Zonse zofunika kudziwa za khansa ya mbatata: causative wothandizila, zizindikiro ndi chitetezo ku matenda

Pali matenda ambiri a mbatata. Komabe, matenda oopsa kwambiri ndi khansa ya mbatata. Ngati mbatata imakhudzidwa ndi khansa, ndiye kuti kuwonongeka kwa matendawa kungakhale koopsa kwa masamba ngati sichidatengedwe kale.

Makamaka matendawa ndi owopsa kwa masambawa, okula kwambiri - onsewa mu greenhouses ndi kuthengo. Pankhaniyi, agronomist ayenera kutenga miyeso yambiri, mwinamwake mbewu yonseyo ingasokonezeke.

Ndi chiyani?

Khansara ya mbatata (Synchytrium endobioticum) ndi matenda aakulu kwambiri, omwe amachititsa kuti munthu asamadzipatsidwe.

Chenjerani! Pofuna kuteteza mbatata ku matendawa, mitundu yosafunika iyenera kukula, komanso kuwonjezera apo, ngati magwero a matendawa amadziwika, m'zaka zotsatira kuti asamere mbatata m'dera lino kwa zaka zosachepera 3-4.

Kodi ndi liti komanso liti?

Monga lamulo, matendawa amaphwanya mbatata ya mbatata, kuphatikizapo, nthawi zina, akhoza kuwononga masamba ndi tsamba la tsamba. Ndi kugonjetsedwa kwa stolons - tubers sizinapangidwe. Matendawa amawoneka ngati ma tubercles omwe ali pafupi ndi maso pa tubers. Patapita nthawi, ma tubercles amakula ndikusintha kukhala makulidwe akuluakulu omwe ali ndi mphuno.

Causative agent

Causative wothandizira khansa ya mbatata ndi tizilombo tochiritsa Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Perc, yomwe ndi parasitic osati mbatata, komanso inanso ya solanaceous tomato, physalis, nyama zakutchire, ndipo imakhudza mizu ya zomera.

Bowa sichimalepheretsa kutentha kapena kuzizira. Kumadera akumpoto ndi kummwera, kumene dziko lapansi lalitali masentimita 10 limafikira mpaka -11 ° C kapena limatentha kufika 30 ° C, palibe khansa ya mbatata.

Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timadutsa m'nthaka ngati zoosporangia - tizirombo ting'onoting'ono timene timakhala ndi chipolopolo cholimba, zomwe zimachokera kumalo otentha (kuchokera ku zoosporangia - 200-300 zoospores). M'dziko la zoosporangia mukhoza kukhala ndi zaka 30.

Zomwe zimapangitsa kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo tizilombo tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi nthaka yotentha + 15-18 ° C ndipo nthaka ndi 80%. Zoopsa ndizoti mbatata imakula bwino kwambiri. Zoposa 50 peresenti za zoosporangia zimamera mu June - July, panthawi ya kulenga kwa tubers.

Zoospores zomwe zimachokera ku mphutsi zimatha kudutsa mumtambo wa capillaries. Ngati saloĊµa mu selo la chomera cha maola 12, amafa. Mu selo, tizilombo toyambitsa tizilombo timakula, pansi pa chikoka cha poizoni chitetezedwa ndi icho, maselo ozungulira omwe akuzungulira akuyamba kugawa molimbika, ndikupanga kukula. Patapita nthawi, zoosporangia zatsopano zimaoneka pakati pa kukula.

Thandizo Kuthamanga kwapangidwe kwa bowa - masiku 12-14. Panthawiyi, mibadwo 17 ya tizilombo toyambitsa matenda imapezeka pamalo omwe ali ndi kachilomboka.

Zotsatira

Khansara ya mbatata imapha mbewu zonse, zimakhudza kwambiri magawo onse a mlengalenga ya zomera ndi tuber. Matendawa amakhala ndi kukula komwe kumakhala kofiira, komwe kumakhala kofiira ndikusanduka bulauni. Ndi mapangidwe amphamvu a matendawa, kukula kotereku kungapangidwe osati pamatope ndi masamba, koma ngakhale pamaluwa a zomera. Kukula kwa zokololazo ndi zosiyana - kuchokera pa peyala yaing'ono mpaka kukula kwa tuber palokha.

Mu maonekedwe, izi zikukula monga caulifulawa inflorescences. Izi tubers sizoyenera chakudya ndi nyama. Makamaka, mbatata imakhudzidwa ndi khansa ku chikhalidwe chosatha, kumalo oseri kwa nyumba, komwe mbatata imakula pa chiwembu chimodzi chaka ndi chaka.

Ngati zitsamba zomwe zakhudzidwa zimapezeka pa malowa, ziyenera kutenthedwa ndiyeno, kwa zaka zitatu, ziyenera kumera osati kugwidwa ndi khansa: beets, kabichi, nkhaka, anyezi.

Ngozi ya matenda kwa anthu

Khansara ya mbatata, ngati matenda, si owopsa kwa munthuKomabe, amawononga tubers, amawapangitsa kukhala osayenera chakudya. Osati chifukwa chakuti zimamupweteka munthu, koma chifukwa chipatso chimatha kutulutsa, zimawongolera.

Ndi zikhalidwe ziti zomwe zikuwoneka?

Kuwonjezera pa mbatata, causative wothandizira khansa amakhudza:

  • tomato;
  • Physalis;
  • chipululu;
  • zomera zina za mtundu wa Chakudya.

Komabe, mosiyana ndi mbatata, imatulutsa mizu.

Tsatanetsatane wafotokozedwa

  1. Choyamba pa matenda a tubers, pafupi ndi maso, mavupa oyera amaonekera, omwe pamapeto pake amakhala mdima ndi kusandulika kukhala zobiriwira zofiirira, zomwe zimatha kupitirira kukula kwa tuber palokha.
  2. Maonekedwe a kukulako ali ofanana ndi masamba a kolifulawa.
  3. Mitundu yaing'onoting'ono yofiira imakhala yofiira kwambiri, yomwe imakhala yobiriwira m'magulu a masamba, nthawi zina, pamasamba pawokha komanso pamtunda.

Khansara sichitsatira mizu ya chitsamba chamatendaPa chifukwa chimenechi, matendawa sangazindikiridwe mpaka nthawi yakumbidwa ndi tubers. Pofika m'dzinja, mbatata yowonongeka imakhala yovunda pansi, zina zimawonongeka m'miyezi yoyamba yosungirako, ndikupatsira tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Ngati chilimwe chiri kutentha, khansara ikhoza kutenga mitundu ina:

  • masambapamene kukula kwa peel kuli kofanana ndi masamba otayirira kapena bowa wa oyster pa thunthu la mtengo;
  • zowonongeka - pamwamba pa tuber umakhala wosagwirizana, bumpy, kutumphuka;
  • mawonekedwe a nkhanambo - Khungu la tuber limakwirira chiwerengero chachikulu cha zigawo zazing'ono.

Chithunzi

Zithunzi za khansara ya mbatata zimathandiza kuzindikira vutoli.

Mfundo Zomwe Zingatetezedwe Kwambiri

Ngati matenda omwe ali ndi matendawa amapezeka pa chiwembu, muyenera kudziwitsiranso za chitetezo cha zomera.

Ndikofunikira! Mbatata, odwala khansa, mulimonsemo ndizosatheka kugwiritsa ntchito chakudya. Pofuna kuti zoosporangia zisagwe mu manyowa, n'zosatheka kudyetsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda muzitsamba zofiira kwa ng'ombe.

Zima zoosporangia mu chipolopolo chophwanyika zimafa patatha mphindi imodzi yotentha pa 100 ° C. Mitundu ya tuberu yomwe imayambitsa matenda imakhala yabwino kwambiri.: Sayansi tsopano siinapereke yankho lomalizira pa funso lokhudza chitetezo cha anthu ndi zinyama.

Miphika yomwe imayambira khansa, pamodzi ndi tubers ndi nsonga, imatenthedwa kapena kuponyedwa m'dzenje mita imodzi yakuya ndipo imaphimbidwa ndi bleach (kapena, imatsanulidwa ndi formalin kapena palafini).

Agrotechnical

Malo okha ozizira kapena ozizira zoosporangia "amadzuka" pachaka (pafupifupi 30%). Kufunika kwa njira zamakono zolimbanirana ndikutulutsa ma cysts ambiri, ndipo zoospores, osapeza mlimi, zinatha. Njira zingapo zowonjezera zotsatira zofanana:

  • Pa mabedi kumene mbatata idakula chaka chatha, chomera chimanga. Kugawidwa kwa mizu yake kumathandizira kutulutsidwa kwa zoospores. Komanso, rye ndi nyemba (nandolo, nyemba, lupins) zimayeretsa nthaka bwino.
  • M'chaka kuti manyowa awononge malowa pa mlingo wa makilogalamu 300 a manyowa. Ngati ndikofunika kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, granulated urea imayambitsidwa (1 mamita - 1.5 kilogalamu).
  • Kubzala mitundu ya mbatata yosasunthika ndi khansa. Pogwiritsa ntchito mbatata yamtundu uwu ndi ofunika kwambiri ku zokopa za zinyama. Selo yokhudzidwayo siidyetsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, koma imamwalira, maselo ozungulira palimodzi amaumitsa, mawonekedwe a pustule, kumene munthu wakufa amatha kuikidwa m'ndende. Matenda amphamvu amachititsa pustula kuchoka ndipo chilonda chimachiza. Zikanakhala ngati mbatata yotereyi ikabzalidwa zaka 5-6, dziko lonse lidzachotsedwa ndi bowa. Komabe, kamodzi pakatha zaka zinayi, mitundu yosiyanasiyana iyenera kusinthidwa kuti iteteze kanseri ya khansa kuti isinthe.

Pa malo osokonezeka adzafunika kuchoka Lorch ndi Sineglazki, chifukwa zimakhala zovuta kwambiri.

Mankhwala

Pofuna kubzala mbewu musanabzala, tuber imasungidwa kwa theka la ora mu 0,5% Benomyl yankho (Benleit) kapena 1% Readzole solution.

Pofuna kuthetsa magwero a matenda, nthaka imathiriridwa ndi mankhwala owopsa: 20 ml ya mankhwala a 2% a nititenen pa 1 mita.

Mankhwala opanga mankhwala ayenera kuchitika kokha ndi akatswiri. Pasanathe zaka 2-3 mu malo ochiritsidwa, n'kosatheka kukula pafupifupi mbewu zaulimi.

Njira zothandizira

Kuti mupewe kuipitsa malo, muyenera:

  1. onetsetsani mfundo za kusintha kwa mbeu ndi mbatata kumalo omwewo nthawi zosachepera zaka 3-4;
  2. Musakhale ndi mbewu zina za nightshade pafupi ndi mabedi a mbatata;
  3. Tetezani mosamala namsongole wamtundu wozungulira munda wa mbatata;
  4. osati kupeza chodzala zinthu ndi manyowa kuzipinda zapadera;
  5. Ngati malo ogulitsira okhaokha atulukira kwinakwake, ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito zokolola za mitundu yambiri ya khansa.

Kutsiliza

The synchytrium endobioticum bowa palokha, imatha kukhala pansi kwa zaka 20. Mwachindunji pa chifukwa ichi, akatswiri amalangiza kuti musabzalitse mbatata m'madera omwe ali ndi kachilombo, koma mugwiritseni ntchito mitundu yokha yomwe ikulimbana ndi matendawa.