amenewa amasonyeza mitundu yambiri ya abakha, ngakhale mitundu ina ingakhale nayo yaitali. Mwachitsanzo, nthawi yoika makina a musk amatha masiku 33 mpaka 36.

Onani zomwe zimachititsa kuti mazira a musk abwere.

Kuchokera pa nthawi yoyamba yofuna kuthamanga, zimatenga maola 24. Komanso, pa zizindikiro zoyambirira za malingaliro, mankhwala onse opangira makina amatumizidwa ku zotsatira zopangidwa ndi trays. Apainiya akusiyidwa mu chofungatira kwa kanthawi mpaka atakhala ouma.

Kenako amasamukira m'chipinda chapadera chomwe kutentha kumakhala pafupi + 27-28 ° C.

Zowonongeka mobwerezabwereza

Ngakhale kuti kubereketsa ducklings kumakhala kosachita manyazi, komabe alimi ena a nkhuku amapanga zolakwitsa, chifukwa chake pamakhala anthu ambiri omwe amafa ndi nkhuku, komanso mazira omwe amawotcha.

Zolakwitsa zambiri zimaphatikizapo:

  1. Nthawi yosungirako nthawi yayitali ya mankhwala a dzira asanalowe mu chofungatira. Ndipotu, pamene mazira akutalika, pamapeto pake amawasiya. Iwo amakalamba, amatayika katundu wawo, kotero chiwerengero cha kupulumuka kwa anapiye chingakhale 70-75% zokha.
  2. Kutha kwa disinfection. Kugona kwa bakha kumawopsa kwambiri chifukwa cha bowa, nkhungu ndi mabakiteriya osiyanasiyana, mwachitsanzo, salmonella. Pambuyo pakutha, anapiye adzakhala odwala komanso osasintha.
  3. Osakhala mazira nthawi imodzi palimodzi. Izi zimabweretsa kuswa kwa magawo otukuka, monga asynchrony, ntchentche zowonongeka pa nthawi zosiyana.
  4. Kutentha kwa majeremusi. Izi zimabweretsa imfa. Pakati pa makulitsidwe achilengedwe, kutenthedwa sikumatheka, chifukwa nkhuku-nkhuku nthawi zambiri zimadziteteza ku chisa, ndipo ana amtsogolo panthawiyi ali ndi nthawi yozizira. Mu chofungatira, chiopsezo chotentha kwambiri ndi chachikulu. Choncho, ndi kofunika kuti nthawi zonse muzizizira mazira komanso muzipaka madzi kuchokera ku botolo.
  5. Mvula yochuluka. Kumvera ndi chigawochi kumakhudza thanzi la anapiye komanso kumasuka kwa nyerere zawo.
  6. Kuchuluka kwa chinyezi. Izi zimayambitsa amniotic fluid kwambiri. Ndi koopsa kuti muwamweke anapiye musanayambe kugwira ntchito.
  7. Kusuta mowa panthawi yopuma. Zingayambitse kukula kwa mazira ndi kutha kwa chitukuko.
  8. Chiwerengero chaching'ono. Chifukwa cha zolakwika izi, anapiye amatha kumamatira mbali imodzi ya chipolopolo, chomwe chidzapangitsa kuti chitukuko chisawonongeke, ndipo nkhono zidzasakazika mosavuta.
  9. Kuwala kwa nthawi yayitali ndi ovoskop. Izi zimadza ndi mfundo yakuti mazira akhoza kuwonjezereka, chifukwa ovoscope ali ndi kutentha kwakukulu kwa kutentha, kotero kusinthana sikuyenera kutenga maminiti awiri.
Kawirikawiri, njira yobweretsera mazira a bakha kunyumba si chinthu chovuta kwambiri ndipo ikhoza kubweretsa ana abwino ngati mutatsatira malamulo ofunikira. Kusamvana kwa ducklings kumakhala zolakwa zazikulu potsutsana ndi maboma ndi kutentha.

Mukudziwa? Ngati dzira ladakha limagwiritsidwa ntchito kumutu kumapeto kwa makulitsidwe, ndiye mkati mwake mumatha kumva phokoso lopangidwa ndi nyongolotsi, kuyenda, komanso kuyimitsa.

Ndikofunikanso kuti zochita zonse zomwe zimachitidwa ndi mazira opangidwa ndi dzira zikugwirizana bwino ndi kukula kwa mimba. Pankhaniyi, mungathe kuwerengera ana abakha wathanzi ndi amphamvu.