Cow calving: zizindikiro za mapasa

Chotsatira chabwino cha kubereka ng'ombe ndi khola labwino la ng'ombe imodzi kuchokera pa ng'ombe iliyonse pachaka. Nthawi zina zotsatirazi zimakhala ziwiri, ndipo ng'ombe imabweretsa mapasa. Koma, mwatsoka, izi zimabweretsa mavuto ambiri kuposa phindu.

Tiyeni tiwone m'mene mungadziwire kuti ng'ombe ili ndi mimba iwiri, komanso momwe munthu angathandizire chinyama panthawi yake.

Ng'ombe ikhoza kubereka mapasa

Mimba iwiri mu ng'ombe ndi yochepa, imakhala 2 mpaka 4 peresenti ya ziweto zonse. Ngakhale kuti ndizosazolowereka, izi zimachitika, ndipo ng'ombe ndi ana amasiye amafunikira kusamalidwa kawiri. Kutenga ng'ombe ziwiri kuchokera ku calving imodzi kumapindulitsa kwambiri, chifukwa ng'ombe ya ng'ombe ikukula mofulumira.

Komabe, iyi si njira yabwino yowonjezera zinyama, monga kutenga mimba kawiri kawirikawiri kumayenderana ndi mavuto ena, kuyamba ndi zovuta zobadwa ndi kuthetsa mavuto ndi thanzi la ng'ombe. Kafukufuku akuwonetsa kuti mkaka wamakono wamtundu umakhudza kuyambira kwa mavuni awiri.

Mukudziwa? Mudziko la India la Madhya Pradesh, malamulo ovuta kwambiri otetezera nyama zopatulika zachihindu. Munthu aliyense woweruzidwa kuti aphe ng'ombe adzaweruzidwa kundende kwa zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri.

Chiŵerengero cha ma ovice awiri pa ng'ombe zochuluka kwambiri chinatsimikiziridwa pa pafupifupi 20%. Ngakhalenso mankhwala ophera mahomoni osowa, omwe nthawi zina amabweretsa feteleza oposa dzira limodzi, amathandizanso kuti pakhale mimba iwiri.

Mimba ndi katundu wolemetsa kwa ng'ombeyo. Ndipo ziŵeto ziwiri zomwe zimakula zimakhala ndi kashiamu wambiri kuti zizipanga mafupa, zomwe zingapangitse kusowa kwa chigawo ichi mu thupi la mayi, ndipo chifukwa chake, zimapangitsa kuti asamwalire. Kawirikawiri izi zimaphatikizidwa ndi kusungidwa kwa placenta, komanso kutupa kwa chiberekero. Kaŵirikaŵiri, pokhala ndi pakati, nthawi zambiri zimakhala zovuta. Izi nthawi zambiri zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi kuyika kosayenera kwa chipatso. Ma fetusi onse awiri amatha kuyendetsa pakhomo la ng'ombe. Muzochitika izi, zofunikira zanyama zakuthambo nthawi zambiri zimayenera.

Mukudziwa? Ng'ombe yodula kwambiri padziko lapansi inagulitsidwa mu 2009 kwa $ 1.2 miliyoni ku Royal Agricultural Winter Fair ku UK.

Momwe mungadziwire kuti ng'ombe idzakhala ndi mapasa

Zaka makumi awiri zapitazo, veterinarian angangopereka lingaliro pa mimba ya mapasa awiri pambuyo pochita zozizwitsa kapena molunjika pa calving. Njira yowonjezera imapereka chitsimikizo chotsimikizika chodziŵika kuti pali mimba yambiri m'mimba, pansi pa makumi asanu ndi limodzi pa mayesero onse.

M'minda yamakono, ng'ombe zakuthupi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pofufuza za ultrasound pogwiritsa ntchito chipangizo cha ultrasound test (USG). Ndondomekoyi imakhala yabwino kwambiri pamapeto a masabata 6.5-8. Panthawiyi, mimba ya ng'ombe ya pakati si yaikulu kwambiri, nyamayi imakhala yosavuta kuyendetsa ndi dzanja lake, imapezeka kuti ipeze njira zosiyana siyana ndi ndege. Panthawiyi, mazirawo ndi aakulu kwambiri, kutalika kwake ndi kuchokera pa 2.7 mpaka 5 masentimita, ndi osavuta kuziwona mothandizidwa ndi ultrasound.

Momwe mapasa amabadwira ng'ombe

Ngati abambo amatsutsa (kapena akudziwa bwinobwino, kudzera mu ultrasound) kuti ng'ombe yake ili ndi mapasa, ayenera kusamalira ndi kusamalira zinyama: kuyendayenda nthawi zonse, zakudya zabwino komanso, mwina, kuthandizira pa calving.

Werengani zambiri za masiku angati ng'ombe ikubala mwana wamphongo komanso momwe mungasungire mwanayo pakutha, komanso fufuzani zomwe mungachite mutatha kubereka.

Zizindikiro za kuyandikira

Makhalidwe a zizindikiro za ng'ombe yomwe ikuyandikira:

  • Udzu wopanda kanthu umapuma masiku angapo asanabereke, umakhala wofiira kwambiri;
  • Mukamangokhalira kukhwima mukuwoneka ngati mdima wandiweyani wambiri;
  • Nkhumba za udder zimawoneka zotupa pang'ono;
  • Mkazi wamakina amachita zambiri - kuvulala kwapakati paziphuphu;
  • vulvar yotupa ndi yofiira;
  • 1-2 masiku asanatuluke, mitsempha yowonongeka (kuyima pafupi ndi kumunsi kwa mchira) sangalalani;
  • mimba imatulutsidwa pansipa, nthitizi zimasiyanitsidwa ndi mabwalo omveka;
  • zinyama zimakhala zopanda phokoso, nthawi zambiri zimagona pansi, zimadzuka, zimatsika;
  • Pali magawo ang'onoang'ono a mkodzo ndi nyansi zochepa;
  • nyama imakwera pamsana pa mchira kwa mphindi zingapo.
Video: Zotsutsa za kubadwa kwa ng'ombe Musanayambe kugwira ntchito, chinyamacho chiyenera kutsukidwa ndi madzi ofunda ndi 0,1% potassium permanganate.

Momwe mungatengere maphunziro

Kubadwa kumayamba ndi kuyamba kwa ntchito. Kuchokera pano, calving ikhoza kutha kwa theka la ora kufikira maora atatu. Ngati malo a chipatso ndi achilendo ndipo ntchitoyi ikuwoneka bwino, ng'ombe sizisowa thandizo. Wobereketsa sayenera kusokoneza mchitidwe wautali msinkhu, koma muyenera kukhala pafupi kuti muthandize ngati kuli kofunikira.

Ndikofunikira! Kuyesera kukweza mwana wa ng'ombe ndi miyendo, mwamsanga pamene ikuwonekera pa perineum, kukhoza kuwonetsa kuti mwanayo adzakhala wolumala kapena ng'ombeyo idzawonongeka ndi perineum kapena kupweteka kwa chiberekero.

Thandizo pa nthawi yopatsa mapasa

Ngati wofalitsayo sakuwona zizindikiro zoopsa kwa mayi yemwe ali ndi vutoli, muyenera kuyembekezera mpaka miyendo ya mwanayo ituluke. Pambuyo pake, malo amtundu wa intrauterine amafufuzidwa ndipo, ngati kuli koyenera, chiberekero chaikidwa ndi gel. Ndikofunika kuti mukhale chete pamene mukukhala, osati kuti muthamangitse mwadzidzidzi, musafuule, musawope. Kumayambiriro kwa calving, fetusi ziwiri zili mu chiberekero cha amayi kuti mwana wang'ombe apite kumtunda kuchokera kumtsinje wobadwa ndi mfuti ndi miyendo yam'mbuyo, ndi winayo ndi miyendo yam'mbuyo. Izi ndizochitika pamene mwana wang'ombe amabadwa pamwamba pa wachiwiri.

Munthu amene amasamalira amaika dzanja lake mumtsinje wobadwa ndipo amadziwa komwe miyendo ya feteleza ili. Ngati chirichonse chiri choyenera, wofalitsa amatenga mwana wa ng'ombe wobadwako ndipo amachichotsa pang'onopang'ono. Mwamsanga kuthandizira kuti mubadwire, mofatsa ndi mosakaniza kukoka, ng'ombe yapamwamba. Pakubereka mwana woyamba wa ng'ombe, mwana wina ayenera kukankhira mofulumira kubwalo la ng'ombe.

Ndikofunikira! Pa nthawi yothandizira ana, sikoyenera kusokoneza miyendo ya ana a ng'ombe awiri. Musanayambe kuyendetsa mwana wa ng'ombe ndi miyendo, muyenera kudziwa kuti ndi ana omwewo.

Pambuyo pa maonekedwe a ana a ng'ombe, amawonekera pamtunda, ngati zinyama sizipuma, amapanga minofu ndi kupuma mpweya m'mapapo. Ngati kubadwa kunali kovuta, nthawi zina ng'ombe zimayenera kuthandizidwa mozondoka. Amawathandiza kuchotsa ntchentche pamtunda. Patangopita maola angapo, ng'ombe imayika mkaka. Ndipo tisiyeni pafupi ndi ana a ng'ombe kwa masiku awiri, ndiye mbuzi imalowa m'gululi. Pa nthawiyi, amamusamalira - ngati adya bwino, ndipo ngati kulibe malungo.

Kodi mpata uli pakati pa ng'ombe?

Mwana woyamba wa ng'ombe amatha maola awiri kapena awiri asanabadwe. Pakati pa amayi obereka ana kuthirira. Pambuyo pa kubadwa kwachiwiri, chinyama chimathirira madzi (ngati chitha kusonkhanitsa) ndi amniotic madzi omwe atsala atabadwa.

Madzi amniotic ali ndi mahomoni ochulukirapo ndipo amachititsa kuti azikhala opweteka komanso ophweka a placenta (kubadwa). Ngati amniotic yamadzi sichikusonkhanitsidwa, ndiye kuti nyamayo imadyetsedwa ndi madzi ofunda, amchere mchere wokwana 40-60 malita.

Ndi angati omwe amatsata ng'ombe ngati iwiri

Mimba mapasa mu ng'ombe akhoza kukhala dvuyaytsevoy ndi ofanana. Mapasa awiri amapangidwa chifukwa cha mimba imodzi kapena imodzi yokha. Komanso, mwana aliyense amakula yekha ndipo amakhala ndi mimba yake (yobereka).

Pezani zomwe mungachite ngati ng'ombe siimachoka kapena idya.

Ndi mapasa ofanana, mazira amawoneka pamodzi panthawi imodzi. Chifukwa chake, chiwerengero cha kutuluka kwa calving kumadalira chomwe chinali mimba (yofanana kapena dvuayaytsevoy). Ngati feteleza siinatulukamo yokha, m'pofunika kuyendetsa kuchipatala kapena kuchotsa pamtunda. Njirazi ziyenera kupangidwa ndi katswiri yekha, choncho, pemphani veterinarian.

Ndikofunikira! Ng'ombe, monga zinyama zina zambiri, zimakonda kudya placenta pambuyo pobereka. Nkofunika kuti musalole izi, chifukwa chinyama chidzakhumudwitse m'mimba. Ngati, komabe, izi zakhala zikuchitika, muyenera kusunga ng'ombe popanda chakudya kwa maola 24, ingopatsa madzi kumwa ndi kuyembekezera mpaka pulasitiki ikubwera mwachibadwa.

Mbali za chitukuko cha kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso mapasa osagonana

Azimayi achilengedwe amati pafupifupi theka la mapasa obadwa amapangidwa ndi ng'ombe ndi ng'ombe. Mtsikana wamng'ono wobadwa m'mabanja awiriwa sayenera kutayika pa fuko, chifukwa lidzakhala ndi majeremusi olakwika.

Freemartinism imadziwika kuti ndi imodzi mwa mitundu yoopsa kwambiri ya zolakwika zogonana pakati pa ziweto, zimayambitsa kusabereka kwa ng'ombe zambiri. Pamene nkhuku imagawaniza chiberekero ndi ng'ombe ziwiri, ziwalo zapadera zomwe zimagwirizanitsa fetus ndi chingwe cha umbilical zimasiyanitsidwa.

Kuphatikizidwa kwa nembatata kumachitika tsiku la 40 la mimba, kenako madzi a mazira awiriwo akusakaniza. Izi zimapangitsa kusinthana kwa magazi ndi ma antigen omwe amanyamula zizindikiro za ng'ombe ndi ng'ombe. Pamene ma antigen akusakanikirana, amakhudzirana mwa njira yomwe iliyonse imakhala ndi makhalidwe ena. Ngakhale kuti izi sizimachepetsa kubereka kwapasa lamphongo, m'magulu oposa 90%, amphongo amakhala osabereka.

Mukudziwa? Mu 2009, asayansi adafufuzira za feteleza ya ng'ombe ndipo anapeza kuti ng'ombe ziri ndi majini okwana 22,000, omwe 80 peresenti ali ofanana ndi majini a anthu.

Kutumiza ma hormoni kapena maselo kungachititse kuti mayi asatuluke kwambiri m'mimba mwake, ndipo nthawi zina amakhala ndi mbali zina za chiberekero cha kubereka. Izi zikutanthauza kuti freemartin ndi chibadwa chachikazi, koma zimakhala ndi maonekedwe ambiri amphongo.

Freemartin mavairasi samapanga bwino ndipo nthawi zambiri amakhala mu chimake. Ziphuphu zakunja zazing'ono zingakhale zachilendo komanso zofanana ndi nkhumba.

Freemartinism silingalephereke. Komabe, amatha kupezeka m'njira zosiyanasiyana, kuyambira pakufufuza zosawerengeka za memphane ndikukhalanso ndi chidziwitso cha chromosomal. Ngati ng'ombe ziwiri kapena ng'ombe ziwiri zibadwa m'maapasa - izi zidzakhala nyama zachilendo zomwe zimatha kusiya mbeu yonse.

Momwe mungadyetse mapasa ngati palibe mkaka wokwanira

Osapitirira ora limodzi atabadwa, makanda amatumizidwa kwa amayi, omwe amawanyengerera ndi kuwasiya kuti abwere. Kuonjezerapo, mwana aliyense wa ng'ombe amamwa madzi okwanira imodzi ndi theka. Masiku oyambirira atabadwa, ng'ombe imadyetsa ana 5-6 pa tsiku.

Tikukulimbikitsani kuwerenga za momwe mungadyetse ana a ng'ombe molondola, mavitamini otani kuti muwapatse, komanso kupeza zomwe mungachite ngati mwana wang'ombe ndi wosauka ndipo sadya bwino.

Nkhumba zimabadwa popanda chitetezo chokwanira cholimbana ndi matenda. Kufikira iwo akukulitsa luso lawo lolimbana ndi matenda, iwo amadalira kwathunthu chitetezo chodziletsa chomwe chinapangidwa ndi amayi achikazi. Mkaka ndi mkaka wambiri, wokoma mkaka, womwe umatetezedwa ndi mapuloteni a magazi ndi mavitamini, oyamba pambuyo pobereka.

Mbalameyi imakhala ndi ma antibodies omwe amafunikira kuti apitirize kutetezedwa kwa amayi, ndipo mlingo wa mapuloteni ndi electrolyte ukukwera. Ngati makandawa alibe chovala cha amayi, ndipo kenako mkaka, mankhwala omwewo ndi abwino kwa iwo, koma amatengedwa kuchokera ku zinyama zina zathanzi. Ana akudya chakudya chambiri chofiira komanso chisanu choyaka chisanu ndi chaka. Ndizosatheka kudyetsa ana a ng'ombe ndi colostrum kwa nthawi yaitali, chifukwa tsiku lachinayi litatha, limataya zakudya zake mwamsanga. M'minda yayikulu amapeza mankhwalawa kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito mtsogolo, mwa njira yozizira.

Mukudziwa? Ng'ombe zili ndi fungo labwino ndipo zimatha kununkhira patali mtunda wa makilomita 9.
Kubereka ndi nthawi yovuta yomwe imakhudza thanzi la amayi ndi thanzi la mapasa. Zambiri zimadalira momwe zinthu zimakhalira, chifukwa pobadwa, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tingalowe m'thupi kudzera muzitsulo komanso kumtsinje. Ng'ombe zimapezeka ndi zoopsa zambiri panthawiyi. Choncho, kukonzekera kwa ng ombe kubereka ndi kofunika kwambiri ndipo muyenera kuyamba masabata angapo musanayambe kubereka.