Mbatata

Chilomboka cha Colorado cha mbatata ndi mliri wa nyumba zambiri zam'mlengalenga. Nthawi zina zimakhala zovuta kwambiri kupulumutsa mbatata ku tizilombo. Tizilombo toyendetsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, timachulukana mofulumira ndipo patatha masiku ambiri timayesa masamba a mbatata, motero timachepetsa zokolola zake. Choncho, m'nkhani ino tikambirana za kachilomboka kakang'ono ka Colorado mbatata komanso kulimbana ndi mankhwalawa.

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Chilomboka cha Colorado chotchedwa mbatata ndi mitundu ya tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tomwe timachokera kumtundu wa timabuluti timene timapanga tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Atapezeka m'chaka cha 1824 ndi Thomas Sayem, katswiri wa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, omwe ndi owopsa kwambiri. Pakalipano, sizilombo zokha zomwe zimateteza kachilomboka, komanso njira zowonongeka za katemera wa mbatata za Colorado zakhala zikudziwika kwambiri.

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Chipatala cha Colorado (Leptinotarsa ​​decemlineata) ndi cha banja la kachilomboka, tsamba la kachilomboka. Ichi ndi chimodzi mwa tizirombo toopsa kwambiri m'munda ndi ndiwo zamasamba, zomwe zimawononga kwambiri. Mukudziwa? Chifukwa cha mtundu wake wa mikwingwirima yakuda iwiri iliyonse ya elytra, kachilomboka kotchedwa Colorado mbatata kamakhala ndi dzina lake, lomwe kwenikweni limatanthauza mizere khumi mu Latin.

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Mitundu ya mbatata ya Kiwi ndi imodzi mwa rarest, yomwe imasiyanitsidwa ndi mawonekedwe osadziwika a mbewu zomwe zimapangidwa komanso mizu yachitsulo. Zosiyanasiyanazi sizinapezeke m'masitolo komanso m'masalefu a maiko a CIS, kotero amaluwa ambiri omwe sakudziwika nawo. Komabe, agronomists ambiri amakonda mbatata za Kiwi chifukwa cha kulemera kwake mu teknoloji yaulimi ndi zokolola zapadera.

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Siloing ndi njira yovuta kwambiri ya tizilombo toyambitsa matenda komanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda kuti tisunge mchere wambiri. Silaji ikhoza kupezeka ndi nayonso mphamvu, ndiko, kung'anitsa popanda mpweya. Imeneyi ndiyo njira yowonjezera yotchuka kwambiri. Gwiritsani ntchito mtundu wobiriwira wa zomera zam'mimba zomwe zili zoyenera kulenga chakudya cha ziweto ndi nkhuku.

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Chotupitsa chachikulu cha mbatata ndi adakali a Colorado mbatata. Kwa zaka zambiri, wamaluwa akuyesera kupeza chida chothandiza polimbana nacho. Mwa zonse zomwe zimadziwika lero, chimodzi mwa zabwino kwambiri ndi mankhwala otchuka a kachilomboka. Kodi chida ichi ndi zotani, tidzanena zambiri. "Kutchuka": kufotokozera, kupanga ndi kumasulidwa Fomu ndi kuyimitsidwa kwapadera, komwe kumayeretsedwa mosiyana, malinga ndi njira yogwiritsira ntchito.

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Wamasamba aliyense akukumana ndi vuto monga kudya mbatata ndi kachilomboka ka Colorado mbatata, ndikuyesera kupeza njira yake yabwino yothetsera tizilomboti. Zochitika zikuwonetsa kuti poizoni wa Colorado mbatata kachilomboka, yophika molingana ndi "zokometsera" maphikidwe, siimabweretsa zofuna, kotero, mobwerezabwereza, okonda mbatata amagwiritsa ntchito Taboo, yomwe imayambana ndi kafadala.

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Mbatata ndizokonda kwambiri anthu ambiri. Komabe, anthu owerengeka sakudziwa bwino momwe angamere bwino bwino kuti apeze zokolola zambiri. Olima amaluso amvetsetsa kufunikira kwa ntchito yotereyi, ndipo oyamba kumene amafunira chifukwa chake mbatata ndi momwe angachitire molondola. Ndipotu, kufunika kwa njirayi ndi kwakukulu, chifukwa pambuyo pake mutha kupeza zotsatira zabwino.

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Mukasankha mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mbatata kuti mubzalidwe pa chiwembu chanu, ndi bwino kumvetsera mwatcheru, zokolola, zozizwitsa za chisamaliro, kukana matenda, komanso kulawa makhalidwe a chomera ichi chodziwika. Mitengo ya mbatata "Gala" imakhala ndi makhalidwe abwino, choncho nthawi zambiri imasankhidwa ku munda wanu wa ndiwo zamasamba.

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Mbatata ndiwo masamba otchuka kwambiri ndi ofunidwa m'dziko lathu. Kawirikawiri chakudya chilichonse sichiphatikizapo chikhalidwe ichi. Pali mitundu yambiri ya chikhalidwe, koma mbatata ya "Rosara" inagonjetsedwa. Amagwirizanitsa bwino zakudya ndi zakudya. Zosiyanasiyanazi ndizodzichepetsa ndipo zikukula nyengo iliyonse.

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Chiwerengero cha tizirombo ndi matenda a mbatata ndi chofanana ndi kutchuka kwake. Mlimi aliyense kawiri kamodzi ankayenera kuganizira zokolola zosiyanasiyana muzu wa mbewu ndipo amalandira malipiro aakulu chifukwa cha iwo. Kotero ndani amadya mbatata, momwe angagwirire ndi tizilombo zovulaza ndikupewera kutetezedwa kwawo - werengani za izo moonjezera mu nkhaniyi.

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Amaluwa ena, pofuna kupewa mbeu yomwe imatayika ku matenda a mbatata, amafesa mbewu zatsopano pamakina, matumba komanso pansi pa udzu. Koma posachedwa amakhulupirira kuti sichimasunga tubers kuchokera ku mabakiteriya, bowa ndi mavairasi omwe amachititsa matenda osiyanasiyana. Iwo amamenya mwamphamvu zomera zabwino ndi zipatso zawo kuthengo, wowonjezera kutentha komanso ngakhale m'chipinda chapansi pa nyumba.

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Kuwonongeka kochedwa (kapena zovunda zofiira) ndizofala kwambiri za mbewu za masamba, kuphatikizapo mbatata. The causative wothandizira matendawa ndi bowa. M'nkhani ino mudzaphunzira zomwe zimayambitsa kuchepa kwa mbatata ndi njira zomwe zilipo mu matendawa. Zifukwa za kuchepa kwa mbatata Chifukwa chachikulu cha chitukuko cha kuchepa kwa mbatata kamagwirizanitsidwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda otchedwa oomycete, omwe ali otsika kwambiri.

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Zomwe zili mbatata ndi kulikonse kumene mukukhala, ndi chakudya chodyera patebulo. Komabe, ngati mukukhala ku Siberia, vutoli ndi lovuta kwambiri. M'nkhani ino tidzakambirana za mtundu wa mbatata, nthawi komanso nthawi yobzala, kumakhala m'dera lino. Ngakhale kuti mitundu yambiri yamayambiriro yayamba, kuyambika kwake kumakhalabe pakatikati pa mwezi wa May - ino ndi nthawi yomwe muyenera kufesa mbatata ku Siberia.

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Kuwonjezera pa tizirombo, minda ya mbatata imayambanso ndi matenda osiyanasiyana. Matenda ena a tizilombo tafika polimba kwambiri m'zaka zingapo zapitazi, ndipo izi zikudetsa nkhaŵa pakati pa wamaluwa. Pakalipano, palibe chifukwa chowopsyezera - ngati mukudziwa momwe phytophthora imadziwonetsera mu mbatata ndi momwe mungamenyane nayo, mukhoza kusunga zokololazo.

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Kodi mbatata ya "Irbitsky" ndi chiyani, malongosoledwe ndi zizindikiro za mitundu yosiyanasiyana, komanso zithunzi ndi ndemanga - izi ndizothandiza kudziwa zomwe zingakhale zothandiza kwa amaluwa wamaluwa omwe akufuna kukula masambawa okhaokha. Makhalidwe ndi kufotokoza kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana Mbatata "Irbitsky" ndi mitundu yodalirika yokhala ndi minda ya ndiwo zamasamba.

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Mitundu ya mbatata imeneyi imatchulidwa kuti "mwayi" chifukwa imapangitsa kuti asayansi ambiri a ku Russia azifufuza za ulimi wa mbatata. A. G. Lorkha kuti abweretse mitundu yabwino ya masamba awa. Mbatata "Luck" ndi zomwe akatswiri ambiri a katswiri wa zamasamba, anthu okhala m'nyengo ya chilimwe komanso okonda mbatata amadzipangira okha, ndipo kwa iye tidzatha kupereka nkhani yathu yomwe mudzapeze tsatanetsatane wa zosiyanasiyana ndi zithunzi, zizindikiro ndi ndemanga za ogula.

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Lero pali njira zambiri zolima masamba. Mwamsanga pamene sichikulire: mu njira yachikhalidwe, ndi ngalande, ndi mtunda. Koma pali njira ina yachilendo - mbatata ikukula mu matumba. Ubwino ndi kuipa kwa njira Njira yabwino kwambiri ndiyo kupulumutsa malo m'munda.

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Mlimi aliyense amafuna kupeza mbatata zosiyanasiyana zoyambirira, zomwe zimakhala zotetezedwa ku mavairasi ndi tizilombo tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, komanso zimakhala zosavuta kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo. Zolinga izi zinakwaniritsidwa ndi abambo a Germany, omwe, atatha kuyesayesa kwa nthawi yaitali ndikuyesera, adawonetsa dziko lapansi ndi mbatata yatsopano, Queen Anne.

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