Mphesa

Mwinamwake kudera lanu mumakhala nyengo yozizira kwambiri ndipo nyengo yotentha nthawi zambiri imadutsa chizindikiro -20, koma izi sizikuvulaza munda wamphesa ndipo, motsatira malangizo athu, timakula bwino zipatso za dzuwa. Mitengo ya mphesa yotani yoyamba pakati pa msewu wapakati Koma ndithu, mphesa zimakula pafupifupi nyumba yonse ya chilimwe.

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Mphesa, ambiri, amawoneka kuti ndi olimba komanso ovuta kubala mmera. Komabe, pali tizilombo ndi matenda omwe ali oopsa kwa iye. Choncho, m'pofunika kukonzekera pasadakhale zovuta, zomwe zimadziwika bwino ndi tizirombo tomwe timadziwika bwino kwambiri. Mukudziwa? Kafukufuku wopangidwa ndi asayansi akusonyeza kuti kukolola mphesa kuchokera kwa tizirombo kumachepetsedwa pachaka ndi pafupifupi gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu, ndipo ngati silingakwanitse kutenga njira zoyenera kuteteza matenda, zotayika zingathe kufika theka la mbewu.

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Matenda a mphesa - amaopseza kwambiri chomera ichi. Mitundu yokoma ndi yayikulu kwambiri imakhala yowonongeka kwa iwo, ngakhale ntchito ya obereketsa. Choncho, kuti mupeze zokolola zabwino, muyenera kudziwa momwe mungachitire mphesa ku matenda. Mukudziwa? Mphesa - chomera chokha mdziko lapansi chomwe chimafufuza sayansi yapadera - ampelography.

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Amaluwa ambiri amakonda kukula mphesa zawo. Zimayamikiridwa chifukwa cha katundu wake wopindulitsa ndi kukoma kosakwanira. Komabe, mbeu ya mbeu iyi ingakhale pangozi ngati mbewuyo imakhudzidwa ndi tizirombo. Kawirikawiri mphesa zimayambidwa ndi tsitsi, kumadziwika bwino ngati mphesa ya mphesa. Ngati muli ndi kachilomboka, mukhoza kutaya mbeu 30%, ndipo ngati simukuchita chithandizo mwamsanga, mukhoza kutaya 50%.

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Zomera za Berry monga mphesa zikufalikira ponseponse m'nyumba zapanyumba za chilimwe. Ambiri amayesetsa kulira tebulo ndi machitidwe osiyanasiyana kuti azitha kupanga mavinyo okhaokha. Koma nkhaniyi si yokhudza izi. Tidzakambirana za momwe tingabzalitsire mphesa pazomwe timapanga mbande popanda thandizo m'chaka.

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Mphesa ndi munda mbewu, kukula makamaka mu nyengo yotentha. Koma mitundu ina ya mphesa imayenda mizu pakatikati ndi chigawo cha kumpoto. Kupambana kwa kukula mphesa kumadalira pazinthu zambiri, imodzi mwa iyo ndi kudulira nthawi yake. Mbewu ya mphesa mu kasupe: ubwino ndi kuipa Zokwanira kulowa mu funso "kudulira mphesa mu kasupe kwa oyamba kumene" mu intaneti iliyonse yofufuzira, ndipo mudzalandira malangizo ambiri mu zithunzi, mu kanema mtundu ndi zina zotero.

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Tsopano, pafupifupi mazana 100 a mphesa amakololedwa kuchokera ku hekita limodzi la munda wamphesa. Ngakhale kuti ufulu wa Ukraine usanakhalepo, chiwerengero chimenechi chinali chochepera katatu - 30 p / g. Izi zinanenedwa ndi Viktor Kostenko, mtsogoleri wa dipatimenti yothandizira ulimi wa horticulture, viticulture ndi winemaking ya Dipatimenti ya Ulimi ku Ministry of Agrarian Policy ndi Politics pakukambirana pa imodzi mwa ma TV.

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Mmodzi mwa adani owopsa kwambiri a mphesa ndi fungal matenda mildew. Ambiri wamaluwa akhala akuyesera kulimbana ndi matendawa kwa zaka zoposa khumi ndi ziwiri, koma si onse omwe amatha. Tiyeni tiyang'ane zomwe zimayambitsa maonekedwe a matendawa ndi kupeza momwe tingachitire ndi matendawa. Kufotokozera ndi kuopsa kwa matenda Zozizwitsa (kapena downy mildew) - imodzi mwa zoopsa za fungal pathologies za mitundu ya mphesa ya ku Ulaya.

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Mitundu ya mphesa yoyera ya Chardonnay imakhala yochuluka, chifukwa ikhoza kukulirakulira kumadera aliwonse a nyengo ndi kubzala mbewu zambiri. Komanso, vinyo wopangidwa kuchokera ku "Chardonnay" m'mayiko osiyanasiyana amakondwera ndi kukoma kwake kopadera. Kuchokera komweko ndi chiyambi cha mphesa zosiyanasiyana "Chardonnay" Pakali pano, asayansi sakanatha kudziwa bwino mbiri ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana.

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Kishmishi ndi dzina la mitundu yambiri ya mphesa, yosiyana ndi kukula kwake kwabwino ndi kukoma kwa zipatso, komanso kupanda mbewu. Mphindi uwu uyenera kuganiziridwa posankha mphesa zoumba kubzala pa webusaitiyi, popeza kulima kwa mphesa za mphesa, kukoma kwa zipatso zake ndi kusamalira mbewu zimasiyana mosiyana siyana.

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Vinyo wa Cabernet amadziwika bwino ndipo amakondedwa ndi onse odziwa vinyo wofiira wouma. Pafupifupi mayiko onse omwe ali ndi winemaking, ochokera ku Canada ku Canada, amadya mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mphesa ndi zipatso zobiriwira zakuda. Cabernet yapamwamba imapanga Italy ndi Spain, Ukraine ndi Moldova, Chile ndi Argentina, komanso South Africa, Australia ndi United States of America.

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Lero tidzakambirana za momwe tingadye ndi kudyetsa mphesa masika. Ambiri omwe akhala akulima mphesa kwa zaka zambiri, amazoloŵera kusamalira mphesa. Komabe, nyengo ikusintha, ndipo nyengo ndi kuchepa kwa zakudya zofunikira zimachepetsa mbeu ndi "mphotho" yamphesa ndi matenda osiyanasiyana.

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Kudula mitengo ya mphesa ndi gawo lofunika la kusamalira zomera. Ndikofunikira makamaka ku madera omwe chilimwe ndi chaching'ono ndipo mphesa sizilandira kuwala kokwanira kwa kucha. Kodi n'zotheka kukolola mphesa m'chilimwe? Ntchito yosadulira mphesa m'chilimwe ndikuti njirayi imathandizira kuonjezera kuchulukitsa kuchuluka kwa mbewu.

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Mphesa, monga zomera zina zowalidwa, zingakhale ndi matenda osiyanasiyana. Amayambitsa masamba, inflorescences, potero amawononga mbewu. Oidium (dzina lina ndi powdery mildew) ndi chimodzimodzi matenda ofalawa. M'nkhaniyi tikambirana za oidium pa mphesa: ganizirani chithandizo cha matendawa, komanso kambiranani njira yabwino yosamalira zomera.

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Posachedwapa, mphesa "Julian" ikudziwika kwambiri chifukwa cha makhalidwe ake, ndipo kudzikuza kwachitsamba chazo zosiyanasiyana ndi kunyada kwa aliyense wakulima. M'nkhani ino tidzakhala tikudziŵa bwino mphesa "Julian" - kufotokoza ndi malamulo a kusamalira zosiyanasiyana, chithunzi. Mbiri Yopanga Izi zinkasinthidwa ndi wolemba masewera V.

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Mphesa - mtundu wa zomera za Vinogradovye, yomwe ili ndi mitundu yoposa 70, ikukula kwambiri m'madera ozizira. Zosiyanasiyana "Memory Dombkovskoy" osiyana zosangalatsa kukoma zipatso ndi wolemera mtundu wa zipatso. Mbiri ya kusankhidwa kwa mphesa "Pokumbukira Dombkovskaya" inalengedwa ndi munthu wokondwerera wochokera ku Orenburg Shatilov Fyodor Ilyich zaka pafupifupi makumi atatu zapitazo.

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Nthaŵi yomwe imatsimikizira kukolola kotereku ndi maluwa a mphesa. Ndikofunika kuti tipeŵe zovuta mu gawo lino la chitukuko cha chikhalidwe. Ndipo ngati palibe kuthekera kuwonetsa nyengo, ndiye ndikofunika kuchita zomwe zimadalira manja a wolima. Kufotokozera ndi zizindikiro za nthawi Pamene mphesa ili pachimake, nyengo ya kutentha, msinkhu wa chinyezi, komanso chisamaliro cha mlimi kwa chikhalidwe ndi zofunika kwambiri.

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