Momwe mungasankhire ng'ombe yabwino pamene mukugula

Alimi nthawi zambiri amasankha kugula ana ang'onoting'ono kuti adziwe kuti ali ndi mphamvu zamphamvu komanso zamphamvu, koma akudalira chakudya chake. Izi ndi zofunika kwambiri pamene abereka ana a ng'ombe, komanso akaweta ng ombe za mkaka, makamaka kuti azigwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa. Pofuna kupititsa patsogolo cholinga, ndikofunikira kusankha mtundu wabwino wa nyama ndi woimiririra, zomwe zimakhala zovuta kwa mlimi wa novice. Tiyeni tipeze momwe tingasankhire nthumwi ya mkaka ndi nyama, powalingalira zochitika za mitundu yosiyanasiyana mu nkhaniyi.

Cholinga cha kugula

Zolinga zazikulu zogula mwana wa ng'ombe ndi ziwiri zokha: mwina zidzakuperekedwera kuti zikhale nyama, ndipo apa tikukamba za ng'ombe zamphongo, kapena tidzatsalira kuti tipeze kukonza mkaka, ndipo m'pofunika kugula mwana wamkazi.

Ndikofunikira! Mawerengero onse a chiwerengero ndi owerengeka, ndipo zizindikiro zolondola zowonjezera kulemera zimadalira pazochitika ndi zakudya zabwino za nyama.

Pazochitika zonsezi, pali mitundu yochepa yomwe ingathe kukwaniritsa zosowa zonsezi. Talingalirani zotchuka kwambiri.

Bullhead chifukwa cha kunenepa (kupha nyama)

Kawirikawiri, pamene akukula ng'ombe kuti idye nyama, mlimi amakhala ndi chidwi cholemera patsiku lolemera, kotero kuti pakatha zaka 1-1.5 n'zotheka kupereka nyama kuti ikaphe ndi kupeza phindu lalikulu.

Phunzirani za mitundu yolemekezeka ya ng'ombe zamphongo komanso za ziweto za kukula kwa mafuta.

Ambiri omwe amaimira nyama zamtundu wambiri ndi mafuta olemera amatha kupeza makilogalamu 400-500 panthawiyi, ngakhale kuti nthawi zina pali olemera makilogalamu 350. Zizindikiro zowonjezera zazitsamba zimaperekedwa mu tebulo ili m'munsimu.

ZimaberekaKuchulukitsa pa kubadwa (makilogalamu)Kulemera kwa tsiku ndi tsiku kwa ng'ombe (g)Kulemera kwa zaka chimodzi ndi theka (makilogalamu)
Aberdeen-Angus25800350
Whitehead ya Kazakh271000400-450
Hereford361200-1500350-400
Simmental44-46900-110350-400
Sharolezskayaoposa 301000-1500400
Shorthorn351200-1500450-500
Golshtinsky45900-1100450
Limousin351000500
Kalmyk301000450-550

Msungwana pa ng'ombe

Sizowonjezereka kuti asankhe msungwana wamng'ono kuti apitirize kulima kuti apeze mkaka. Anthu obereketsa sali otchipa, ndipo mukufunikira kumvetsetsa mtundu uti kuti muwasankhe, mutaganizira zofunikira zawo ndi zofunika. Mitundu yabwino ya mkaka ya m'deralo ikuwonetsedwa mu tebulo ili m'munsiyi.

ZimaberekaKukolola mkaka pachaka (t)Mafuta a mkaka (%)Mapuloteni okhutira (%)
Black ndi motley5,03,7-3,93,2
Red-motley4,153,963,4-3,7
Nthambi yofiira3,2-3,53,5-4,03,7-3,9
Ayrshire8,54,283,44
Dutch4,53,5-43-3,5
Yaroslavl2,7-3,54,4-4,53,4-3,7
Jersey3,0-3,55-64
Kholmgorskaya3,5-4,03,6-3,73,3-3,4
Inde, mtundu uli wonse uli ndi ubwino wake, koma pakupanga chisankho chomaliza, ndibwino kuti tiganizire zizindikiro zina za mwana wa ng'ombe: zofunikanso pazomwe amamangidwa ndi kudyetsa, kuteteza chitetezo komanso kuyamwa koyambitsa matenda.

Kawirikawiri, ng'ombe zazikulu za mkaka zimafunikira chidwi chenicheni kwa mwiniwake.

Momwe mungasankhire mwana wang'ombe pakagula

Pali ziwerengero zambiri zomwe ziyenera kutsogozedwa pamene mukugula ng'ombe yaing'ono kapena ng'ombe, kuyambira pa maonekedwe ndi msinkhu. Wogulayo ayenera kuganiziranso za mwana wa mwana wamwamuna ndipo samvetsere kuti akuyamwa ndi kupuma.

Zaka

Mibadwo yoyenera yogula ng'ombe za mafuta a mafutawa ndi miyezi 1.5-2 kuchokera kubadwa, pamene mutha kuyesa kale thanzi lake. Pa msinkhu wokalamba, makanda ali ofooka ndipo amatha kudwala mu zikhalidwe zatsopano.

Kuti musasokonezeke mu nthawi ya ng'ombe pamene mukugula, nthawi zonse muziganizira izi:

  1. Kupezeka kwa chingwe cha umbilical: Ngati ziripo ndikupachika - ng'ombe sizinapitilira masiku khumi, komabe, pakati pa oimira mtundu wa Holstein, ikhoza kugwa pazaka makumi awiri zokha.
  2. Mkhalidwe wa mano a nyama yosankhidwa: Mwana wamwamuna ali ndi mano 4 a mkaka kuyambira kubadwa, patatha mlungu umodzi ali ndi gawo lachitatu ndi lachinayi la zozizira, ndipo patapita masiku asanu ndi awiri, mola molar molars amakula (mosiyana ndi nthawi zonse, mkaka wa mkaka ndi wochepa kwambiri komanso wofewa). Mitengoyi imakhudza zonsezi mu miyezi 3-4, ndipo pakadutsa miyezi 4-5, zikopa ndi mbali ya mkati ya mano akuyamba kuyamba kugaya, ndipo choyamba chimakhala choyamba.

Maonekedwe

Kuwonekera kwa mwana wang'ombe kumatha kuwonetsa chikhalidwe chake bwino kuposa mwiniwake. Ngati nyama yosankhidwayo ikugwira ntchito, yokondweretsa komanso yofuna, komanso ubweya waubweyawo uli bwino kwambiri. Ichi ndi njira yoyenera yogula.

Ndikofunikira! Nthawi zina, pofuna kubisala msinkhu wa mwana wa ng'ombe kapena kuyendetsa bwino kwambiri, ogulitsa akhoza kudula chingwe cha umbilical, chomwe chidzaonekera kunja.

Nthawi zina ng'ombe zamphongo zathanzi zimayandikira kwa anthu, pomwe ofooka ndi odwala akupitirizabe kunama popanda kusonyeza kanthu.

Ngati simukufuna kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zowonjezera ndi ndalama pa anamwino osowa ofooka, muyenera kupewa nyama ndi:

  • wobwerera mmbuyo;
  • kudula khutu;
  • maso akuda;
  • kuchotsa ku mphuno.

Kuonjezerapo, nthawi zonse mugule ndevu ya mwanayo asanagule. Zinyama zathanzi, siziyenera kutentha kapena zimayambitsa vuto lililonse kwa mwana - ngati chinyama chimasokonezeka panthawi yamatha, ndithudi chiyamba kuyamba kuwomba, kapena kuyesa kudzipatula. Matenda a nkhono nthawi zonse amafunika chithandizo, mwinamwake matenda omwe alipo alipo angapangitse kuti phokoso likhale lopweteka m'mimba komanso imfa ya mwana wang'ombe.

Mukudziwa? Ng'ombe zimatha kumva chisoni ndikulira, monga anthu. Choncho, ngati munthu atenga mwana wang'ombe, akhoza kulira mosalekeza kwa maola angapo.

Ng'ombe zomwe zimakhala ndi phala lalikulu zimayenera kusamalidwa mwapadera (pa kubala oposa 18 mm m'munsi). Pazifukwa 90%, iwo ali ndi lingaliro la innate ku matenda osiyanasiyana. Pa nthawi yomweyo, kukhalapo kwa umbilical hernia kungayambitse kukula kwa chiweto, chifukwa chake mtengo wa ana a ng'ombe nthawi zonse umachepa.

Mukhoza kuyang'ana nthata mwa kukankhira pulogalamu yamkati mkati. Ngati panthawi yomweyi n'zotheka kuyang'anitsitsa mu dzenje, zikutanthauza kuti mwanayo ali ndi vuto.

Ng'ombe yopuma

Pa nthawi yoyesedwa, onetsetsani kuti mumamvetsera mtundu wa anthu omwe akupuma. Kuthamanga mwamsanga ndi kutuluka (nthawi zopitirira 20 pa mphindi) kumasonyeza kusokonezeka kwa njira ya kupuma. Kuti muwone mapapu anu, tengerani mwana wang'ombe kuti ayenderere famu kwa mphindi zochepa: ngati ayamba kutsokomola, pakadalibe mavuto. Mukhoza kufufuza chifuwa poyang'ana mkhalidwe wa mphete yothandizira: imvani katemera wa mpweya (pansi pa khosi) ndi zala zanu, ndipo pang'anani mosakanizika ndi kuwutsitsa (dinani).

Ngati mwanayo ayamba kutsogolo ndipo kumveka kuwomba, izi zikuwonetsa matenda a kupuma. Kukhudza, trachea ikufanana ndi chubu lozungulira ndipo imatha ngakhale kutuluka pala zala.

Reflex yothandizira

Kufufuza reflex ya sucking ndiyo njira ina yabwino yotsimikizira kuti ali ndi thanzi labwino. Ikani mwanayo zala m'kamwa mwanu kuti muwone momwe angayambe kuyamwa: ngati kusuntha konse kuli kovuta ndipo kutentha pakamwa sikukwera, ndiye munthu wotere angagulidwe.

Ng'ombe za zaka zapakati pa 1 mpaka 3 sizikuluma, choncho musawope izi.

Mukudziwa? Ngati simutenga ng'ombe kuchokera kwa ng'ombe, akhoza kumudyetsa mkaka wake kwa zaka zitatu.

Yotsatira

M'minda yambiri yaing'ono, sikofunika kudalira deta yolondola yokhudza mwana wa nyama yosankhidwa, chifukwa ngakhale ngati pali zilembo, sizili zogwirizana nthawi zonse. Komabe, ngati tikukamba za famu yovomerezeka yomwe ili ndi mbiri yabwino, ndiye kuti muyenera kumvetsera mfundo zotsatirazi:

  • Kubereka kwa amayi (ngati mkaka wa ng'ombe umakwana 5500 malita pachaka, ndipo chisonyezero chimodzi cha ng'ombe pa mzere wa abambo chiposa 8500 malita, ndiye mwanjira ina iliyonse mwana wosankhidwa adzatha kupanga 500 malita kuposa amayi ake)
  • Mizere ya amayi ndi abambo ku mibadwo yambiri isagwirizane (kupewa kutsekemera, chifukwa chibale cha makolo chimakhudza thanzi la ana awo).

Kutsata malangizowo ophweka, nthawi zonse mungasankhe ng'ombe yabwino ya mtundu uliwonse. Komabe, momwe amakulira zimadalira kupitiriza kwanu kusamalira ndi zakudya zomwe simukuyenera kuiwala.