Ng'ombe zoyamwitsa ndi ng'ombe

Kupititsa patsogolo ziweto ndi zizindikiro zazing'ono zazing'ono, ng'ombe zikuyenera kulumikizidwa molondola. Ndikofunika kusankha njoka yabwino, njira komanso nthawi ya insemination. Taganizirani nthawi komanso momwe mungasamalire ng'ombe, ndipo ndisankhidwe kotani kuti muzisankha.

Momwe mungamvetsetse kuti ng'ombe ikukonzeka kukwatirana

Kutha msinkhu kumatengera makhalidwe omwe amayamba nawo ndipo amayamba atakwanitsa zaka 9 mpaka 22. Komabe, sikofunika kuti zichitike ngati zinyama komanso zinyama zamphamvu - zikhoza kuwononga mwanayo ndi kuchepetsa thupi lachikazi lopanda mphamvu, kuchepetsa mkaka wokolola.

Kawirikawiri ng'ombe zimakonzekera kutenga mimba ali ndi zaka 16-17. Chizindikiro chofunika ndi chakuti nyama zimapindula 60-70% kulemera kwa miyezo ya munthu wamkulu wa mtundu wofanana.

Ng'ombe zomwe zafika msinkhu, estrus imachitika masiku onse a 17-24 ndipo imatenga masiku 2-6, ndipo kugonana kumadziteteza kumakhala maola 8 mpaka 18, malingana ndi zizindikiro za nyama. Pankhani ya ng'ombe yaikazi, kuzungulira kumayamba masabata angapo atabala, koma iyenso iyenera kuikidwa kapena kudulidwa patatha miyezi 1.5-2 itatha.

Fufuzani mtundu wa nthenda ya ng'ombe yomwe imakhala nayo isanakwane komanso itatha, komanso chifukwa chake ng'ombe imakhala yakuyera.

Nyama ikhoza kubzala bwino panthawiyi, ndipo nkofunika kuyesa akazi okhwima pafupipafupi 1-2 patsiku kuti azindikire zizindikiro za estrus nthawi.

Mudziko lino, khalidwe la nyama likusintha, likhoza kukhala motere:

  • Ng'ombeyo imayamba kuchita zachiwerewere, mopanda phokoso, kumangoyenda kwambiri;
  • mzimayiyo amayamba kuyenda mofuula pofunafuna mwamuna;
  • Ng'ombe zina zimabwera kwa mkazi wotere ndikuyika mutu wake pamtunda kapena kumbuyo, kupopera, kunyenga ndi kukankhira kumalo amtundu wakunja ukuyamba;
  • Ngati pali ng'ombe yamphongo, ng ombe siidzamulowetsamo: yoyamba, yamphongoyo imamupopera ndi kuyikankhira kumtunda, kuika mutu wake kumbuyo kwake, kuyembekezera kuti ikhale yokwera;
  • ngati kusaka kwa chiwerewere kunayamba mu ng'ombe zingapo, ndiye kuti akuyamba kukondana wina ndi mzake, kuyambira, kungayambe.

Mukawona kusintha kumeneku kwa khalidwe la nyama, ndiye ayenera kumvetsetsa kusintha kwa thupi kumeneku kumayambiriro kwa estrus:

  • mchira wa mkazi umakwezedwa kumbali ndi kutsegula ziwalo zakunja zakunja;
  • Mphungu imakula ndi kukhuta ndi magazi;
  • Kutuluka kosaoneka kopanda mtundu kuchokera ku chiwombankhanga kumachitika;
  • Ng'ombe zina, panthawi yozunzidwa zomwe zimakhalapo nthawi imeneyi, zimasiya tsitsi lawo kumbuyo ndi kumata, ndipo zimatha kubisa kumbuyo kwa ng'ombe ndi kutentha.
Ngati panthawi yokadya ng'ombe ikufuna kusakondana ndi kugonana, ndipo kubereka ndi ng'ombe kunkachitika (mwina ngakhale ndi imodzi), ndiye chizindikiro cholondola kwambiri cha chochitika ichi chikanakhala chikoka cha mchira chifukwa cha kukwiya kwa abambo ndi mbolo wamwamuna. Chodabwitsa ichi chikhoza kutha kuposa tsiku.

Ng'ombe za nkhuku ndi nkhuku ziyenera kukhala pa tsiku lachiwiri kapena lachitatu, pamene zimakhala ndi ntchentche, ndipo zimayima pomwe nyama zina zimalumphira.

Ndikofunikira! Ng'ombe pa kusaka zogonana zingakhale zoopsa, makamaka ngati zimakhala zokha. Ngati palibe ziwalo zina za ng'ombe, ng'ombe yaing'ono ingayese kukwera munthu. Ng'ombeyo imakhalanso yoopsa, pamene ikuyamba kuona mpikisano mu chinthu chachikulu ngati munthu.

Kutola kwa ng'ombe

Kutha msinkhu wamphongo pafupipafupi kumafikira ali ndi miyezi isanu ndi itatu, koma mnyamata samaloledwa kupita ku ng'ombe mpaka akafika ku 70% ya kulemera kwa chiweto chachikulu. Kawirikawiri, ng'ombe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kubisala ali ndi zaka 1.5 ndipo poyamba imaloledwa kukhala ng'ombe yaing'ono (mpaka mitu 25).

Posankha ng'ombe yosakanikirana, zifukwa zotsatirazi ziyenera kuganiziridwa:

  1. Zizindikiro za machitidwe a makolo. Ng'ombe-abambo ayenera kukhala ndi ana ochuluka komanso apamwamba, amphaka, komanso amayi omwe ali ndi mwayi wopanga chithandizo, ayenera kukhala ndi mkaka wambiri ndi mafuta. Zimatengedwa ngati zabwino kunja, kukula ndi mawonekedwe a udder, kulemera.
  2. Zomwe zili kunja kwa ng'ombe, kupeza kulemera kwa thupi.
  3. Zobereketsa.
  4. Mbewu yambewu. Zimatsimikiziridwa ngati mwamuna ali ndi miyezi 12-14.
  5. Kupambana kwa pathupi. Nkhosa zikuyamba kuchepetsa ng'ombe kuyambira chaka chimodzi, ndipo chiwerengero cha mphuno yabwino chiwerengedwa - ayenera kukhala osachepera 50%. Posankha amuna angapo, amaima pa ng'ombe yamphongo yokhala ndi chiwerengero chachikulu cha malingaliro apamwamba pansi pa zofanana.
  6. Chiwerengero cha ana. Mbewu zomwe zimapezeka chifukwa cha zochitika zoyambirira zimayang'aniridwa, makhalidwe ake opindulitsa amayesedwa. Ngati pali phindu mu zizindikiro zopindulitsa, ndiye ng'ombeyo imatengedwa kuti ndi yoyenera kwa fukoli.
Mukudziwa? Ng'ombe imodzi imaphatikizapo 60-80 akazi kuti azisamalidwa, komanso poweta ng'ombe, 250-400 ng'ombe. Poyamba, mnyamata wamng'ono amaloledwa kubisa anthu 60-80 pachaka.

Njira zogwirizana

Masiku ano pali njira zosiyanasiyana zowetsera ng'ombe, koma ndi kusankha komwe kuli nyama zogonana zimayenera kukonzedwa ndi kuyendetsedwa. Tsekani mgwirizano ziyeneranso kupeŵedwera ndipo ziweto zoberekera ziyenera kutengedwa.

Pamene akuweta gulu

Njira yothandizira kudyetsa nkhumba nthawi zambiri sizimagwiritsidwa ntchito poweta ng'ombe, imagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka m'minda yaing'ono. Pankhaniyi, ng'ombe imakhala tsiku lonse ndi gulu lonse, ndipo imachotsedwa usiku. Pafupifupi 35-40 ng'ombe ziri ndi bambo mmodzi wamwamuna. Amuna omwe ali ndi njirayi amakwirira akazi onse ndi zizindikiro za kusaka zogonana. Ngati ali yekha, amapatsidwa tsiku la mpumulo kamodzi pa sabata. M'busa, ndi bwino kuti musunge amuna awiri, omwe amasinthidwa masiku atatu onse.

Njira iyi ili ndi ubwino wake:

  • chiwerewere sichimathyoledwa;
  • nthawi yosaka sichidutsa;
  • zotsatira zabwino za kusokoneza mwachangu.
Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kudyetsa nyama, nyama ziyenera kuloledwa kokha atayesedwa ndi veterinarian ndikuchita mayesero oyenerera. Ng'ombeyo iyenera kuyesedwa ndi dokotala kamodzi pamwezi.
Koma njira iyi ili ndi zopinga:
  • zovuta kubereka;
  • N'zovuta kukonza chiwembu ndi calving;
  • chiwerengero cha matenda opatsirana pogonana chikuwonjezeka.

Kukhalitsa ng ombe

Cholinga chokonzekera ndikutsatira ndondomeko yomwe ikukhazikitsidwa, yomwe imayika nthawi yokhala ndi matingidwe, chiwerengero cha zikhomo mwezi uliwonse. Kukonzekera koteroko kumakuthandizani kuti muyambe kukonza mkaka kwa makasitomala, chifukwa nthawi yomwe ng'ombe siimapereka mkaka kwa nthawi, koma imadyetsa ana awo ndi colostrum.

Kwa wopanga ng'ombe iliyonse amasankha akazi osankhidwa ndi mitu yosapitirira 100. Chiwerengero cha milandu imayang'aniridwa, zomwe zimathandiza kuti azigawira katunduyo moyenera komanso kuti asatenge mimba.

Mukudziwa? Pakati pa zinyama, ng'ombe zimakhala ndi chachiwiri, zolemekezeka, malo mwa manambala. Anthu okha ndiwo oposa iwo. Komabe, ngati tiyerekezera kulemera kwathunthu kwa anthu ndi ng'ombe, ndiye kuti mliriwu umakhala waukulu katatu.

Ngati nthawi yothetsera nthawi yayamba kapena yosowa chifukwa chokonzekera bwino, izi zimayambitsa kusabereka kwa ng'ombe, zomwe zimaphatikizapo kuchepa kwachuma. Ngati calving ikuchitika malinga ndi nyengo, nyumba ya ng'ombe ndizofunikira, zomwe zidzasungidwa kwa miyezi 2-3, ndipo nthawi yonse imene idzakhala yopanda kanthu.

Ogwira ntchito adzakhalanso osagwirizanitsa chaka chonse, nthawi yowonjezereka idzayamba, kotero kukonza bwino kwa kukwatira ng'ombe kumathandiza kwambiri pakulima bwino.

Insemination yobongoletsera

Kuwombola ng'ombe kwabwino kumakhala kosavuta, chifukwa kumathandiza kuti manyowa ambiri azikhala ndi mlingo umodzi wa umuna. Ndicho chifukwa chake minda siziyenera kukhala ndi ng'ombe zambiri, siren imodzi imodzi ndi yokwanira.

Njira yopangira feteleza ya ng'ombe imakupatsani kupewa matenda ambiri opatsirana pogonana (brucellosis, trichomoniasis, etc.).

Zingakhale zothandiza kwa inu kuti mudziwe zambiri za njira zowonongeka kwa ng'ombe panyumba.

Mukamachita insemination, muyenera kutsatira mfundo zotsatirazi:

  • kuikidwa kwa umuna kuyenera kuchitika kumbali yakutsogolo ya chiberekero pafupi ndi momwe mungathere kumimba ya chiberekero, mlingo wa jekeseni wa umuna uyenera kukhala wokhala ndi zoposa 10 miliyoni zokhala ndi spermatozoa;
  • umuna wonse umaloledwa mu chiberekero, chifukwa 5% ya umuna wamoyo umalowa mkati mwake;
  • Ndikoyenera kufufuza ndi kudziwa komwe kumakhala koweta m'mimba mwa ng'ombe, yomwe idakonzedwa kale, chifukwa amayi omwe abereka atabadwa amayamba kuphulika pamphuno.

Video: Kuika insemination kwa ng'ombe Pali njira zinayi zikuluzikulu zowonetsera ng'ombe:

  1. Picervical. Njirayi imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa atsikana omwe sali ndi HIV omwe alibe makola kuchokera kumaliseche. Zimaphatikizapo kumayambiriro kwa umuna pafupi ndi kuthekera kwa khola lachiberekero ndipo zimapangitsa kuti chilengedwe chikhale chonchi. Ndi njira iyi, kubala kumafikira 60-70%.
  2. Mankhwala a mano. Njirayi imaphatikizapo kuyesa ndi kulamulira pogwiritsa ntchito malo omwe ali m'mimba. Chiberekero chimapitirira 65-70%.
  3. Visocervical. Mchitidwe wa insemination umachitika powonetsetsa kuti mthupi mwawo mumapezeka bwanji. Kuwonetsera masomphenya pogwiritsa ntchito kalilole wapadera kwa abambo. Chiberekero ndi 50-60%.
  4. Rectocervical. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito posokoneza chidziwitso pogwiritsa ntchito kachilombo ka HIV. Njirayi imatengedwa kuti ndi yabwino koposa, popeza mu umphawiwu umunawu umalowa molondola. Feteleza ndi njirayi ikufikira 70-75%.

Insemination yamakono ndi yabwino chifukwa siren yokhayo sikhoza kusungidwa pa famu, popeza umuna wa ng'ombe ukhoza kutengedwa. Zimathandizanso kukonzanso mtunduwu ndikupewa maubwenzi ogwirizana. Ngati nyemba zowonongeka zatsika (mpaka 2-4 ° С), zikhoza kusungidwa kwa miyezi yambiri.

Tikukulimbikitsani kuti muwerenge zomwe mungachite ngati chiberekero chimawombera ng'ombe itatha.

Milandu ya ziweto ziyenera kuyendetsedwa, chifukwa kutenga mimba mofulumira kapena ubale wapamtima ndizovuta kwambiri kwa ana ndi zokolola. Ndi njira zachibadwa zogwiritsira ntchito ziweto ziyenera kuwonetsedwa msanga kwa veterinarian.

Kutsekemera kwadzidzidzi kumathetsa kukhalapo ndi kukonza ng'ombe, kumathandiza kukonza makhalidwe a ana ndikupewa matenda opatsirana pogonana. Koma ndi njira iliyonse ayenera kuyang'anitsitsa gululi ndikudziwitsanso nthawi yomwe akufuna kusaka nyama.